University of Cambridge

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University of Cambridge_table_infobox_0

University of CambridgeUniversity of Cambridge_table_caption_0
MottoUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_0_0 Latin: Hinc lucem et pocula sacraUniversity of Cambridge_cell_0_0_1
Motto in EnglishUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_1_0 Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts

Non-literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledgeUniversity of Cambridge_cell_0_1_1

TypeUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_2_0 Public research universityUniversity of Cambridge_cell_0_2_1
EstablishedUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_3_0 c. 1209; 811 years ago (1209)University of Cambridge_cell_0_3_1
EndowmentUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_4_0 £7.121 billion (including colleges)University of Cambridge_cell_0_4_1
BudgetUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_5_0 £2.192 billion (excluding colleges)University of Cambridge_cell_0_5_1
ChancellorUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_6_0 The Lord Sainsbury of TurvilleUniversity of Cambridge_cell_0_6_1
Vice-ChancellorUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_7_0 Professor Stephen ToopeUniversity of Cambridge_cell_0_7_1
Academic staffUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_8_0 7,913University of Cambridge_cell_0_8_1
Administrative staffUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_9_0 3,615 (excluding colleges)University of Cambridge_cell_0_9_1
StudentsUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_10_0 23,247 (2019)University of Cambridge_cell_0_10_1
UndergraduatesUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_11_0 12,354 (2019)University of Cambridge_cell_0_11_1
PostgraduatesUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_12_0 10,893 (2019)University of Cambridge_cell_0_12_1
LocationUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_13_0 Cambridge, England, United KingdomUniversity of Cambridge_cell_0_13_1
CampusUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_14_0 University town

288 hectares (710 acres)University of Cambridge_cell_0_14_1

ColoursUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_15_0 Cambridge BlueUniversity of Cambridge_cell_0_15_1
AthleticsUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_16_0 The Sporting BlueUniversity of Cambridge_cell_0_16_1
AffiliationsUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_17_0 University of Cambridge_cell_0_17_1
WebsiteUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_0_18_0 University of Cambridge_cell_0_18_1

The University of Cambridge (legally, The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge) is a collegiate research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. University of Cambridge_sentence_0

Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university. University of Cambridge_sentence_1

The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. University of Cambridge_sentence_2

The two English ancient universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as Oxbridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_3

Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 semi-autonomous constituent colleges and over 150 academic departments, faculties and other institutions organised into six schools. University of Cambridge_sentence_4

All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. University of Cambridge_sentence_5

All students are members of a college. University of Cambridge_sentence_6

Cambridge does not have a main campus, and its colleges and central facilities are scattered throughout the city. University of Cambridge_sentence_7

Undergraduate teaching at Cambridge is organised around weekly small-group supervisions in the colleges – a feature unique to the Oxbridge system. University of Cambridge_sentence_8

These are supported by classes, lectures, seminars, laboratory work and occasionally further supervisions provided by the central university faculties and departments. University of Cambridge_sentence_9

Postgraduate teaching is provided predominantly centrally. University of Cambridge_sentence_10

Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the oldest university press in the world and currently the second largest university press in the world. University of Cambridge_sentence_11

Cambridge Assessment, also a department of the university, is one of the world's leading examining bodies and provides assessment to over eight million learners globally every year. University of Cambridge_sentence_12

The university also operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden. University of Cambridge_sentence_13

Cambridge's libraries, of which there are 116, hold a total of around 16 million books, around nine million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. University of Cambridge_sentence_14

The university is home to, but independent of, the Cambridge Union – the world's oldest debating society. University of Cambridge_sentence_15

The university is closely linked to the development of the high-tech business cluster known as 'Silicon Fen'. University of Cambridge_sentence_16

It is the central member of Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre based around the Cambridge Biomedical Campus. University of Cambridge_sentence_17

In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2019, the central university, excluding colleges, had a total income of £2.192 billion, of which £592.4 million was from research grants and contracts. University of Cambridge_sentence_18

At the end of the same financial year, the central university and colleges together possessed a combined endowment of over £7.1 billion and overall consolidated net assets (excluding 'immaterial' historical assets) of over £12.5 billion. University of Cambridge_sentence_19

By both endowment size and consolidated assets, Cambridge is the wealthiest university in the United Kingdom. University of Cambridge_sentence_20

It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the 'golden triangle' of English universities. University of Cambridge_sentence_21

Cambridge has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, politicians, lawyers, philosophers, writers, actors, monarchs and other heads of state. University of Cambridge_sentence_22

As of October 2020, 121 Nobel laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 14 British prime ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, alumni, faculty or research staff. University of Cambridge_sentence_23

University alumni have won 194 Olympic medals. University of Cambridge_sentence_24

History University of Cambridge_section_0

See also: Timeline of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_25

By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area already had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. University of Cambridge_sentence_26

However, it was an incident at Oxford which is most likely to have led to the establishment of the university: three Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would normally take precedence (and pardon the scholars) in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John. University of Cambridge_sentence_27

Fearing more violence from the townsfolk, scholars from the University of Oxford started to move away to cities such as Paris, Reading, and Cambridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_28

Subsequently, enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of a new university when it had become safe enough for academia to resume at Oxford. University of Cambridge_sentence_29

In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members (ius non-trahi extra) and an exemption from some taxes; Oxford was not granted similar rights until 1248. University of Cambridge_sentence_30

A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". University of Cambridge_sentence_31

After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, and confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses. University of Cambridge_sentence_32

Foundation of the colleges University of Cambridge_section_1

The colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. University of Cambridge_sentence_33

No college is as old as the university itself. University of Cambridge_sentence_34

The colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. University of Cambridge_sentence_35

There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels. University of Cambridge_sentence_36

The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. University of Cambridge_sentence_37

Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. University of Cambridge_sentence_38

Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800. University of Cambridge_sentence_39

The most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. University of Cambridge_sentence_40

However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college (it was previously an "Approved Society" affiliated with the university). University of Cambridge_sentence_41

In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, and were often associated with chapels or abbeys. University of Cambridge_sentence_42

The colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. University of Cambridge_sentence_43

King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy". University of Cambridge_sentence_44

In response, colleges changed their curricula away from canon law, and towards the classics, the Bible, and mathematics. University of Cambridge_sentence_45

Nearly a century later, the university was at the centre of a Protestant schism. University of Cambridge_sentence_46

Many nobles, intellectuals and even commoners saw the ways of the Church of England as too similar to the Catholic Church, and felt that it was used by the Crown to usurp the rightful powers of the counties. University of Cambridge_sentence_47

East Anglia was the centre of what became the Puritan movement. University of Cambridge_sentence_48

In Cambridge, the movement was particularly strong at Emmanuel, St Catharine's Hall, Sidney Sussex and Christ's College. University of Cambridge_sentence_49

They produced many "non-conformist" graduates who greatly influenced, by social position or preaching, some 20,000 Puritans who left for New England and especially the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Great Migration decade of the 1630s. University of Cambridge_sentence_50

Oliver Cromwell, Parliamentary commander during the English Civil War and head of the English Commonwealth (1649–1660), attended Sidney Sussex. University of Cambridge_sentence_51

Mathematics and mathematical physics University of Cambridge_section_2

Examination in mathematics was once compulsory for all undergraduates studying for the Bachelor of Arts degree, the main first degree at Cambridge in both arts and sciences. University of Cambridge_sentence_52

From the time of Isaac Newton in the later 17th century until the mid-19th century, the university maintained an especially strong emphasis on applied mathematics, particularly mathematical physics. University of Cambridge_sentence_53

The exam is known as a Tripos. University of Cambridge_sentence_54

Students awarded first-class honours after completing the mathematics Tripos are termed wranglers, and the top student among them is the Senior Wrangler. University of Cambridge_sentence_55

The Cambridge Mathematical Tripos is competitive and has helped produce some of the most famous names in British science, including James Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin and Lord Rayleigh. University of Cambridge_sentence_56

However, some famous students, such as G. University of Cambridge_sentence_57 H. Hardy, disliked the system, feeling that people were too interested in accumulating marks in exams and not interested in the subject itself. University of Cambridge_sentence_58

Pure mathematics at Cambridge in the 19th century achieved great things, but also missed out on substantial developments in French and German mathematics. University of Cambridge_sentence_59

Pure mathematical research at Cambridge finally reached the highest international standard in the early 20th century, thanks above all to G. H. Hardy, his collaborator J. University of Cambridge_sentence_60 E. Littlewood and Srinivasa Ramanujan. University of Cambridge_sentence_61

In geometry, W. University of Cambridge_sentence_62 V. D. Hodge brought Cambridge onto the international mainstream in the 1930s. University of Cambridge_sentence_63

Although diversified in its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its strength in mathematics. University of Cambridge_sentence_64

Cambridge alumni have won six Fields Medals and one Abel Prize for mathematics, while individuals representing Cambridge have won four Fields Medals. University of Cambridge_sentence_65

Modern period University of Cambridge_section_3

After the Cambridge University Act formalised the organisational structure of the university, the study of many new subjects was introduced, such as theology, history and modern languages. University of Cambridge_sentence_66

Resources necessary for new courses in the arts, architecture and archaeology were donated by Viscount Fitzwilliam, of Trinity College, who also founded the Fitzwilliam Museum. University of Cambridge_sentence_67

In 1847, Prince Albert was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge after a close contest with the Earl of Powis. University of Cambridge_sentence_68

Albert used his position as Chancellor to campaign successfully for reformed and more modern university curricula, expanding the subjects taught beyond the traditional mathematics and classics to include modern history and the natural sciences.Between 1896 and 1902, Downing College sold part of its land to build the Downing Site, with new scientific laboratories for anatomy, genetics and Earth sciences. University of Cambridge_sentence_69

During the same period, the New Museums Site was erected, including the Cavendish Laboratory, which has since moved to the West Cambridge Site, and other departments for chemistry and medicine. University of Cambridge_sentence_70

The University of Cambridge began to award PhD degrees in the first third of the 20th century. University of Cambridge_sentence_71

The first Cambridge PhD in mathematics was awarded in 1924. University of Cambridge_sentence_72

In the First World War, 13,878 members of the university served and 2,470 were killed. University of Cambridge_sentence_73

Teaching, and the fees it earned, came almost to a stop and severe financial difficulties followed. University of Cambridge_sentence_74

As a consequence the university first received systematic state support in 1919, and a Royal Commission appointed in 1920 recommended that the university (but not the colleges) should receive an annual grant. University of Cambridge_sentence_75

Following the Second World War, the university saw a rapid expansion of student numbers and available places; this was partly due to the success and popularity gained by many Cambridge scientists. University of Cambridge_sentence_76

Parliamentary representation University of Cambridge_section_4

Main article: University of Cambridge (UK Parliament constituency) University of Cambridge_sentence_77

The university was one of only two universities to hold parliamentary seats in the Parliament of England and was later one of eight represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. University of Cambridge_sentence_78

The constituency was created by a Royal Charter of 1603 and returned two members of parliament until 1950, when it was abolished by the Representation of the People Act 1948. University of Cambridge_sentence_79

The constituency was not a geographical area. University of Cambridge_sentence_80

Its electorate consisted of the graduates of the university. University of Cambridge_sentence_81

Before 1918 the franchise was restricted to male graduates with a doctorate or MA degree. University of Cambridge_sentence_82

