Universal Music Group

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"Universal Records" redirects here. Universal Music Group_sentence_0

For Universal Records 1988–1989, see Universal Records (1988). Universal Music Group_sentence_1

For Universal Records 1995–2005, see Universal Records (1995). Universal Music Group_sentence_2

For other uses, see Universal Records (disambiguation). Universal Music Group_sentence_3

Universal Music Group_table_infobox_0

Universal Music GroupUniversal Music Group_table_caption_0
FormerlyUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_0_0 Universal Music Group_cell_0_0_1
TypeUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_1_0 PrivateUniversal Music Group_cell_0_1_1
IndustryUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_2_0 Universal Music Group_cell_0_2_1
FoundedUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_3_0 September 1934; 86 years ago (1934-09)Universal Music Group_cell_0_3_1
HeadquartersUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_4_0 2220 Colorado Avenue, Santa Monica, California, United StatesUniversal Music Group_cell_0_4_1
Area servedUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_5_0 WorldwideUniversal Music Group_cell_0_5_1
Key peopleUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_6_0 Lucian Grainge

(Chairman & CEO) Boyd Muir (CFO)Universal Music Group_cell_0_6_1

ProductsUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_7_0 Music and entertainmentUniversal Music Group_cell_0_7_1
RevenueUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_8_0 US$ 7.1 billion (2018)Universal Music Group_cell_0_8_1
OwnersUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_9_0 Universal Music Group_cell_0_9_1
Number of employeesUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_10_0 8,319 (2018)Universal Music Group_cell_0_10_1
DivisionsUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_11_0 List of Universal Music Group labelsUniversal Music Group_cell_0_11_1
WebsiteUniversal Music Group_header_cell_0_12_0 Universal Music Group_cell_0_12_1

Universal Music Group (also known in the United States as UMG Recordings, Inc. and abbreviated as UMG) is an American global music corporation that is majority owned by the French media conglomerate Vivendi, with Chinese tech company Tencent owning a minority stake. Universal Music Group_sentence_4

UMG's global corporate headquarters are located in Santa Monica, California. Universal Music Group_sentence_5

The biggest music company in the world, it is one of the "Big Three" record labels, along with Sony Music and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group_sentence_6

Ten percent of Universal Music Group was acquired by Tencent in March 2020 for US$3 billion. Universal Music Group_sentence_7

In 2019, Fast Company named Universal Music Group the most innovative music company and listed UMG among the Top 50 most innovative companies in the world and "amid the music industry's digital transformation, Universal is redefining what a modern label should look like." Universal Music Group_sentence_8

UMG has signed licensing agreements with more than 400 platforms worldwide. Universal Music Group_sentence_9

History Universal Music Group_section_0

For history prior to 1996, see MCA Records Universal Music Group_sentence_10

Early history Universal Music Group_section_1

The company's origins go back to the formation of the American branch of Decca Records in September 1934. Universal Music Group_sentence_11

The Decca Record Co. Ltd. of England spun American Decca off in 1939. Universal Music Group_sentence_12

MCA Inc. merged with American Decca in 1962. Universal Music Group_sentence_13

In November 1990, Japanese multinational conglomerate Matsushita Electric agreed to acquire MCA for $6.59 billion. Universal Music Group_sentence_14

In 1995, Seagram acquired 80 percent of MCA from Matsushita. Universal Music Group_sentence_15

On December 9, 1996, the company was renamed Universal Studios, Inc., and its music division was renamed Universal Music Group; MCA Records continued as a label within the Universal Music Group. Universal Music Group_sentence_16

In May 1998, Seagram purchased PolyGram and merged it with Universal Music Group in early 1999. Universal Music Group_sentence_17

Vivendi subsidiary Universal Music Group_section_2

In May 2004, Universal Music Group was cast under separate management from Universal Studios, when French media conglomerate Vivendi sold 80% of the latter to General Electric, who subsequently merged it with NBC to form NBCUniversal. Universal Music Group_sentence_18

This came two months after the separation of Warner Music Group from Time Warner. Universal Music Group_sentence_19

