United States dollar

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"USD" redirects here. United States dollar_sentence_0

For other uses, see USD (disambiguation). United States dollar_sentence_1

United States dollar_table_infobox_0

United States dollarUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_0_0
Federal Reserve NotesQuarter dollar (25 cents) coin (obverse)United States dollar_cell_0_1_0
United States dollar_cell_0_2_0 United States dollar_cell_0_2_1
Federal Reserve NotesUnited States dollar_cell_0_3_0 Quarter dollar (25 cents) coin (obverse)United States dollar_cell_0_3_1
ISO 4217United States dollar_header_cell_0_4_0
CodeUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_5_0 USDUnited States dollar_cell_0_5_1
NumberUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_6_0 840United States dollar_cell_0_6_1
ExponentUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_7_0 2United States dollar_cell_0_7_1
DenominationsUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_8_0
SuperunitUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_9_0 United States dollar_cell_0_9_1
4United States dollar_header_cell_0_10_0 StellaUnited States dollar_cell_0_10_1
10United States dollar_header_cell_0_11_0 EagleUnited States dollar_cell_0_11_1
100United States dollar_header_cell_0_12_0 Union (slang)United States dollar_cell_0_12_1
1,000United States dollar_header_cell_0_13_0 Grand, rack (slang)United States dollar_cell_0_13_1
SubunitUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_14_0 United States dollar_cell_0_14_1
​⁄4United States dollar_header_cell_0_15_0 QuarterUnited States dollar_cell_0_15_1
​⁄10United States dollar_header_cell_0_16_0 DimeUnited States dollar_cell_0_16_1
​⁄20United States dollar_header_cell_0_17_0 Nickel or half dimeUnited States dollar_cell_0_17_1
​⁄100United States dollar_header_cell_0_18_0 Cent or pennyUnited States dollar_cell_0_18_1
​⁄1000United States dollar_header_cell_0_19_0 MillUnited States dollar_cell_0_19_1
SymbolUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_20_0 $, US$, U$United States dollar_cell_0_20_1
Cent or pennyUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_21_0 ¢United States dollar_cell_0_21_1
MillUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_22_0 United States dollar_cell_0_22_1
NicknameUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_23_0 List of nicknamesUnited States dollar_cell_0_23_1
BanknotesUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_24_0 United States dollar_cell_0_24_1
Freq. usedUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_25_0 $1, $5, $10, $20, $50, $100United States dollar_cell_0_25_1
Rarely usedUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_26_0 $2 (still printed); $500, $1,000, $5,000, $10,000 (discontinued, still legal tender); $100,000 (never circulated publicly; only used for intragovernmental transactions)United States dollar_cell_0_26_1
CoinsUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_27_0 United States dollar_cell_0_27_1
Freq. usedUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_28_0 , , 10¢, 25¢United States dollar_cell_0_28_1
Rarely usedUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_29_0 50¢, $1 (still minted); ½¢, , , , 20¢, $2.50, $3, $20 (discontinued, still legal tender); $5, $10 (legal tender, now commemorative only)United States dollar_cell_0_29_1
DemographicsUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_30_0
Date of introductionUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_31_0 April 2, 1792United States dollar_cell_0_31_1
SourceUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_32_0 United States dollar_cell_0_32_1
ReplacedUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_33_0 Continental currency

Various foreign currencies, including: Pound sterling Spanish dollarUnited States dollar_cell_0_33_1

User(s)United States dollar_header_cell_0_34_0 United States dollar_cell_0_34_1
IssuanceUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_35_0
Central bankUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_36_0 Federal ReserveUnited States dollar_cell_0_36_1
WebsiteUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_37_0 United States dollar_cell_0_37_1
PrinterUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_38_0 Bureau of Engraving and PrintingUnited States dollar_cell_0_38_1
WebsiteUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_39_0 United States dollar_cell_0_39_1
MintUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_40_0 United States MintUnited States dollar_cell_0_40_1
WebsiteUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_41_0 United States dollar_cell_0_41_1
ValuationUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_42_0
InflationUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_43_0 1.31%United States dollar_cell_0_43_1
SourceUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_44_0 , August 2020United States dollar_cell_0_44_1
MethodUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_45_0 CPIUnited States dollar_cell_0_45_1
Pegged byUnited States dollar_header_cell_0_46_0 35 currenciesUnited States dollar_cell_0_46_1

The United States dollar (symbol: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies; referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the Coinage Act of 1792. United States dollar_sentence_2

One dollar is divided into 100 cents (symbol: ¢), or into 1000 mills for accounting and taxation purposes (symbol: ₥). United States dollar_sentence_3

The Coinage Act of 1792 created a decimal currency by creating the dime, nickel, and penny coins, as well as the dollar, half dollar, and quarter dollar coins, all of which are still minted in 2020. United States dollar_sentence_4

Several forms of paper money were introduced by Congress over the years, the latest of which being the Federal Reserve Note that was authorized by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913. United States dollar_sentence_5

While all existing U.S. currency remains legal tender, issuance of the previous form of the currency (U.S. United States dollar_sentence_6 notes) was discontinued in January 1971. United States dollar_sentence_7

As a result, paper money that is in current circulation consists primarily of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in U.S. dollars. United States dollar_sentence_8

Since the convertibility of paper U.S. currency into any precious metal was suspended in 1971, the U.S. dollar is de facto fiat money. United States dollar_sentence_9

Not only is the U.S. dollar the world's primary reserve currency as the most used in international transactions, it is the official currency in several countries and the de facto currency in many others. United States dollar_sentence_10

Aside from the United States itself, the American dollar is also used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. United States dollar_sentence_11

A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money while still minting their own coins, or also accepting U.S. dollar coins (such as the Sacagawea or Presidential dollar). United States dollar_sentence_12

As of January 31, 2019, there is approximately US$1.7 trillion in circulation, $1.65 trillion of which is in the Federal Reserve Notes (the remaining $50 billion is in the form of U.S. United States dollar_sentence_13 notes and coins). United States dollar_sentence_14