Women's education University of Cambridge_section_5

For many years only male students were enrolled into the university. University of Cambridge_sentence_83

The first colleges for women were Girton College (founded by Emily Davies) in 1869 and Newnham College in 1872 (founded by Anne Clough and Henry Sidgwick), followed by Hughes Hall in 1885 (founded by Elizabeth Phillips Hughes as the Cambridge Teaching College for Women), Murray Edwards College (founded by Rosemary Murray as New Hall) in 1954, and Lucy Cavendish College in 1965. University of Cambridge_sentence_84

The first women students were examined in 1882 but attempts to make women full members of the university did not succeed until 1948. University of Cambridge_sentence_85

Women were allowed to study courses, sit examinations, and have their results recorded from 1881; for a brief period after the turn of the twentieth century, this allowed the "steamboat ladies" to receive ad eundem degrees from the University of Dublin. University of Cambridge_sentence_86

From 1921 women were awarded diplomas which "conferred the Title of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts". University of Cambridge_sentence_87

As they were not "admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Arts" they were excluded from the governing of the university. University of Cambridge_sentence_88

Since students must belong to a college, and since established colleges remained closed to women, women found admissions restricted to colleges established only for women. University of Cambridge_sentence_89

Darwin College, the first wholly graduate college of the university, matriculated both men and women students from its inception in 1964 – and elected a mixed fellowship. University of Cambridge_sentence_90

Of the undergraduate colleges, starting with Churchill, Clare and King's Colleges, the former men's colleges began to admit women between 1972 and 1988. University of Cambridge_sentence_91

One of the female-only colleges, Girton, also began to admit male students from 1979, but the other female-only colleges did not do likewise. University of Cambridge_sentence_92

As a result of St Hilda's College, Oxford, ending its ban on male students in 2008, Cambridge is now the only remaining United Kingdom university with female-only colleges (Newnham, Murray Edwards and Lucy Cavendish). University of Cambridge_sentence_93

In the academic year 2004–5, the university's student sex ratio, including post-graduates, was male 52%: female 48%. University of Cambridge_sentence_94

Myths, legends and traditions University of Cambridge_section_6

Main article: University of Cambridge legends University of Cambridge_sentence_95

See also: :Category:Terminology of the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_96

As an institution with such a long history, the university has developed a large number of myths and legends. University of Cambridge_sentence_97

The vast majority of these are untrue, but have been propagated nonetheless by generations of students and tour guides. University of Cambridge_sentence_98

A discontinued tradition is that of the wooden spoon, the 'prize' awarded to the student with the lowest passing honours grade in the final examinations of the Mathematical Tripos. University of Cambridge_sentence_99

The last of these spoons was awarded in 1909 to Cuthbert Lempriere Holthouse, an oarsman of the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St John's College. University of Cambridge_sentence_100

It was over one metre in length and had an oar blade for a handle. University of Cambridge_sentence_101

It can now be seen outside the Senior Combination Room of St John's. University of Cambridge_sentence_102

Since 1908, examination results have been published alphabetically within class rather than in strict order of merit. University of Cambridge_sentence_103

This made it harder to ascertain who was "entitled" to the spoon (unless there was only one person in the third class), and so the practice was abandoned. University of Cambridge_sentence_104

Each Christmas Eve, BBC radio and television broadcasts The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols sung by the Choir of King's College, Cambridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_105

The radio broadcast has been a national Christmas tradition since it was first transmitted in 1928 (though the festival has existed since 1918). University of Cambridge_sentence_106

The radio broadcast is carried worldwide by the BBC World Service and is also syndicated to hundreds of radio stations in the US. University of Cambridge_sentence_107

The first television broadcast of the festival was in 1954. University of Cambridge_sentence_108

Locations and buildings University of Cambridge_section_7

Buildings University of Cambridge_section_8

The university occupies a central location within the city of Cambridge, with the students taking up a significant proportion (nearly 20%) of the town's population and heavily affecting the age structure. University of Cambridge_sentence_109

Most of the older colleges are situated nearby the city centre and river Cam, along which it is traditional to punt to appreciate the buildings and surroundings. University of Cambridge_sentence_110

Examples of notable buildings include King's College Chapel, the history faculty building designed by James Stirling; and the Cripps Building at St John's College. University of Cambridge_sentence_111

The brickwork of several of the colleges is also notable: Queens' College contains "some of the earliest patterned brickwork in the country" and the brick walls of St John's College provide examples of English bond, Flemish bond and Running bond. University of Cambridge_sentence_112

Sites University of Cambridge_section_9

The university is divided into several sites where the different departments are placed. University of Cambridge_sentence_113

The main ones are: University of Cambridge_sentence_114

The university's School of Clinical Medicine is based in Addenbrooke's Hospital where students in medicine undergo their three-year clinical placement period after obtaining their BA degree, while the West Cambridge site is undergoing a major expansion and will host a new sports development. University of Cambridge_sentence_115

In addition, the Judge Business School, situated on Trumpington Street, provides management education courses since 1990 and is consistently ranked within the top 20 business schools globally by the Financial Times. University of Cambridge_sentence_116

Given that the sites are in relative close proximity to each other and the area around Cambridge is reasonably flat, one of the favourite modes of transport for students is the bicycle: a fifth of the journeys in the city are made by bike, a figure enhanced by the fact that students are not permitted to hold car park permits, except under special circumstances. University of Cambridge_sentence_117

'Town and gown' University of Cambridge_section_10

Main article: Town and gown University of Cambridge_sentence_118

The relationship between the university and the city has not always been positive. University of Cambridge_sentence_119

The phrase town and gown is employed to differentiate inhabitants of Cambridge from students at the university, who historically wore academical dress. University of Cambridge_sentence_120