In February 2006, Vivendi purchased the remaining 20 percent of UMG from Matsushita Electric. Universal Music Group_sentence_20

On September 6, 2006, Vivendi announced its €1.63 billion ($2.4 billion) purchase of BMG Music Publishing; after receiving European Union regulatory approval, the acquisition was completed on June 25, 2007. Universal Music Group_sentence_21

2007–2012 and EMI purchase Universal Music Group_section_3

In June 2007, UMG acquired Sanctuary, which eventually became UMG's entertainment merchandising and brand management division, Bravado. Universal Music Group_sentence_22

The company represents artists such as Justin Bieber, Lady Gaga, and Kanye West, and has partnered with retailers including Barneys, Bloomingdale's and Selfridges. Universal Music Group_sentence_23

In 2008, Universal Music Group agreed to make its catalog available to Spotify, then a new streaming service, for use outside the U.S. on a limited basis. Universal Music Group_sentence_24

With Lucian Grainge's appointment as CEO at UMG, Max Hole was promoted to COO of UMGI, effective July 1, 2010. Universal Music Group_sentence_25

Doug Morris stepped down from his position as CEO on January 1, 2011. Universal Music Group_sentence_26

Former chairman/CEO of Universal Music International Lucian Grainge was promoted to CEO of the company. Universal Music Group_sentence_27

Grainge later replaced him as chairman on March 9, 2011. Universal Music Group_sentence_28

Morris became the next chairman of Sony Music Entertainment on July 1, 2011. Universal Music Group_sentence_29

With Grainge's appointment as CEO at UMG, Max Hole was promoted to COO of UMGI, effective July 1, 2010. Universal Music Group_sentence_30

Starting in 2011 UMG's Interscope Geffen A&M Records began signing contestants from American Idol. Universal Music Group_sentence_31

In January 2011, UMG announced it was donating 200,000 master recordings from the 1920s to 1940s to the Library of Congress for preservation. Universal Music Group_sentence_32

In 2011, EMI agreed to sell its recorded music operations to Universal Music Group for £1.2 billion ($1.9 billion) and its music publishing operations to a Sony-led consortium for $2.2 billion. Universal Music Group_sentence_33

Among the other companies that had competed for the recorded music business was Warner Music Group which was reported to have made a $2 billion bid. Universal Music Group_sentence_34

IMPALA opposed the merger. Universal Music Group_sentence_35

In March 2012, the European Union opened an investigation into the acquisition The EU asked rivals and consumer groups whether the deal would result in higher prices and shut out competitors. Universal Music Group_sentence_36

On September 21, 2012, the sale of EMI to UMG was approved in Europe and the United States by the European Commission and Federal Trade Commission respectively. Universal Music Group_sentence_37

However, the European Commission approved the deal only under the condition the merged company divest one third of its total operations to other companies with a proven track record in the music industry. Universal Music Group_sentence_38

UMG divested Mute Records, Parlophone, Roxy Recordings, MPS Records, Cooperative Music, Now That's What I Call Music! Universal Music Group_sentence_39 , Jazzland, Universal Greece, Sanctuary Records, Chrysalis Records, EMI Classics, Virgin Classics, and EMI's European regional labels to comply with this condition. Universal Music Group_sentence_40

UMG retained The Beatles (formerly of Parlophone) and Robbie Williams (formerly of Chrysalis). Universal Music Group_sentence_41

The Beatles catalogue was transferred to UMG's newly formed Calderstone Productions, while Williams' catalogue was transferred to Island Records. Universal Music Group_sentence_42

2012–2017: EMI integration and divisions reorganization Universal Music Group_section_4

Universal Music Group completed their acquisition of EMI on September 28, 2012. Universal Music Group_sentence_43

In November 2012, Steve Barnett was appointed chairman and CEO of Capitol Music Group. Universal Music Group_sentence_44

He formerly served as COO of Columbia Records. Universal Music Group_sentence_45

In compliance the conditions of the European Commission after purchase of EMI, Universal Music Group sold the Mute catalogue to the German-based BMG Rights Management on December 22, 2012. Universal Music Group_sentence_46