The U.S. dollar as a currency is sometimes referred to as the greenback by the financial press in other countries, such as Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and India, due to the banknotes' historically predominantly green color. United States dollar_sentence_15

Overview United States dollar_section_0

Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. United States dollar_sentence_16 Constitution provides that Congress has the power "[t]o coin money." United States dollar_sentence_17

Laws implementing this power are currently codified in Title 31 of the U.S. United States dollar_sentence_18 Code, under Section 5112, which prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued. United States dollar_sentence_19

These coins are both designated in the section as "legal tender" in payment of debts. United States dollar_sentence_20

The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, in contrast to the American Silver Eagle which is pure silver. United States dollar_sentence_21

Section 5112 also provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent (U.S. Penny) to 100 dollars. United States dollar_sentence_22

These other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. United States dollar_sentence_23

Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time," which is further specified by Section 331 of Title 31 of the U.S. Code. United States dollar_sentence_24

The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are currently expressed in U.S. dollars, thus the U.S. dollar may be described as the unit of account of the United States. United States dollar_sentence_25

"Dollar" is one of the first words of Section 9, in which the term refers to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. United States dollar_sentence_26

The Coinage Act United States dollar_section_1

In 1792, the U.S. United States dollar_sentence_27 Congress passed the Coinage Act, of which Section 9 authorized the production of various coins, including: United States dollar_sentence_28

Section 20 of the Act designates the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States: United States dollar_sentence_29

Denominations United States dollar_section_2

Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.S. dollar has been based upon a decimal system of values since the time of the Continental Congress. United States dollar_sentence_30

This decimal system was again described in the Coinage Act of 1792, which, in addition to the dollar, officially established the following monetary units, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each: United States dollar_sentence_31

United States dollar_unordered_list_0

  • mill (₥), or one-thousandth of a dollar;United States dollar_item_0_0
  • cent (¢), or one-hundredth of a dollar;United States dollar_item_0_1
  • dime, or one-tenth of a dollar; andUnited States dollar_item_0_2
  • eagle, or ten dollars.United States dollar_item_0_3

Only cents are in everyday divisions of the dollar: dime is used solely as the name of the coin with the value of 10¢, while eagle is largely unknown to the general public. United States dollar_sentence_32

Though mill is also relatively unknown, it is sometimes used in matters of tax levies, and gasoline prices, which are usually in the form of $ΧΧ.ΧΧ9 per gallon (e.g., $3.599, commonly written as $​3.59 ⁄10). United States dollar_sentence_33

When currently issued in circulating form, denominations less than or equal to a dollar are emitted as U.S. United States dollar_sentence_34 coins, while denominations greater than or equal to a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve Notes (with the exception of gold, silver, platinum, and palladium coins valued up to $100 as legal tender, though worth far more as bullion). United States dollar_sentence_35

Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is significantly more common. United States dollar_sentence_36

In the past, "paper money" was occasionally issued in denominations less than a dollar (fractional currency) and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20 (known as the double eagle, discontinued in the 1930s). United States dollar_sentence_37

The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, and subsequently was used in naming gold coins. United States dollar_sentence_38

Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, i.e. fractional currency, was also sometimes pejoratively referred to as shinplasters. United States dollar_sentence_39

In 1854, Secretary of the Treasury James Guthrie proposed creating $100, $50, and $25 gold coins, to be referred to as a union, half union, and quarter union, respectively, thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. United States dollar_sentence_40

However, no such coins were ever struck, and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. United States dollar_sentence_41

Physical attributes United States dollar_section_3

Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, as opposed to wood fiber, which is most often used to make common paper. United States dollar_sentence_42

U.S. coins are produced by the U.S. United States dollar_sentence_43 Mint. United States dollar_sentence_44

USD banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by the Federal Reserve. United States dollar_sentence_45

The "large-sized notes" issued before 1928 measured 7.42 in × 3.125 in (188.5 mm × 79.4 mm), while small-sized notes introduced that year measure 6.14 in × 2.61 in × 0.0043 in (155.96 mm × 66.29 mm × 0.11 mm). United States dollar_sentence_46

When the current, smaller sized U.S. currency was introduced it was referred to as Philippine-sized currency, as the Philippines had previously adopted the same size for its legal currency, the Philippine peso. United States dollar_sentence_47

Etymology United States dollar_section_4

Further information: Dollar United States dollar_sentence_48

In the 16th century, Count Hieronymus Schlick of Bohemia began minting coins known as joachimstalers, named for Joachimstal, the valley in which the silver was mined. United States dollar_sentence_49

In turn, the valley's name is titled after Saint Joachim, whereby thal or tal, a cognate of the English word , is German for 'valley.' United States dollar_sentence_50

The joachimstaler was later shortened to the German taler, a word that eventually found its way into many languages, including: United States dollar_sentence_51

United States dollar_unordered_list_1

  • Danish and Swedish as daler;United States dollar_item_1_4
  • Norwegian as dalar and daler;United States dollar_item_1_5
  • Dutch as daler or daalder;United States dollar_item_1_6
  • Ethiopian as talari;United States dollar_item_1_7
  • Hungarian as tallér;United States dollar_item_1_8
  • Italian as tallero;United States dollar_item_1_9
  • Arabic as دولار; andUnited States dollar_item_1_10
  • English as dollar.United States dollar_item_1_11

Alternatively, thaler is said to come from the German coin guldengroschen ('great guilder', being of silver but equal in value to a gold guilder), minted from the silver of Joachimsthal. United States dollar_sentence_52

The coins minted in the valley soon lent their name to other coins of similar size and weight from other places. United States dollar_sentence_53

The Dutch coin depicting a lion, for instance, was thus named leeuwendaler ('lion dollar'). United States dollar_sentence_54

The leeuwendaler was authorized to contain 427.16 grains of .75 fine silver and passed locally for between 36 and 42 stuivers. United States dollar_sentence_55

Being lighter than the large-denomination coins then in circulation, it was more advantageous for Dutch merchants to pay foreign debt in leeuwendalers, therefore making such the coin of choice for foreign trade. United States dollar_sentence_56