There are many stories of ferocious rivalry between the two categories. University of Cambridge_sentence_121

During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, strong clashes brought about attacks and looting of university properties while locals contested the privileges granted by the government to the academic staff, the university's ledgers being burned in Market Square to the rallying cry "Away with the learning of clerks, away with it!". University of Cambridge_sentence_122

Following these events, the Chancellor was given special powers allowing him to prosecute the criminals and re-establish order in the city. University of Cambridge_sentence_123

Attempts to reconcile the two groups followed over time, and in the 16th century agreements were signed to improve the quality of streets and student accommodation around the city. University of Cambridge_sentence_124

However, this was followed by new confrontations when the plague hit Cambridge in 1630 and colleges refused to help those affected by the disease by locking their sites. University of Cambridge_sentence_125

Nowadays, these conflicts have somewhat subsided and the university has become an opportunity for employment among the population, providing an increased level of wealth in the area. University of Cambridge_sentence_126

The enormous growth in the number of high-tech, biotech, providers of services and related firms situated near Cambridge has been termed the Cambridge Phenomenon: the addition of 1,500 new, registered companies and as many as 40,000 jobs between 1960 and 2010 has been directly related to the presence and importance of the university. University of Cambridge_sentence_127

Organisation and administration University of Cambridge_section_11

See also: List of Institutions of the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_128

Cambridge is a collegiate university, meaning that it is made up of self-governing and independent colleges, each with its own property and income. University of Cambridge_sentence_129

Most colleges bring together academics and students from a broad range of disciplines, and within each faculty, school or department within the university, academics from many different colleges will be found. University of Cambridge_sentence_130

The faculties are responsible for ensuring that lectures are given, arranging seminars, performing research and determining the syllabi for teaching, overseen by the General Board. University of Cambridge_sentence_131

Together with the central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor, they make up the entire Cambridge University. University of Cambridge_sentence_132

Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the university (the Cambridge University Library), by the Faculties (Faculty libraries such as the Squire Law Library), and by the individual colleges (all of which maintain a multi-discipline library, generally aimed mainly at their undergraduates). University of Cambridge_sentence_133

Colleges University of Cambridge_section_12

Main article: Colleges of the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_134

The colleges are self-governing institutions with their own endowments and property, founded as integral parts of the university. University of Cambridge_sentence_135

All students and most academics are attached to a college. University of Cambridge_sentence_136

Their importance lies in the housing, welfare, social functions, and undergraduate teaching they provide. University of Cambridge_sentence_137

All faculties, departments, research centres, and laboratories belong to the university, which arranges lectures and awards degrees, but undergraduates receive their supervisions—small-group teaching sessions, often with just one student—within the colleges (though in many cases students go to other colleges for supervision if the teaching fellows at their college do not specialise in the areas concerned). University of Cambridge_sentence_138

Each college appoints its own teaching staff and fellows, who are also members of a university department. University of Cambridge_sentence_139

The colleges also decide which undergraduates to admit to the university, in accordance with university regulations. University of Cambridge_sentence_140

Cambridge has 31 colleges, of which two, Murray Edwards and Newnham, admit women only. University of Cambridge_sentence_141

The other colleges are mixed, though most were originally all-male. University of Cambridge_sentence_142

Lucy Cavendish, which was previously a women-only college, announced that they would admit men as well as women from 2021 onwards. University of Cambridge_sentence_143

Darwin was the first college to admit both men and women, while Churchill, Clare, and King's were the first previously all-male colleges to admit female undergraduates, in 1972. University of Cambridge_sentence_144

Magdalene became the last all-male college to accept women, in 1988. University of Cambridge_sentence_145

Clare Hall and Darwin admit only postgraduates, and Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmund's and Wolfson admit only mature (i.e. 21 years or older on date of matriculation) students, encompassing both undergraduate and graduate students. University of Cambridge_sentence_146

All other colleges admit both undergraduate and postgraduate students with no age restrictions. University of Cambridge_sentence_147

Colleges are not required to admit students in all subjects, with some colleges choosing not to offer subjects such as architecture, history of art or theology, but most offer close to the complete range. University of Cambridge_sentence_148

Some colleges maintain a bias towards certain subjects, for example with Churchill leaning towards the sciences and engineering, while others such as St Catharine's aim for a balanced intake. University of Cambridge_sentence_149

Others maintain much more informal reputations, such as for the students of King's to hold left-wing political views, or Robinson's and Churchill's attempts to minimise their environmental impact. University of Cambridge_sentence_150

Costs to students (accommodation and food prices) vary considerably from college to college. University of Cambridge_sentence_151

Similarly, college expenditure on student education also varies widely between individual colleges. University of Cambridge_sentence_152

There are also several theological colleges in Cambridge, separate from Cambridge University, including Westcott House, Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College, that are, to a lesser degree, affiliated to the university and are members of the Cambridge Theological Federation. University of Cambridge_sentence_153

The 31 colleges are: University of Cambridge_sentence_154

Schools, faculties and departments University of Cambridge_section_13

Main article University of Cambridge_sentence_155

In addition to the 31 colleges, the university is made up of over 150 departments, faculties, schools, syndicates and other institutions. University of Cambridge_sentence_156

Members of these are usually also members of one of the colleges and responsibility for running the entire academic programme of the university is divided amongst them. University of Cambridge_sentence_157

The university also has a centre for part-time study, the Institute of Continuing Education, which is housed in Madingley Hall, a 16th-century manor house in Cambridgeshire. University of Cambridge_sentence_158

A "School" in the University of Cambridge is a broad administrative grouping of related faculties and other units. University of Cambridge_sentence_159

Each has an elected supervisory body—the "Council" of the school—comprising representatives of the constituent bodies. University of Cambridge_sentence_160