Two months later, BMG acquired Sanctuary Records for €50 million. Universal Music Group_sentence_47

On February 8, 2013, Warner Music Group acquired the Parlophone Label Group (consisting of Parlophone Records, Chrysalis Records, EMI Classics, Virgin Classics and EMI Records' Belgian, Czech, Danish, French, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Slovak and Swedish divisions) for $765 million (£487 million). Universal Music Group_sentence_48

Later in February, Sony Music Entertainment acquired UMG's European share in Now That's What I Call Music for approximately $60 million. Universal Music Group_sentence_49

Play It Again Sam acquired Co-Operative Music for £500,000 in March 2013. Universal Music Group_sentence_50

With EMI's absorption into Universal Music complete, its British operations consist of five label units: Island, Polydor, Decca, Virgin EMI and Capitol. Universal Music Group_sentence_51

In the Greek market, as part of its divesture plans, Universal Music retained Minos EMI and sold Universal Music Greece to Greek investors who renamed it Cobalt Music. Universal Music Group_sentence_52

Edel AG acquired the MPS catalogue from Universal in January 2014. Universal Music Group_sentence_53

On March 20, 2013, UMG announced the worldwide extension of their exclusive distribution deal with the Disney Music Group, excluding Japan. Universal Music Group_sentence_54

As a result of this deal DMG's labels and artists have access to UMG's roster of producers and songwriters on a worldwide basis. Universal Music Group_sentence_55

The exclusive deal also saw UMG granted unlimited access to all rights pertaining to Disney's 85-year back catalog of soundtracks and albums. Universal Music Group_sentence_56

On April 2, 2013, the gospel music divisions of Motown Records and EMI merged to form a new label called Motown Gospel. Universal Music Group_sentence_57

In May 2013, Japanese company SoftBank offered $8.5 billion to Vivendi for the acquisition of UMG, but Vivendi rejected it. Universal Music Group_sentence_58

In July 2018, JPMorgan said that UMG could be worth as much as $40 billion and then increased the valuation to $50 billion in 2019. Universal Music Group_sentence_59

In August 2013, UMG became the first company in the US to have nine of the Top 10 songs on the digital charts, according to SoundScan and weeks later, became the first company to hold all 10 of the Top 10 spots on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart. Universal Music Group_sentence_60

In September 2013, UMG received a SAG-AFTRA American Scene Award for the company's commitment to diversity as exemplified by its "entire catalog and roster of artists." Universal Music Group_sentence_61

On April 1, 2014, Universal Music announced the disbandment of Island Def Jam Music, one of four operational umbrella groups within Universal Music. Universal Music Group_sentence_62

Universal CEO Lucian Grainge said of the closure, "No matter how much we might work to build 'IDJ' as a brand, that brand could never be as powerful as each of IDJ's constituent parts." Universal Music Group_sentence_63

Island Records and Def Jam now operate as autonomous record labels. Universal Music Group_sentence_64

David Massey and Bartels, who worked respectively at Island and Def Jam Records, were named to the new record labels independently. Universal Music Group_sentence_65

Barry Weiss, who previously moved from Sony Music to lead Island Def Jam Music in 2012 when Motown Records was incorporated into Island Def Jam, stepped down from Universal Music. Universal Music Group_sentence_66

Additionally, as part of the changes to the labels, Motown Records transferred to Los Angeles to become part of the Capitol Music Group and previous Vice President Ethiopia Habtemariam was promoted to Label President for Motown Records. Universal Music Group_sentence_67

Universal Music Group entered into film and TV production with the 2014 purchase of Eagle Rock Entertainment. Universal Music Group_sentence_68

UMG's first major film production was Amy, which won an Oscar for Best Documentary, while taking part in Kurt Cobain: Montage of Heck and The Beatles: Eight Days a Week documentaries. Universal Music Group_sentence_69

In January 2016, UMG hired David Blackman from Laurence Mark Production where he was president of production as head of film and television development and production, and theater producer Scott Landis as special advisor on theatrical development and production. Universal Music Group_sentence_70