The leeuwendaler was popular in the Dutch East Indies and in the Dutch North American New Netherland Colony (today the New York metropolitan area), and circulated throughout the Thirteen Colonies during the 17th and early 18th centuries. United States dollar_sentence_57

It was also separately popular throughout Eastern Europe, where it led to the current Romanian and Moldovan currency, leu ('lion'). United States dollar_sentence_58

Among the English-speaking community, the Dutch coin came to be popularly known as lion dollar—what would become the origin of the English dollar. United States dollar_sentence_59

The modern American-English pronunciation of dollar is still remarkably close to the 17th-century Dutch pronunciation of daler. United States dollar_sentence_60

By analogy with this lion dollar, Spanish pesos—with the same weight and shape as the lion dollar—came to be known as Spanish dollars. United States dollar_sentence_61

By the mid-18th century, the lion dollar had been replaced by the Spanish dollar, famously known as the 'piece of eight,' which was distributed widely in the Spanish colonies of the New World and in the Philippines. United States dollar_sentence_62

Eventually, dollar became the name of the official American currency. United States dollar_sentence_63

Nicknames United States dollar_section_5

See also: Slang terms for money § United States United States dollar_sentence_64

Dollars in general United States dollar_section_6

The colloquialism (much like the British quid for the pound sterling) is often used to refer to dollars of various nations, including the U.S. dollar. United States dollar_sentence_65

This term, dating to the 18th century, may have originated with the colonial leather trade, or it may also have originated from a poker term. United States dollar_sentence_66

Likewise, the $1 note has been nicknamed buck, as well as single. United States dollar_sentence_67

Greenback is another nickname, originally applied specifically to the 19th-century Demand Note dollars, which were printed black and green on the back side, created by Abraham Lincoln to finance the North for the Civil War. United States dollar_sentence_68

It is still used to refer to the U.S. dollar (but not to the dollars of other countries). United States dollar_sentence_69

The term greenback is also used by the financial press in other countries, such as Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and India. United States dollar_sentence_70

Other well-known names of the dollar as a whole in denominations include greenmail, green, and dead presidents, the latter of which referring to the deceased presidents pictured on most bills. United States dollar_sentence_71

Dollars in general have also been known as bones (e.g. "twenty bones" = $20). United States dollar_sentence_72

The newer designs, with portraits displayed in the main body of the obverse (rather than in cameo insets), upon paper color-coded by denomination, are sometimes referred to as bigface notes or Monopoly money. United States dollar_sentence_73

Piastre was the original French word for the U.S. dollar, used for example in the French text of the Louisiana Purchase. United States dollar_sentence_74

Calling the dollar a piastre is still common among the speakers of Cajun French and New England French. United States dollar_sentence_75

Modern French uses dollar for this unit of currency as well. United States dollar_sentence_76

The term is still used as slang for U.S. dollars in the French-speaking Caribbean islands, most notably Haiti. United States dollar_sentence_77

Specific to denomination United States dollar_section_7

The infrequently-used $2 note is sometimes called deuce, Tom, or Jefferson (after Thomas Jefferson). United States dollar_sentence_78

Contrastly, the $5 bill has been called Lincoln, fin, fiver, and five-spot. United States dollar_sentence_79

The $50 bill is occasionally called a yardstick, or a grant, after President Ulysses S. Grant, pictured on the obverse. United States dollar_sentence_80

The $20 note has been referred to as a double sawbuck, Jackson (after Andrew Jackson), and double eagle. United States dollar_sentence_81

The $10 note can be referred to as a sawbuck, ten-spot, or Hamilton (after Alexander Hamilton). United States dollar_sentence_82

Benjamin, Benji, Ben, or Franklin, refers to the $100 bill, which features the likeness of the eponymous Benjamin Franklin. United States dollar_sentence_83

Other nicknames include C-note (C being the Roman numeral for 100), century note, and bill (e.g. two bills = $200). United States dollar_sentence_84

A grand (sometimes shortened to simply G) is a common term for the amount of $1,000, though the thousand-dollar note is no longer in general use. United States dollar_sentence_85

The suffix K or k (from kilo) is also commonly used to denote this amount (e.g. $10k = $10,000). United States dollar_sentence_86

Likewise, a large or stack usually references to a multiple of 1,000 (e.g. "fifty large" = $50,000). United States dollar_sentence_87

Dollar sign United States dollar_section_8

Main article: Dollar sign United States dollar_sentence_88

The symbol $, usually written before the numerical amount, is used for the U.S. dollar (as well as for many other currencies). United States dollar_sentence_89

The sign was the result of a late 18th-century evolution of the scribal abbreviation p for the peso, the common name for the Spanish dollars that were in wide circulation in the New World from the 16th to the 19th centuries. United States dollar_sentence_90

These Spanish pesos or dollars were minted in Spanish America, namely in Mexico City; Potosí, Bolivia; and Lima, Peru. United States dollar_sentence_91

The p and the s eventually came to be written over each other giving rise to $. United States dollar_sentence_92

Another popular explanation is that it is derived from the Pillars of Hercules on the Spanish Coat of arms of the Spanish dollar. United States dollar_sentence_93

These Pillars of Hercules on the silver Spanish dollar coins take the form of two vertical bars (||) and a swinging cloth band in the shape of an S. United States dollar_sentence_94

Yet another explanation suggests that the dollar sign was formed from the capital letters U and S written or printed one on top of the other. United States dollar_sentence_95

This theory, popularized by novelist Ayn Rand in Atlas Shrugged, does not consider the fact that the symbol was already in use before the formation of the United States. United States dollar_sentence_96

History United States dollar_section_9

See also: History of the United States dollar United States dollar_sentence_97

The American dollar coin was initially based on the value and look of the Spanish dollar or piece of eight, used widely in Spanish America from the 16th to the 19th centuries. United States dollar_sentence_98

The first dollar coins issued by the United States Mint (founded 1792) were similar in size and composition to the Spanish dollar, minted in Mexico and Peru. United States dollar_sentence_99