There are six schools: University of Cambridge_sentence_161

Teaching and research in Cambridge is organised by faculties. University of Cambridge_sentence_162

The faculties have different organisational sub-structures which partly reflect their history and partly their operational needs, which may include a number of departments and other institutions. University of Cambridge_sentence_163

In addition, a small number of bodies called 'Syndicates' have responsibilities for teaching and research, e.g. Cambridge Assessment, the University Press, and the University Library. University of Cambridge_sentence_164

Central administration University of Cambridge_section_14

Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor University of Cambridge_section_15

See also: List of Vice-Chancellors of the University of Cambridge and List of Chancellors of the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_165

The office of Chancellor of the university, for which there are no term limits, is mainly ceremonial and is held by David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, following the retirement of the Duke of Edinburgh on his 90th birthday in June 2011. University of Cambridge_sentence_166

Lord Sainsbury was nominated by the official Nomination Board to succeed him, and Abdul Arain, owner of a local grocery store, Brian Blessed and Michael Mansfield were also nominated. University of Cambridge_sentence_167

The election took place on 14 and 15 October 2011. University of Cambridge_sentence_168

David Sainsbury won the election taking 2,893 of the 5,888 votes cast, winning on the first count. University of Cambridge_sentence_169

The current Vice-Chancellor is Stephen Toope. University of Cambridge_sentence_170

While the Chancellor's office is ceremonial, the Vice-Chancellor is the de facto principal administrative officer of the university. University of Cambridge_sentence_171

The university's internal governance is carried out almost entirely by its own members, with very little external representation on its governing body, the Regent House (though there is external representation on the Audit Committee, and there are four external members on the University's Council, who are the only external members of the Regent House). University of Cambridge_sentence_172

Senate and the Regent House University of Cambridge_section_16

The Senate consists of all holders of the MA degree or higher degrees. University of Cambridge_sentence_173

It elects the Chancellor and the High Steward, and elected two members of the House of Commons until the Cambridge University constituency was abolished in 1950. University of Cambridge_sentence_174

Prior to 1926, it was the university's governing body, fulfilling the functions that the Regent House fulfils today. University of Cambridge_sentence_175

The Regent House is the university's governing body, a direct democracy comprising all resident senior members of the University and the Colleges, together with the Chancellor, the High Steward, the Deputy High Steward, and the Commissary. University of Cambridge_sentence_176

The public representatives of the Regent House are the two Proctors, elected to serve for one year, on the nomination of the Colleges. University of Cambridge_sentence_177

Council and the General Board University of Cambridge_section_17

Although the University Council is the principal executive and policy-making body of the university, it must report and be accountable to the Regent House through a variety of checks and balances. University of Cambridge_sentence_178

It has the right of reporting to the university, and is obliged to advise the Regent House on matters of general concern to the university. University of Cambridge_sentence_179

It does both of these by causing notices to be published by authority in the Cambridge University Reporter, the official journal of the university. University of Cambridge_sentence_180

Since January 2005, the membership of the council has included two external members, and the Regent House voted for an increase from two to four in the number of external members in March 2008, and this was approved by Her Majesty the Queen in July 2008. University of Cambridge_sentence_181

The General Board of the Faculties is responsible for the academic and educational policy of the university, and is accountable to the council for its management of these affairs. University of Cambridge_sentence_182

Faculty Boards are responsible to the General Board; other Boards and Syndicates are responsible either to the General Board (if primarily for academic purposes) or to the council. University of Cambridge_sentence_183

In this way, the various arms of the university are kept under the supervision of the central administration, and thus the Regent House. University of Cambridge_sentence_184

Finances University of Cambridge_section_18

Benefactions and fundraising University of Cambridge_section_19

In 2000, Bill Gates of Microsoft donated US$210 million through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to endow the Gates Scholarships for students from outside the UK seeking postgraduate study at Cambridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_185

In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2019, the central university, excluding colleges, had a total income of £2.192 billion, of which £592.4 million was from research grants and contracts. University of Cambridge_sentence_186

Over the past decade to 2019, Cambridge has received an average of £271m a year in philanthropic donations. University of Cambridge_sentence_187

Bonds University of Cambridge_section_20

The University of Cambridge borrowed £350 million by issuing a 40-year security bond in October 2012. University of Cambridge_sentence_188

Its interest rate is about 0.6 percent higher than a British government 40-year bond. University of Cambridge_sentence_189

Vice-Chancellor Leszek Borysiewicz hailed the success of the issue. University of Cambridge_sentence_190

In a 2010 report, the Russell Group of 20 leading universities made a conclusion that higher education could be financed by issuing bonds. University of Cambridge_sentence_191

Affiliations and memberships University of Cambridge_section_21

Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the G5, the League of European Research Universities, and the International Alliance of Research Universities, and forms part of the "golden triangle" of research intensive and southern English universities. University of Cambridge_sentence_192

It is also closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as "Silicon Fen", and as part of the Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre. University of Cambridge_sentence_193