UMG Executive Vice President Michele Anthony and Universal Music Publishing Group Chairman and CEO Jody Gerson have oversight of the pair. Universal Music Group_sentence_71

On February 11, 2017, PolyGram Entertainment was relaunched as a film and television unit of Universal Music Group under David Blackman. Universal Music Group_sentence_72

In 2015, UMG's Capitol Records earned all the major Grammy Awards for the year, with Sam Smith receiving Best New Artist, Record of the Year and Song of the Year awards and Beck winning Album of the Year. Universal Music Group_sentence_73

In March 2016, Universal Music Canada donated the archives of EMI Music Canada to the University of Calgary. Universal Music Group_sentence_74

In May 2016, UMG acquired Famehouse, a digital marketing agency. Universal Music Group_sentence_75

That same year, Paul McCartney and the Bee Gees both signed to UMG's Capitol Records, including their catalog releases. Universal Music Group_sentence_76

In April 2017, UMG signed a new multi-year licensing agreement with Spotify, the world's leading streaming service, and in May 2017, UMG signed a deal with Tencent, China's biggest gaming and social media firm. Universal Music Group_sentence_77

In July 2017, "Despacito" by Luis Fonsi, Daddy Yankee and featuring Justin Bieber, became the most streamed track of all time. Universal Music Group_sentence_78

By 2018, the song had broken several Guinness World Records, including Most Weeks at Number 1 on Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart and most-viewed video online. Universal Music Group_sentence_79

In August 2017, UMG and Grace/Beyond agreed to develop three new music-based television series, 27, Melody Island and Mixtape. Universal Music Group_sentence_80

27 would focus on musicians at the age of 27, an age at which several iconic musicians died. Universal Music Group_sentence_81

Melody Island was an animated series based on tropical island music with live craft segments. Universal Music Group_sentence_82

Mixtape had twelve episodes, with each episode connected to a song. Universal Music Group_sentence_83

In October 2017, UMG announced the launch of its Accelerator Engagement Network, an initiative aimed to help develop music-based startups around the world. Universal Music Group_sentence_84

In November 2017, USC Annenberg announced UMG's partnership in the "Annenberg Inclusion Initiative", becoming the first music company to do so. Universal Music Group_sentence_85

The initiative is meant to create change for representation of women and underrepresented racial and ethnic groups in the media industry. Universal Music Group_sentence_86

In December 2017, Universal Music Group acquired the catalogues of Stiff Records and ZTT Records, along with Perfect Songs Publishing, from Trevor Horn's SPZ Group. Universal Music Group_sentence_87

That same month, UMG signed a global, multi-year agreement with Facebook becoming the first of The "Big Three" to license its recorded music and publishing catalogs for video and other social experiences across Facebook, Instagram and Oculus. Universal Music Group_sentence_88

Sony and Warner signed similar contracts with Facebook the following year. Universal Music Group_sentence_89

Furthermore, on December 19, 2017 UMG signed a multi-year licensing agreement with YouTube Universal Music Group_sentence_90

2018–present Universal Music Group_section_5

In June 2018, Universal Music Japan announced an exclusive license agreement with Disney Music Group. Universal Music Group_sentence_91

With the addition of Japan, UMG distributes releases from Disney Music Group globally. Universal Music Group_sentence_92

In July, The Rolling Stones signed a worldwide agreement with UMG covering the band's recorded music and audio-visual catalogues, archival support, global merchandising and brand management. Universal Music Group_sentence_93

That same month, Vivendi announced it would explore selling as much as half of Universal Music Group to one or more investors. Universal Music Group_sentence_94

In Nielsen's 2018 US Music Mid-Year report, UMG made history with eight of the Top 10 artists, including all of the top five, as well as all of the top eight artists ranked by on-demand audio streams. Universal Music Group_sentence_95

In August 2018, UMG announced a strategic expansion in Africa, opening an office in Abidjan to oversee French-speaking Africa, and also unveiling a Universal Music Nigera office in Lagos to focus on signing local artists and taking them global. Universal Music Group_sentence_96