The Spanish, U.S. silver dollars, and later, Mexican silver pesos circulated side by side in the United States, and the Spanish dollar and Mexican peso remained legal tender until the Coinage Act of 1857. United States dollar_sentence_100

The coinage of various English colonies also circulated. United States dollar_sentence_101

The lion dollar was popular in the Dutch New Netherland Colony (New York), but the lion dollar also circulated throughout the English colonies during the 17th century and early 18th century. United States dollar_sentence_102

Examples circulating in the colonies were usually worn so that the design was not fully distinguishable, thus they were sometimes referred to as "dog dollars". United States dollar_sentence_103

On the 6th of July 1785, the Continental Congress resolved that the money unit of the United States, the dollar, would contain 375.64 grains of fine silver; on the 8th of August 1786, the Continental Congress continued that definition and further resolved that the money of account, corresponding with the division of coins, would proceed in a decimal ratio, with the sub-units being mills at 0.001 of a dollar, cents at 0.010 of a dollar, and dimes at 0.100 of a dollar. United States dollar_sentence_104

After the adoption of the United States Constitution, the U.S. dollar was defined by the Coinage Act of 1792, which specified a "dollar" to be based in the Spanish milled dollar and of 371 grains and 4 sixteenths part of a grain of pure or 416 grains (27.0 g) of standard silver and an "eagle" to be 247 and 4 eighths of a grain or 270 grains (17 g) of gold (again depending on purity). United States dollar_sentence_105

The choice of the value 371 grains arose from Alexander Hamilton's decision to base the new American unit on the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. United States dollar_sentence_106

Hamilton got the treasury to weigh a sample of Spanish dollars and the average weight came out to be 371 grains. United States dollar_sentence_107

A new Spanish dollar was usually about 377 grains in weight, and so the new U.S. dollar was at a slight discount in relation to the Spanish dollar. United States dollar_sentence_108

The same coinage act also set the value of an eagle at 10 dollars, and the dollar at ​⁄10 eagle. United States dollar_sentence_109

It called for 90% silver alloy coins in denominations of 1, ​⁄2, ​⁄4, ​⁄10, and ​⁄20 dollars; it called for 90% gold alloy coins in denominations of 1, ​⁄2, ​⁄4, and ​⁄10 eagles. United States dollar_sentence_110

The value of gold or silver contained in the dollar was then converted into relative value in the economy for the buying and selling of goods. United States dollar_sentence_111

This allowed the value of things to remain fairly constant over time, except for the influx and outflux of gold and silver in the nation's economy. United States dollar_sentence_112

The early currency of the United States did not exhibit faces of presidents, as is the custom now; although today, by law, only the portrait of a deceased individual may appear on United States currency. United States dollar_sentence_113

In fact, the newly formed government was against having portraits of leaders on the currency, a practice compared to the policies of European monarchs. United States dollar_sentence_114

The currency as we know it today did not get the faces they currently have until after the early 20th century; before that "heads" side of coinage used profile faces and striding, seated, and standing figures from Greek and Roman mythology and composite Native Americans. United States dollar_sentence_115

The last coins to be converted to profiles of historic Americans were the dime (1946) and the Dollar (1971). United States dollar_sentence_116

For articles on the currencies of the colonies and states, see Connecticut pound, Delaware pound, Georgia pound, Maryland pound, Massachusetts pound, New Hampshire pound, New Jersey pound, New York pound, North Carolina pound, Pennsylvania pound, Rhode Island pound, South Carolina pound, and Virginia pound. United States dollar_sentence_117

Continental currency United States dollar_section_10

See also: Continental currency United States dollar_sentence_118

During the American Revolution the thirteen colonies became independent states. United States dollar_sentence_119

Freed from British monetary regulations, they each issued £sd paper money to pay for military expenses. United States dollar_sentence_120

The Continental Congress also began issuing "Continental Currency" denominated in Spanish dollars. United States dollar_sentence_121

The dollar was valued relative to the states' currencies at the following rates: United States dollar_sentence_122

United States dollar_unordered_list_2

Continental currency depreciated badly during the war, giving rise to the famous phrase "not worth a continental". United States dollar_sentence_123

A primary problem was that monetary policy was not coordinated between Congress and the states, which continued to issue bills of credit. United States dollar_sentence_124

Additionally, neither Congress nor the governments of the several states had the will or the means to retire the bills from circulation through taxation or the sale of bonds. United States dollar_sentence_125

The currency was ultimately replaced by the silver dollar at the rate of 1 silver dollar to 1000 continental dollars. United States dollar_sentence_126

Silver and gold standards United States dollar_section_11

Discontinued and cancelled denominations United States dollar_section_12

Discontinued and canceled coin denominations include: United States dollar_sentence_127

United States dollar_unordered_list_3

  • Half cent: ​⁄2¢, 1793–1857United States dollar_item_3_17
  • Silver center cent: 1¢, 1792 (not circulated)United States dollar_item_3_18
  • Ring cent: 1¢, 1850–1851, 1853, 1884–1885 (not circulated)United States dollar_item_3_19
  • Two-cent billon: 2¢, 1836 (not circulated)United States dollar_item_3_20
  • Two-cent bronze: 2¢, 1863–1873United States dollar_item_3_21
  • Two and a half cent piece: 2.5¢ (planned but not minted)United States dollar_item_3_22
  • Three-cent bronze: 3¢, 1863 (not circulated)United States dollar_item_3_23
  • Three-cent nickel: 3¢, 1865–1889United States dollar_item_3_24
  • Trime (Three-cent silver): 3¢, 1851–1873United States dollar_item_3_25
  • Half dime: 5¢, 1792–1873United States dollar_item_3_26
  • Twenty-cent piece: 20¢, 1875–1878United States dollar_item_3_27
  • Gold dollar: $1.00, 1849–1889United States dollar_item_3_28
  • Two dollar piece: $2.00 (planned but not minted)United States dollar_item_3_29
  • Quarter eagle: $2.50, 1792–1929United States dollar_item_3_30
  • Three-dollar piece: $3.00, 1854–1889United States dollar_item_3_31
  • Stella: $4.00, 1879–1880 (not circulated)United States dollar_item_3_32
  • Half eagle: $5.00, 1795–1929 (some modern commemoratives are minted in this denomination)United States dollar_item_3_33
  • Eagle: $10.00, 1795–1933 (some modern commemoratives are minted in this denomination)United States dollar_item_3_34
  • Double eagle: $20.00, 1849–1933, 2009United States dollar_item_3_35
  • Half-union: $50.00, 1877 (not circulated)United States dollar_item_3_36
  • Union (coin): $100.00 (planned but not minted)United States dollar_item_3_37