Academic profile University of Cambridge_section_22

Admissions University of Cambridge_section_23

University of Cambridge_table_general_1

UCAS admission statisticsUniversity of Cambridge_table_caption_1
University of Cambridge_header_cell_1_0_0 2017University of Cambridge_header_cell_1_0_1 2016University of Cambridge_header_cell_1_0_2 2015University of Cambridge_header_cell_1_0_3 2014University of Cambridge_header_cell_1_0_4 2013University of Cambridge_header_cell_1_0_5
ApplicationsUniversity of Cambridge_cell_1_1_0 17,235University of Cambridge_cell_1_1_1 16,795University of Cambridge_cell_1_1_2 16,505University of Cambridge_cell_1_1_3 16,970University of Cambridge_cell_1_1_4 16,330University of Cambridge_cell_1_1_5
Offer Rate (%)University of Cambridge_cell_1_2_0 31.2University of Cambridge_cell_1_2_1 33.8University of Cambridge_cell_1_2_2 33.5University of Cambridge_cell_1_2_3 32.5University of Cambridge_cell_1_2_4 32.2University of Cambridge_cell_1_2_5
EnrolsUniversity of Cambridge_cell_1_3_0 3,480University of Cambridge_cell_1_3_1 3,440University of Cambridge_cell_1_3_2 3,430University of Cambridge_cell_1_3_3 3,425University of Cambridge_cell_1_3_4 3,355University of Cambridge_cell_1_3_5
Yield (%)University of Cambridge_cell_1_4_0 64.7University of Cambridge_cell_1_4_1 60.6University of Cambridge_cell_1_4_2 62.0University of Cambridge_cell_1_4_3 62.1University of Cambridge_cell_1_4_4 63.8University of Cambridge_cell_1_4_5
Applicant/Enrolled RatioUniversity of Cambridge_cell_1_5_0 4.95University of Cambridge_cell_1_5_1 4.88University of Cambridge_cell_1_5_2 4.81University of Cambridge_cell_1_5_3 4.95University of Cambridge_cell_1_5_4 4.87University of Cambridge_cell_1_5_5
Average Entry TariffUniversity of Cambridge_cell_1_6_0 n/aUniversity of Cambridge_cell_1_6_1 226University of Cambridge_cell_1_6_2 592University of Cambridge_cell_1_6_3 600University of Cambridge_cell_1_6_4 601University of Cambridge_cell_1_6_5

Procedure University of Cambridge_section_24

Undergraduate applications to Cambridge must be made through UCAS in time for the early deadline, currently mid-October in the year before starting. University of Cambridge_sentence_194

Until the 1980s candidates for all subjects were required to sit special entrance examinations, since replaced by additional tests for some subjects, such as the Thinking Skills Assessment and the Cambridge Law Test. University of Cambridge_sentence_195

The university is considering reintroducing an admissions exam for all subjects with effect from 2016. University of Cambridge_sentence_196

The university gave offers of admission to 33.5% of its applicants in 2016, the 2nd lowest amongst the Russell Group, behind Oxford. University of Cambridge_sentence_197

The acceptance rate for students in the 2018–2019 cycle was 18.8%. University of Cambridge_sentence_198

Most applicants who are called for interview will have been predicted at least three A-grade A-level qualifications relevant to their chosen undergraduate course, or the equivalent in other qualifications, such as getting at least 7,7,6 for higher-level subjects at IB. University of Cambridge_sentence_199

The A* A-level grade (introduced in 2010) now plays a part in the acceptance of applications, with the university's standard offer for most courses being set at A*AA, with A*A*A for sciences courses. University of Cambridge_sentence_200

Due to a high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, the interview process is needed for distinguishing between the most able candidates. University of Cambridge_sentence_201

The interview is performed by College Fellows, who evaluate candidates on unexamined factors such as potential for original thinking and creativity. University of Cambridge_sentence_202

For exceptional candidates, a Matriculation Offer was sometimes previously offered, requiring only two A-levels at grade E or above. University of Cambridge_sentence_203

In 2006, 5,228 students who were rejected went on to get 3 A levels or more at grade A, representing about 63% of all applicants rejected. University of Cambridge_sentence_204

The Sutton Trust maintains that Oxford University and Cambridge University recruit disproportionately from 8 schools which accounted for 1,310 Oxbridge places during three years, contrasted with 1,220 from 2,900 other schools. University of Cambridge_sentence_205

Strong applicants who are not successful at their chosen college may be placed in the Winter Pool, where they can be offered places by other colleges. University of Cambridge_sentence_206

This is in order to maintain consistency throughout the colleges, some of which receive more applicants than others. University of Cambridge_sentence_207

Graduate admission is first decided by the faculty or department relating to the applicant's subject. University of Cambridge_sentence_208

When an offer is made, this effectively guarantees admission to a college—though not necessarily the applicant's preferred choice. University of Cambridge_sentence_209

Access University of Cambridge_section_25

Public debate in the United Kingdom continues over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely merit based and fair; whether enough students from state schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge; and whether these students succeed in gaining entry. University of Cambridge_sentence_210

In 2007–08, 57% of all successful applicants were from state schools (roughly 93 percent of all students in the UK attend state schools). University of Cambridge_sentence_211

Critics have argued that the lack of state school applicants with the required grades applying to Cambridge and Oxford has had a negative impact on Oxbridge's reputation for many years, and the university has encouraged pupils from state schools to apply for Cambridge to help redress the imbalance. University of Cambridge_sentence_212

Others counter that government pressure to increase state school admissions constitutes inappropriate social engineering. University of Cambridge_sentence_213

The proportion of undergraduates drawn from independent schools has dropped over the years, and such applicants now form a (very large) minority (43%) of the intake. University of Cambridge_sentence_214

In 2005, 32% of the 3599 applicants from independent schools were admitted to Cambridge, as opposed to 24% of the 6674 applications from state schools. University of Cambridge_sentence_215

In 2008 the University of Cambridge received a gift of £4m to improve its accessibility to candidates from maintained schools. University of Cambridge_sentence_216

Cambridge, together with Oxford and Durham, is among those universities that have adopted formulae that gives a rating to the GCSE performance of every school in the country to "weight" the scores of university applicants. University of Cambridge_sentence_217

With the release of admissions figures, a 2013 article in The Guardian reported that ethnic minority candidates had lower success rates in individual subjects even when they had the same grades as white applicants. University of Cambridge_sentence_218

The university was hence criticised for what was seen as institutional discrimination against ethnic minority applicants in favour of white applicants. University of Cambridge_sentence_219