In September 2018, singer Elton John signed a global partnership agreement with UMG across recorded music, music publishing, brand management, and licensing rights. Universal Music Group_sentence_97

On November 19, 2018, singer-songwriter Taylor Swift signed a new multi-album deal with UMG, in the United States, her future releases will be promoted under the Republic Records imprint. Universal Music Group_sentence_98

In addition to the promised ownership of her master recordings, UMG agreed to, in the event that it sells portions of its stake in Spotify, distribute proceeds among its artists and make them non-recoupable. Universal Music Group_sentence_99

In December 2018, Queen's "Bohemian Rhapsody" became the most-streamed song from the pre-streaming era and the most-streamed classic rock song of all time. Universal Music Group_sentence_100

In February 2019, UMG fully acquired music distributor INgrooves. Universal Music Group_sentence_101

UMG was named to Fast Company's annual list of the World's 50 Most Innovative Companies for 2019, the first major music company to be included on the list in a decade. Universal Music Group_sentence_102

UMG is also ranked number 1 in the music category. Universal Music Group_sentence_103

UMG was named by Forbes as one of America's Best Midsize Employers in 2019. Universal Music Group_sentence_104

In June, YouTube and UMG announced that they were upgrading more than 1,000 popular music videos to high definition, releasing them through 2020. Universal Music Group_sentence_105

In August 2019, Tencent and Vivendi started negotiation to sell 10% Vivendi's stake of Universal Music to Tencent. Universal Music Group_sentence_106

The deal is expected to be of $3.36 billion. Universal Music Group_sentence_107

The company and Lego Group announced a music product partnership on April 26, 2020. Universal Music Group_sentence_108

On June 16, 2020, Universal rebranded Virgin EMI Records as EMI Records and named Rebbeca Allen (former president of UMG's Decca label) as the label's president, bringing back the EMI brand. Universal Music Group_sentence_109

Same day, UMG announced launch of its new affiliates in Morocco and Israel. Universal Music Group_sentence_110

Labels Universal Music Group_section_6

Main article: List of Universal Music Group labels Universal Music Group_sentence_111

Vevo Universal Music Group_section_7

Universal Music Group co-developed Vevo, a site designed for music videos inspired by Hulu.com, which similarly allows free ad-supported streaming of videos and other music content. Universal Music Group_sentence_112

On May 24, 2018, Vevo announced that it would no longer continue distributing videos to Vevo.com, instead opting to primarily focus on YouTube syndication. Universal Music Group_sentence_113

Locations Universal Music Group_section_8

Los Angeles metropolitan area Universal Music Group_section_9

Santa Monica Universal Music Group_section_10

The UMG main global headquarters are located in Santa Monica. Universal Music Group_sentence_114

Interscope-Geffen-A&M and Universal Music Enterprises (UME), the company's catalog division, are also headquartered there. Universal Music Group_sentence_115

Def Jam, Island and Republic Records also maintain offices at the Santa Monica headquarters. Universal Music Group_sentence_116

UMG chairman & CEO Lucian Grainge is based at the company's Santa Monica headquarters. Universal Music Group_sentence_117

Universal Music Publishing is also headquartered in the city. Universal Music Group_sentence_118

Hollywood Universal Music Group_section_11

Capitol Music Group is headquartered at the Capitol Records Building in Hollywood. Universal Music Group_sentence_119

Universal Music Latin Entertainment is also headquartered in Hollywood. Universal Music Group_sentence_120

Woodland Hills Universal Music Group_section_12

Universal Music Group operates a secondary office in Woodland Hills that includes finance, royalty, and operations functions. Universal Music Group_sentence_121

Miami Universal Music Group_section_13

Universal Music Latin America is headquartered in Miami, Florida. Universal Music Group_sentence_122

Nashville Universal Music Group_section_14

Universal Music Group Nashville is headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee. Universal Music Group_sentence_123

New York City Universal Music Group_section_15

UMG has offices in New York City where Island Records, Def Jam Recordings, Republic Records, Verve Label Group, and Spinefarm Records are headquartered. Universal Music Group_sentence_124

Madrid Universal Music Group_section_16

Universal Music Spain is based in Madrid, Spain. Universal Music Group_sentence_125