Collector coins United States dollar_section_13

Collector coins for which everyday transactions are non-existent. United States dollar_sentence_128

United States dollar_unordered_list_4

  • American Eagles originally were not available from the Mint for individuals but had to be purchased from authorized dealers. In 2006, the Mint began direct sales to individuals of uncirculated bullion coins with a special finish, and bearing a "W" mintmark.United States dollar_item_4_38
    • American Silver Eagle $1 (1 troy oz) Silver bullion coin 1986–presentUnited States dollar_item_4_39
    • American Gold Eagle $5 (​⁄10 troy oz), $10 (​⁄4 troy oz), $25 (​⁄2 troy oz), and $50 (1 troy oz) Gold bullion coin 1986–presentUnited States dollar_item_4_40
    • American Platinum Eagle $10 (​⁄10 troy oz), $25 (​⁄4 troy oz), $50 (​⁄2 troy oz), and $100 (1 troy oz) Platinum bullion coin 1997–presentUnited States dollar_item_4_41
    • American Palladium Eagle $25 (1 troy oz) Palladium bullion coin 2017–presentUnited States dollar_item_4_42
  • United States commemorative coins—special issue coinsUnited States dollar_item_4_43
    • $50.00 (Half Union) 1915United States dollar_item_4_44
    • Presidential Proofs (see below) 2007–presentUnited States dollar_item_4_45

Technically, all these coins are still legal tender at face value, though some are far more valuable today for their numismatic value, and for gold and silver coins, their precious metal value. United States dollar_sentence_129

From 1965 to 1970 the Kennedy half dollar was the only circulating coin with any silver content, which was removed in 1971 and replaced with cupronickel. United States dollar_sentence_130

However, since 1992, the U.S. Mint has produced special Silver Proof Sets in addition to the regular yearly proof sets with silver dimes, quarters, and half dollars in place of the standard copper-nickel versions. United States dollar_sentence_131

In addition, an experimental $4.00 (Stella) coin was also minted in 1879, but never placed into circulation, and is properly considered to be a pattern rather than an actual coin denomination. United States dollar_sentence_132

The $50 coin mentioned was only produced in 1915 for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915) celebrating the opening of the Panama Canal. United States dollar_sentence_133

Only 1,128 were made, 645 of which were octagonal; this remains the only U.S. coin that was not round as well as the largest and heaviest U.S. coin ever produced. United States dollar_sentence_134

A $100 gold coin was produced in High relief during 2015, although it was primarily produced for collectors, not for general circulation. United States dollar_sentence_135

Proof Sets United States dollar_section_14

The United States Mint produces Proof Sets specifically for collectors and speculators. United States dollar_sentence_136

Silver Proofs tend to be the standard designs but with the dime, quarter, and half dollar containing 90% silver. United States dollar_sentence_137

Starting in 1983 and ending in 1997, the Mint also produced proof sets containing the year's commemorative coins alongside the regular coins. United States dollar_sentence_138

Another type of proof set is the Presidential Dollar Proof Set where the four special $1 coins are minted each year featuring a president. United States dollar_sentence_139

Because of budget constraints and increasing stockpiles of these relatively unpopular coins, the production of new presidential dollar coins for circulation was suspended on December 13, 2011, by U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner. United States dollar_sentence_140

Presidential dollars (along with all other dollar coin series) minted from 2012 onward were made solely for collectors. United States dollar_sentence_141

United States dollar_unordered_list_5

Dollar coins United States dollar_section_15

Main article: Coins of the United States dollar United States dollar_sentence_142

The first United States dollar was minted in 1794. United States dollar_sentence_143

Known as the Flowing Hair Dollar, it contained 416 grains of "standard silver" (89.25% silver and 10.75% copper), as specified by Section 13 of the Coinage Act of 1792. United States dollar_sentence_144

It was designated by Section 9 of that Act as having "the value of a Spanish milled dollar." United States dollar_sentence_145

Dollar coins have not been very popular in the United States. United States dollar_sentence_146

Silver dollars were minted intermittently from 1794 through 1935; a copper-nickel dollar of the same large size, featuring President Dwight D. Eisenhower, was minted from 1971 through 1978. United States dollar_sentence_147

Gold dollars were also minted in the 19th century. United States dollar_sentence_148

The Susan B. Anthony dollar coin was introduced in 1979; these proved to be unpopular because they were often mistaken for quarters, due to their nearly equal size, their milled edge, and their similar color. United States dollar_sentence_149

Minting of these dollars for circulation was suspended in 1980 (collectors' pieces were struck in 1981), but, as with all past U.S. coins, they remain legal tender. United States dollar_sentence_150

As the number of Anthony dollars held by the Federal Reserve and dispensed primarily to make change in postal and transit vending machines had been virtually exhausted, additional Anthony dollars were struck in 1999. United States dollar_sentence_151

In 2000, a new dollar coin featuring Sacagawea was introduced, which corrected some of the problems of the Anthony dollar by having a smooth edge and a gold color, without requiring changes to vending machines that accept the Anthony dollar. United States dollar_sentence_152

However, this new coin has failed to achieve the popularity of the still-existing dollar bill and is rarely used in daily transactions. United States dollar_sentence_153

The failure to simultaneously withdraw the dollar bill and weak publicity efforts have been cited by coin proponents as primary reasons for the failure of the dollar coin to gain popular support. United States dollar_sentence_154

In February 2007, the U.S. United States dollar_sentence_155 Mint, under the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005, introduced a new $1 U.S. presidential dollar coin. United States dollar_sentence_156