The university denied the claims of institutional discrimination by stating the figures did not take into account "other variables". University of Cambridge_sentence_220

A following article stated that in the years 2010–2012 ethnic minority applicants to medicine with 3 A* grades or higher were 20% less likely to gain admission than white applicants with similar grades. University of Cambridge_sentence_221

The University refused to provide figures for a wider range of subjects claiming it would be too costly. University of Cambridge_sentence_222

There are a number of educational consultancies that offer support with the applications process. University of Cambridge_sentence_223

Some make claims of improved chances of admission but these claims are not independently verified. None of these companies are affiliated to or endorsed by the University of Cambridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_224

The university informs applicants that all important information regarding the application process is public knowledge and none of these services is providing any inside information. University of Cambridge_sentence_225

Cambridge University has been criticised because many colleges admit a low proportion of black students though many apply. University of Cambridge_sentence_226

Of the 31 colleges at Cambridge 6 admitted fewer than 10 black or mixed race students from 2012 to 2016. University of Cambridge_sentence_227

Teaching University of Cambridge_section_26

The academic year is divided into three academic terms, determined by the Statutes of the University. University of Cambridge_sentence_228

Michaelmas term lasts from October to December; Lent term from January to March; and Easter term from April to June. University of Cambridge_sentence_229

Within these terms undergraduate teaching takes place within eight-week periods called Full Terms. University of Cambridge_sentence_230

According to the university statutes, it is a requirement that during this period all students should live within 3 miles of the Church of St Mary the Great; this is defined as Keeping term. University of Cambridge_sentence_231

Students can graduate only if they fulfill this condition for nine terms (three years) when obtaining a Bachelor of Arts or twelve terms (four years) when studying for a Master of Science, Engineering or Mathematics. University of Cambridge_sentence_232

These terms are shorter than those of many other British universities. University of Cambridge_sentence_233

Undergraduates are also expected to prepare heavily in the three holidays (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations). University of Cambridge_sentence_234

Triposes involve a mixture of lectures (organised by the university departments), and supervisions (organised by the colleges). University of Cambridge_sentence_235

Science subjects also involve laboratory sessions, organised by the departments. University of Cambridge_sentence_236

The relative importance of these methods of teaching varies according to the needs of the subject. University of Cambridge_sentence_237

Supervisions are typically weekly hour-long sessions in which small groups of students (usually between one and three) meet with a member of the teaching staff or with a doctoral student. University of Cambridge_sentence_238

Students are normally required to complete an assignment in advance of the supervision, which they will discuss with the supervisor during the session, along with any concerns or difficulties they have had with the material presented in that week's lectures. University of Cambridge_sentence_239

The assignment is often an essay on a subject set by the supervisor, or a problem sheet set by the lecturer. University of Cambridge_sentence_240

Depending on the subject and college, students might receive between one and four supervisions per week. University of Cambridge_sentence_241

This pedagogical system is often cited as being unique to Oxford (where "supervisions" are known as "tutorials") and Cambridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_242

A tutor named William Farish developed the concept of grading students' work quantitatively at the University of Cambridge in 1792. University of Cambridge_sentence_243

Research University of Cambridge_section_27

See also: :Category:Departments of the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_244

The University of Cambridge has research departments and teaching faculties in most academic disciplines. University of Cambridge_sentence_245

All research and lectures are conducted by university departments. University of Cambridge_sentence_246

The colleges are in charge of giving or arranging most supervisions, student accommodation, and funding most extracurricular activities. University of Cambridge_sentence_247

During the 1990s Cambridge added a substantial number of new specialist research laboratories on several sites around the city, and major expansion continues on a number of sites. University of Cambridge_sentence_248

Cambridge also has a research partnership with MIT in the United States: the Cambridge–MIT Institute. University of Cambridge_sentence_249

Graduation University of Cambridge_section_28

Unlike in most universities, the Cambridge Master of Arts is not awarded by merit of study, but by right, four years after being awarded the BA. University of Cambridge_sentence_250

At the University of Cambridge, each graduation is a separate act of the university's governing body, the Regent House, and must be voted on as with any other act. University of Cambridge_sentence_251

A formal meeting of the Regent House, known as a Congregation, is held for this purpose. University of Cambridge_sentence_252

This is the common last act at which all the different university procedures (for: undergraduate and graduate students; and the different degrees) land. University of Cambridge_sentence_253

After degrees are approved, to have them conferred candidates must ask their Colleges to be presented during a Congregation. University of Cambridge_sentence_254

Graduates receiving an undergraduate degree wear the academic dress that they were entitled to before graduating: for example, most students becoming Bachelors of Arts wear undergraduate gowns and not BA gowns. University of Cambridge_sentence_255

Graduates receiving a postgraduate degree (e.g. PhD or Master's) wear the academic dress that they were entitled to before graduating, only if their first degree was also from the University of Cambridge; if their first degree is from another university, they wear the academic dress of the degree that they are about to receive, the BA gown without the strings if they are under 24 years of age, or the MA gown without strings if they are 24 and over. University of Cambridge_sentence_256

Graduates are presented in the Senate House college by college, in order of foundation or recognition by the university, except for the royal colleges. University of Cambridge_sentence_257

During the congregation, graduands are brought forth by the Praelector of their college, who takes them by the right hand, and presents them to the vice-chancellor for the degree they are about to take. University of Cambridge_sentence_258

The Praelector presents graduands with the following Latin statement (the following forms were used when the vice-chancellor was female), substituting "____" with the name of the degree: University of Cambridge_sentence_259

The now-graduate then rises, bows and leaves the Senate House through the Doctor's door, where he or she receives his or her certificate, into Senate House Passage. University of Cambridge_sentence_260