London Universal Music Group_section_17

Universal Music Group Global (formerly known as Universal Music Group International (UMGI)) operates offices in London. Universal Music Group_sentence_126

Berlin Universal Music Group_section_18

Universal Music GmbH, the German subsidiary, is headquartered in Berlin. Universal Music Group_sentence_127

It moved in 2002 from Hamburg to the district Friedrichshain at the river Spree. Universal Music Group_sentence_128

Warsaw Universal Music Group_section_19

Universal Music Group's Universal Music Polska is located in Warsaw. Universal Music Group_sentence_129

Toronto Universal Music Group_section_20

Universal Music Group's Universal Music Canada is located in Toronto. Universal Music Group_sentence_130

Other locations Universal Music Group_section_21

UMG operates in more than 60 territories around the world including Australia, Brazil, France, India, Greater China, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, South Africa, and South Korea. Universal Music Group_sentence_131

Universal Music Group's parent company, Vivendi, is headquartered in Paris, France. Universal Music Group_sentence_132

Legal issues Universal Music Group_section_22

CD price fixing Universal Music Group_section_23

Main article: CD price fixing Universal Music Group_sentence_133

In 2000, music companies including UMG entered into consent agreements with the Federal Trade Commission, with no admission of liability, whereby they agreed to discontinue the use of Minimum Advertised Price programs under which subsidized cooperative advertising was provided to retailers that agreed to adhere to minimum advertised pricing. Universal Music Group_sentence_134

In 2002, a similar settlement was entered into with music publishers and distributors Sony Music, Warner Music, Bertelsmann Music Group, EMI Music and Universal Music Group and certain retailers, without admission of liability or wrongdoing, with various states. Universal Music Group_sentence_135

In settlement of the claim, the companies collectively agreed to pay a $67.4 million fine and distribute $75.7 million in CDs to public and non-profit groups. Universal Music Group_sentence_136

It was estimated that consumers were overcharged by $500 million and up to $5 per album. Universal Music Group_sentence_137

Payola Universal Music Group_section_24

In May 2006, an investigation led by then New York Attorney General, Eliot Spitzer, concluded with a determination that Universal Music Group bribed radio stations to play songs from Ashlee Simpson, Brian McKnight, Big Tymers, Nick Lachey, Lindsay Lohan and other performers under Universal labels. Universal Music Group_sentence_138

The company paid $12 million to the state in settlement. Universal Music Group_sentence_139

YouTube Universal Music Group_section_25

In 2007, with the help of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Stephanie Lenz sued UMG's publishing company for allegedly improperly requesting that, pursuant to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, YouTube remove a 29-second home video in which Lenz's child danced to a recording of Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy". Universal Music Group_sentence_140

After years of litigation, the suit settled in 2018, prior to the court holding a trial on whether UMG had a subjective belief that the video was infringing and not fair to use before sending its request to YouTube. Universal Music Group_sentence_141

In April 2016, UMG had the audio muted of a video clip showing Katherine Jenkins singing the British national anthem. Universal Music Group_sentence_142

They claimed that the recording of "God Save the Queen" was copyrighted, and YouTube initially complied with this request, but subsequently offered the video with the original audio track. Universal Music Group_sentence_143

Imeem Universal Music Group_section_26

In December 2007, UMG announced a deal with Imeem which allows users of the social network to listen to any track from Universal's catalogue for free with a portion of the advertising generated by the music being shared with the record label. Universal Music Group_sentence_144

All traffic was redirected to MySpace after that company acquired Imeem on December 8, 2009. Universal Music Group_sentence_145

Universal archive fire (2008) Universal Music Group_section_27

Main article: 2008 Universal Studios fire Universal Music Group_sentence_146

According to Jody Rosen of The New York Times, the fire which swept through Universal Studios Hollywood on June 1, 2008 caused "the biggest disaster in the history of the music business". Universal Music Group_sentence_147

In space rented from NBC-Universal, according to an official document marked "Confidential", the fire destroyed at least 118,230 "assets" (master recordings), or about 500,000 song titles, owned by UMG. Universal Music Group_sentence_148