Based on the success of the "50 State Quarters" series, the new coin features a sequence of presidents in order of their inaugurations, starting with George Washington, on the obverse side. United States dollar_sentence_157

The reverse side features the Statue of Liberty. United States dollar_sentence_158

To allow for larger, more detailed portraits, the traditional inscriptions of "E Pluribus Unum", "In God We Trust", the year of minting or issuance, and the mint mark will be inscribed on the edge of the coin instead of the face. United States dollar_sentence_159

This feature, similar to the edge inscriptions seen on the British £1 coin, is not usually associated with U.S. coin designs. United States dollar_sentence_160

The inscription "Liberty" has been eliminated, with the Statue of Liberty serving as a sufficient replacement. United States dollar_sentence_161

In addition, due to the nature of U.S. coins, this will be the first time there will be circulating U.S. coins of different denominations with the same president featured on the obverse (heads) side (Lincoln/penny, Jefferson/nickel, Franklin D. Roosevelt/dime, Washington/quarter, Kennedy/half dollar, and Eisenhower/dollar). United States dollar_sentence_162

Another unusual fact about the new $1 coin is Grover Cleveland will have two coins with two different portraits issued due to the fact he was the only U.S. president to be elected to two non-consecutive terms. United States dollar_sentence_163

Early releases of the Washington coin included error coins shipped primarily from the Philadelphia mint to Florida and Tennessee banks. United States dollar_sentence_164

Highly sought after by collectors, and trading for as much as $850 each within a week of discovery, the error coins were identified by the absence of the edge impressions "E PLURIBUS UNUM IN GOD WE TRUST 2007 P". United States dollar_sentence_165

The mint of origin is generally accepted to be mostly Philadelphia, although identifying the source mint is impossible without opening a mint pack also containing marked units. United States dollar_sentence_166

Edge lettering is minted in both orientations with respect to "heads", some amateur collectors were initially duped into buying "upside down lettering error" coins. United States dollar_sentence_167

Some cynics also erroneously point out that the Federal Reserve makes more profit from dollar bills than dollar coins because they wear out in a few years, whereas coins are more permanent. United States dollar_sentence_168

The fallacy of this argument arises because new notes printed to replace worn out notes, which have been withdrawn from circulation, bring in no net revenue to the government to offset the costs of printing new notes and destroying the old ones. United States dollar_sentence_169

As most vending machines are incapable of making change in banknotes, they commonly accept only $1 bills, though a few will give change in dollar coins. United States dollar_sentence_170

Mint marks United States dollar_section_16

United States dollar_table_general_1

MintUnited States dollar_header_cell_1_0_0 Mint markUnited States dollar_header_cell_1_0_1 Metal mintedUnited States dollar_header_cell_1_0_2 Year establishedUnited States dollar_header_cell_1_0_3 Current statusUnited States dollar_header_cell_1_0_4
DenverUnited States dollar_cell_1_1_0 DUnited States dollar_cell_1_1_1 All metalsUnited States dollar_cell_1_1_2 1906United States dollar_cell_1_1_3 Facility openUnited States dollar_cell_1_1_4
PhiladelphiaUnited States dollar_cell_1_2_0 P or noneUnited States dollar_cell_1_2_1 All metalsUnited States dollar_cell_1_2_2 1792United States dollar_cell_1_2_3 Facility openUnited States dollar_cell_1_2_4
San FranciscoUnited States dollar_cell_1_3_0 SUnited States dollar_cell_1_3_1 All metalsUnited States dollar_cell_1_3_2 1854United States dollar_cell_1_3_3 Facility open (mainly produces proof)United States dollar_cell_1_3_4
West PointUnited States dollar_cell_1_4_0 W or noneUnited States dollar_cell_1_4_1 Gold, Silver, Platinum and PalladiumUnited States dollar_cell_1_4_2 1973United States dollar_cell_1_4_3 Facility open (mainly produces bullion)United States dollar_cell_1_4_4
Carson CityUnited States dollar_cell_1_5_0 CCUnited States dollar_cell_1_5_1 Gold and SilverUnited States dollar_cell_1_5_2 1870United States dollar_cell_1_5_3 Facility closed, 1893United States dollar_cell_1_5_4
CharlotteUnited States dollar_cell_1_6_0 CUnited States dollar_cell_1_6_1 Gold onlyUnited States dollar_cell_1_6_2 1838United States dollar_cell_1_6_3 Facility closed, 1861United States dollar_cell_1_6_4
DahlonegaUnited States dollar_cell_1_7_0 DUnited States dollar_cell_1_7_1 Gold onlyUnited States dollar_cell_1_7_2 1838United States dollar_cell_1_7_3 Facility closed, 1861United States dollar_cell_1_7_4
ManilaUnited States dollar_cell_1_8_0 M or noneUnited States dollar_cell_1_8_1 All metalsUnited States dollar_cell_1_8_2 1920United States dollar_cell_1_8_3 Facility closed, 1922; re-opened 1925–1941United States dollar_cell_1_8_4
New OrleansUnited States dollar_cell_1_9_0 OUnited States dollar_cell_1_9_1 Gold and SilverUnited States dollar_cell_1_9_2 1838United States dollar_cell_1_9_3 Facility closed, 1861; re-opened 1879–1909United States dollar_cell_1_9_4

Banknotes United States dollar_section_17

Main article: Federal Reserve Note United States dollar_sentence_171

United States dollar_table_general_2

DenominationUnited States dollar_header_cell_2_0_0 FrontUnited States dollar_header_cell_2_0_1 ReverseUnited States dollar_header_cell_2_0_2 PortraitUnited States dollar_header_cell_2_0_3 Reverse motifUnited States dollar_header_cell_2_0_4 First seriesUnited States dollar_header_cell_2_0_5 Latest seriesUnited States dollar_header_cell_2_0_6 CirculationUnited States dollar_header_cell_2_0_7
One DollarUnited States dollar_cell_2_1_0 United States dollar_cell_2_1_1 United States dollar_cell_2_1_2 George WashingtonUnited States dollar_cell_2_1_3 Great Seal of the United StatesUnited States dollar_cell_2_1_4 Series 1963

Series 1935United States dollar_cell_2_1_5

Series 2017AUnited States dollar_cell_2_1_6 WideUnited States dollar_cell_2_1_7
Two DollarsUnited States dollar_cell_2_2_0 United States dollar_cell_2_2_1 United States dollar_cell_2_2_2 Thomas JeffersonUnited States dollar_cell_2_2_3 Declaration of Independence by John TrumbullUnited States dollar_cell_2_2_4 Series 1976United States dollar_cell_2_2_5 Series 2017AUnited States dollar_cell_2_2_6 LimitedUnited States dollar_cell_2_2_7
Five DollarsUnited States dollar_cell_2_3_0 United States dollar_cell_2_3_1 United States dollar_cell_2_3_2 Abraham LincolnUnited States dollar_cell_2_3_3 Lincoln MemorialUnited States dollar_cell_2_3_4 Series 2006United States dollar_cell_2_3_5 Series 2017AUnited States dollar_cell_2_3_6 WideUnited States dollar_cell_2_3_7
Ten DollarsUnited States dollar_cell_2_4_0 United States dollar_cell_2_4_1 United States dollar_cell_2_4_2 Alexander HamiltonUnited States dollar_cell_2_4_3 U.S. TreasuryUnited States dollar_cell_2_4_4 Series 2004AUnited States dollar_cell_2_4_5 Series 2017AUnited States dollar_cell_2_4_6 WideUnited States dollar_cell_2_4_7
Twenty DollarsUnited States dollar_cell_2_5_0 United States dollar_cell_2_5_1 United States dollar_cell_2_5_2 Andrew JacksonUnited States dollar_cell_2_5_3 White HouseUnited States dollar_cell_2_5_4 Series 2004United States dollar_cell_2_5_5 Series 2017AUnited States dollar_cell_2_5_6 WideUnited States dollar_cell_2_5_7
Fifty DollarsUnited States dollar_cell_2_6_0 United States dollar_cell_2_6_1 United States dollar_cell_2_6_2 Ulysses S. GrantUnited States dollar_cell_2_6_3 United States CapitolUnited States dollar_cell_2_6_4 Series 2004United States dollar_cell_2_6_5 Series 2017AUnited States dollar_cell_2_6_6 WideUnited States dollar_cell_2_6_7
One Hundred DollarsUnited States dollar_cell_2_7_0 United States dollar_cell_2_7_1 United States dollar_cell_2_7_2 Benjamin FranklinUnited States dollar_cell_2_7_3 Independence HallUnited States dollar_cell_2_7_4 Series 2009United States dollar_cell_2_7_5 Series 2017AUnited States dollar_cell_2_7_6 WideUnited States dollar_cell_2_7_7

The U.S. United States dollar_sentence_172 Constitution provides that Congress shall have the power to "borrow money on the credit of the United States." United States dollar_sentence_173

Congress has exercised that power by authorizing Federal Reserve Banks to issue Federal Reserve Notes. United States dollar_sentence_174

Those notes are "obligations of the United States" and "shall be redeemed in lawful money on demand at the Treasury Department of the United States, in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, or at any Federal Reserve bank". United States dollar_sentence_175

Federal Reserve Notes are designated by law as "legal tender" for the payment of debts. United States dollar_sentence_176

Congress has also authorized the issuance of more than 10 other types of banknotes, including the United States Note and the Federal Reserve Bank Note. United States dollar_sentence_177

The Federal Reserve Note is the only type that remains in circulation since the 1970s. United States dollar_sentence_178

Currently printed denominations are $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. United States dollar_sentence_179

Notes above the $100 denomination stopped being printed in 1946 and were officially withdrawn from circulation in 1969. United States dollar_sentence_180

These notes were used primarily in inter-bank transactions or by organized crime; it was the latter usage that prompted President Richard Nixon to issue an executive order in 1969 halting their use. United States dollar_sentence_181

With the advent of electronic banking, they became less necessary. United States dollar_sentence_182

Notes in denominations of $500, $1,000, $5,000, $10,000, and $100,000 were all produced at one time; see large denomination bills in U.S. currency for details. United States dollar_sentence_183

With the exception of the $100,000 bill (which was only issued as a Series 1934 Gold Certificate and was never publicly circulated; thus it is illegal to own), these notes are now collectors' items and are worth more than their face value to collectors. United States dollar_sentence_184

Though still predominantly green, post-2004 series incorporate other colors to better distinguish different denominations. United States dollar_sentence_185

As a result of a 2008 decision in an accessibility lawsuit filed by the American Council of the Blind, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing is planning to implement a raised tactile feature in the next redesign of each note, except the $1 and the current version of the $100 bill. United States dollar_sentence_186

It also plans larger, higher-contrast numerals, more color differences, and distribution of currency readers to assist the visually impaired during the transition period. United States dollar_sentence_187

Means of issue United States dollar_section_18

The monetary base consists of coins and Federal Reserve Notes in circulation outside the Federal Reserve Banks and the U.S. Treasury, plus deposits held by depository institutions at Federal Reserve Banks. United States dollar_sentence_188

The adjusted monetary base has increased from approximately 400 billion dollars in 1994, to 800 billion in 2005, over 3000 billion in 2013. United States dollar_sentence_189

The amount of cash in circulation is increased (or decreased) by the actions of the Federal Reserve System. United States dollar_sentence_190

Eight times a year, the 12-person Federal Open Market Committee meets to determine U.S. monetary policy. United States dollar_sentence_191

Every business day, the Federal Reserve System engages in Open market operations to carry out that monetary policy. United States dollar_sentence_192

If the Federal Reserve desires to increase the money supply, it will buy securities (such as U.S. Treasury Bonds) anonymously from banks in exchange for dollars. United States dollar_sentence_193

Conversely, it will sell securities to the banks in exchange for dollars, to take dollars out of circulation. United States dollar_sentence_194