"The vault housed tape masters for Decca, the pop, jazz and classical powerhouse; it housed master tapes for the storied blues label Chess; it housed masters for Impulse! Universal Music Group_sentence_149 , the groundbreaking jazz label. Universal Music Group_sentence_150

The vault held masters for the MCA, ABC, A&M, Geffen and Interscope labels; as well as some smaller subsidiary labels. Universal Music Group_sentence_151

Nearly all of these masters—in some cases, the complete discographies of entire record labels—were wiped out in the fire." Universal Music Group_sentence_152

In a statement issued on June 11, 2019, UMG said The New York Times article contained "numerous inaccuracies, misleading statements, contradictions and fundamental misunderstandings of the scope of the incident and affected assets." Universal Music Group_sentence_153

Following the publication of the New York Times story, Questlove of The Roots confirmed that the master tapes for two of the band's albums, including unused material and multi-track recordings, were lost in the fire. Universal Music Group_sentence_154

Similarly, Nirvana bassist Krist Novoselic said he believed the masters for the band's 1991 album Nevermind were "gone forever" as a result of the fire. Universal Music Group_sentence_155

Representatives for R.E.M. Universal Music Group_sentence_156

announced they would investigate the effects the fire may have had on the band's archival materials, while Hole, Steely Dan, Rosanne Cash and Geoff Downes made statements on their possible losses from the fire. Universal Music Group_sentence_157

A representative for Eminem confirmed that the rapper's master recordings were digitized months before the fire, but could not confirm whether the physical master reels of his recordings were affected. Universal Music Group_sentence_158

UMG archivist Patrick Kraus assured that the Impulse! Universal Music Group_sentence_159 Records, John Coltrane, Muddy Waters, Ahmad Jamal, Nashboro Records, and Chess Records masters survived the fire and were still in Universal's archive. Universal Music Group_sentence_160

Howard King filed a lawsuit in Los Angeles on June 21, 2019, on behalf of Soundgarden, Hole, Steve Earle, the estate of Tupac Shakur and a former wife of Tom Petty that seeks class action status for artists whose master recordings were believed to have been destroyed in the Universal Studios fire. Universal Music Group_sentence_161

Megaupload Universal Music Group_section_28

On December 9, 2011, Megaupload published a music video titled: "The Mega Song", showing artists including Kanye West, Snoop Dogg, Alicia Keys and will.i.am endorsing the company. Universal Music Group_sentence_162

The music video was also uploaded to YouTube, but was removed following a takedown request by UMG. Universal Music Group_sentence_163

Megaupload said that the video contained no infringing content, commenting: "we have signed agreements with every featured artist for this campaign". Universal Music Group_sentence_164

Megaupload requested an apology from UMG, and filed a lawsuit against the company in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, on December 12, 2011. Universal Music Group_sentence_165

UMG denied that the takedown was ordered under the terms of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, and said that the takedown was "pursuant to the UMG-YouTube agreement," which gives UMG "the right to block or remove user-posted videos through YouTube's CMS (Content Management System) based on a number of contractually specified criteria." Universal Music Group_sentence_166

The video was subsequently returned to YouTube, with the reasons for the UMG takedown remaining unclear. Universal Music Group_sentence_167

Lawyers for will.i.am initially claimed that he had never agreed to the project, and on December 12, he denied any involvement in the takedown notice. Universal Music Group_sentence_168

Megaupload dismissed its case against UMG in January 2012. Universal Music Group_sentence_169

Copyright termination lawsuit Universal Music Group_section_29

On February 5, 2019, John Waite and Joe Ely filed a class-action lawsuit against UMG claiming the company is violating their right to terminate grants of copyright after 35 years in accordance with copyright law of the United States by ignoring Notices of Termination. Universal Music Group_sentence_170

On May 3, 2019, UMG filed a motion to dismiss the case, stating the Notices of Termination were not valid because the songs were not grants of copyright but works for hire. Universal Music Group_sentence_171

See also Universal Music Group_section_30

Universal Music Group_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal Music Group.