When the Federal Reserve makes a purchase, it credits the seller's reserve account (with the Federal Reserve). United States dollar_sentence_195

This money is not transferred from any existing funds—it is at this point that the Federal Reserve has created new high-powered money. United States dollar_sentence_196

Commercial banks can freely withdraw in cash any excess reserves from their reserve account at the Federal Reserve. United States dollar_sentence_197

To fulfill those requests, the Federal Reserve places an order for printed money from the U.S. Treasury Department. United States dollar_sentence_198

The Treasury Department, in turn, sends these requests to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing (to print new dollar bills) and the Bureau of the Mint (to stamp the coins). United States dollar_sentence_199

Usually, the short-term goal of open market operations is to achieve a specific short-term interest rate target. United States dollar_sentence_200

In other instances, monetary policy might instead entail the targeting of a specific exchange rate relative to some foreign currency or else relative to gold. United States dollar_sentence_201

For example, in the case of the United States the Federal Reserve targets the federal funds rate, the rate at which member banks lend to one another overnight. United States dollar_sentence_202

The other primary means of conducting monetary policy include: (i) Discount window lending (as lender of last resort); (ii) Fractional deposit lending (changes in the reserve requirement); (iii) Moral suasion (cajoling certain market players to achieve specified outcomes); (iv) "Open mouth operations" (talking monetary policy with the market). United States dollar_sentence_203

Value United States dollar_section_19

The 6th paragraph of Section 8 of Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution provides that the U.S. Congress shall have the power to "coin money" and to "regulate the value" of domestic and foreign coins. United States dollar_sentence_204

Congress exercised those powers when it enacted the Coinage Act of 1792. United States dollar_sentence_205

That Act provided for the minting of the first U.S. dollar and it declared that the U.S. dollar shall have "the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current". United States dollar_sentence_206

The table to the right shows the equivalent amount of goods that, in a particular year, could be purchased with $1. United States dollar_sentence_207

The table shows that from 1774 through 2012 the U.S. dollar has lost about 97.0% of its buying power. United States dollar_sentence_208

The decline in the value of the U.S. dollar corresponds to price inflation, which is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. United States dollar_sentence_209

A consumer price index (CPI) is a measure estimating the average price of consumer goods and services purchased by households. United States dollar_sentence_210

The United States Consumer Price Index, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, is a measure estimating the average price of consumer goods and services in the United States. United States dollar_sentence_211

It reflects inflation as experienced by consumers in their day-to-day living expenses. United States dollar_sentence_212

A graph showing the U.S. CPI relative to 1982–1984 and the annual year-over-year change in CPI is shown at right. United States dollar_sentence_213

The value of the U.S. dollar declined significantly during wartime, especially during the American Civil War, World War I, and World War II. United States dollar_sentence_214

The Federal Reserve, which was established in 1913, was designed to furnish an "elastic" currency subject to "substantial changes of quantity over short periods", which differed significantly from previous forms of high-powered money such as gold, national bank notes, and silver coins. United States dollar_sentence_215

Over the very long run, the prior gold standard kept prices stable—for instance, the price level and the value of the U.S. dollar in 1914 was not very different from the price level in the 1880s. United States dollar_sentence_216

The Federal Reserve initially succeeded in maintaining the value of the U.S. dollar and price stability, reversing the inflation caused by the First World War and stabilizing the value of the dollar during the 1920s, before presiding over a 30% deflation in U.S. prices in the 1930s. United States dollar_sentence_217

Under the Bretton Woods system established after World War II, the value of gold was fixed to $35 per ounce, and the value of the U.S. dollar was thus anchored to the value of gold. United States dollar_sentence_218

Rising government spending in the 1960s, however, led to doubts about the ability of the United States to maintain this convertibility, gold stocks dwindled as banks and international investors began to convert dollars to gold, and as a result the value of the dollar began to decline. United States dollar_sentence_219

Facing an emerging currency crisis and the imminent danger that the United States would no longer be able to redeem dollars for gold, gold convertibility was finally terminated in 1971 by President Nixon, resulting in the "Nixon shock". United States dollar_sentence_220

The value of the U.S. dollar was therefore no longer anchored to gold, and it fell upon the Federal Reserve to maintain the value of the U.S. currency. United States dollar_sentence_221

The Federal Reserve, however, continued to increase the money supply, resulting in stagflation and a rapidly declining value of the U.S. dollar in the 1970s. United States dollar_sentence_222

This was largely due to the prevailing economic view at the time that inflation and real economic growth were linked (the Phillips curve), and so inflation was regarded as relatively benign. United States dollar_sentence_223

Between 1965 and 1981, the U.S. dollar lost two thirds of its value. United States dollar_sentence_224

In 1979, President Carter appointed Paul Volcker Chairman of the Federal Reserve. United States dollar_sentence_225

The Federal Reserve tightened the money supply and inflation was substantially lower in the 1980s, and hence the value of the U.S. dollar stabilized. United States dollar_sentence_226

Over the thirty-year period from 1981 to 2009, the U.S. dollar lost over half its value. United States dollar_sentence_227

This is because the Federal Reserve has targeted not zero inflation, but a low, stable rate of inflation—between 1987 and 1997, the rate of inflation was approximately 3.5%, and between 1997 and 2007 it was approximately 2%. United States dollar_sentence_228

The so-called "Great Moderation" of economic conditions since the 1970s is credited to monetary policy targeting price stability. United States dollar_sentence_229

There is ongoing debate about whether central banks should target zero inflation (which would mean a constant value for the U.S. dollar over time) or low, stable inflation (which would mean a continuously but slowly declining value of the dollar over time, as is the case now). United States dollar_sentence_230

Although some economists are in favor of a zero inflation policy and therefore a constant value for the U.S. dollar, others contend that such a policy limits the ability of the central bank to control interest rates and stimulate the economy when needed. United States dollar_sentence_231

Exchange rates United States dollar_section_20

Historical exchange rates United States dollar_section_21

Current exchange rates United States dollar_section_22

See also United States dollar_section_23

United States dollar_unordered_list_6

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United States dollar.