Libraries and museums University of Cambridge_section_29

Main article: Libraries of the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_261

See also: :Category:Museums of the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_262

The university has 116 libraries. University of Cambridge_sentence_263

The Cambridge University Library is the central research library, which holds over 8 million volumes. University of Cambridge_sentence_264

It is a legal deposit library, therefore it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK and Ireland. University of Cambridge_sentence_265

In addition to the University Library and its dependents, almost every faculty or department has a specialised library; for example, the History Faculty's Seeley Historical Library possesses more than 100,000 books. University of Cambridge_sentence_266

Furthermore, every college has a library as well, partially for the purposes of undergraduate teaching, and the older colleges often possess many early books and manuscripts in a separate library. University of Cambridge_sentence_267

For example, Trinity College's Wren Library has more than 200,000 books printed before 1800, while Corpus Christi College's Parker Library possesses one of the greatest collections of medieval manuscripts in the world, with over 600 manuscripts. University of Cambridge_sentence_268

Cambridge University operates eight arts, cultural, and scientific museums, and a botanic garden. University of Cambridge_sentence_269

The Fitzwilliam Museum, is the art and antiquities museum, the Kettle's Yard is a contemporary art gallery, the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology houses the university's collections of local antiquities, together with archaeological and ethnographic artefacts from around the world, the Cambridge University Museum of Zoology houses a wide range of zoological specimens from around the world and is known for its iconic finback whale skeleton that hangs outside. University of Cambridge_sentence_270

This Museum also has specimens collected by Charles Darwin. University of Cambridge_sentence_271

Other museums include, the Museum of Classical Archaeology, the Whipple Museum of the History of Science, the Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences which is the geology museum of the university, the Polar Museum, part of the Scott Polar Research Institute which is dedicated to Captain Scott and his men, and focuses on the exploration of the Polar Regions. University of Cambridge_sentence_272

The Cambridge University Botanic Garden is the botanic garden of the university, created in 1831. University of Cambridge_sentence_273

Publishing and assessments University of Cambridge_section_30

The university's publishing arm, the Cambridge University Press, is the oldest printer and publisher in the world, and it is the second largest university press in the world. University of Cambridge_sentence_274

The university set up its Local Examination Syndicate in 1858. University of Cambridge_sentence_275

Today, the syndicate, which is known as Cambridge Assessment, is Europe's largest assessment agency and it plays a leading role in researching, developing and delivering assessments across the globe. University of Cambridge_sentence_276

Reputation and rankings University of Cambridge_section_31

University of Cambridge_table_infobox_2

RankingsUniversity of Cambridge_table_caption_2
National rankingsUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_2_0_0
Complete (2021)University of Cambridge_header_cell_2_1_0 1University of Cambridge_cell_2_1_1
Guardian (2021)University of Cambridge_header_cell_2_2_0 3University of Cambridge_cell_2_2_1
Times / Sunday Times (2021)University of Cambridge_header_cell_2_3_0 1University of Cambridge_cell_2_3_1
Global rankingsUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_2_4_0
ARWU (2020)University of Cambridge_header_cell_2_5_0 3University of Cambridge_cell_2_5_1
QS (2021)University of Cambridge_header_cell_2_6_0 7University of Cambridge_cell_2_6_1
THE (2021)University of Cambridge_header_cell_2_7_0 6University of Cambridge_cell_2_7_1
British Government assessmentUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_2_8_0
Teaching Excellence FrameworkUniversity of Cambridge_header_cell_2_9_0 GoldUniversity of Cambridge_cell_2_9_1

In 2011, Times Higher Education (THE) recognised Cambridge as one of the world's "six super brands" on its World Reputation Rankings, along with Berkeley, Harvard, MIT, Oxford and Stanford. University of Cambridge_sentence_277

As of September 2017, Cambridge is recognised by THE as the world's second best university. University of Cambridge_sentence_278

According to the 2016 Complete University Guide, the University of Cambridge is ranked first amongst the UK's universities; this ranking is based on a broad raft of criteria from entry standards and student satisfaction to quality of teaching in specific subjects and job prospects for graduates. University of Cambridge_sentence_279

The University is ranked as the 2nd best university in the UK for the quality of graduates according to recruiters from the UK's major companies. University of Cambridge_sentence_280

In 2014–15, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), Cambridge is ranked second in UK (coming second to Oxford) and ranked fifth in the world. University of Cambridge_sentence_281

In the 2001 and 2008 Government Research Assessment Exercises, Cambridge was ranked first in the country. University of Cambridge_sentence_282

In 2005, it was reported that Cambridge produces more PhDs per year than any other British university (over 30% more than second placed Oxford). University of Cambridge_sentence_283

In 2006, a Thomson Scientific study showed that Cambridge has the highest research paper output of any British university, and is also the top research producer (as assessed by total paper citation count) in 10 out of 21 major British research fields analysed. University of Cambridge_sentence_284

Another study published the same year by Evidence showed that Cambridge won a larger proportion (6.6%) of total British research grants and contracts than any other university (coming first in three out of four broad discipline fields). University of Cambridge_sentence_285

The university is also closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster in and around Cambridge, which forms the area known as Silicon Fen or sometimes the "Cambridge Phenomenon". University of Cambridge_sentence_286

In 2004, it was reported that Silicon Fen was the second largest venture capital market in the world, after Silicon Valley. University of Cambridge_sentence_287

Estimates reported in February 2006 suggest that there were about 250 active startup companies directly linked with the university, worth around US$6 billion. University of Cambridge_sentence_288

Cambridge has been highly ranked by most international and UK league tables. University of Cambridge_sentence_289

In particular, it had topped the QS World University Rankings from 2010/11 to 2011/12. University of Cambridge_sentence_290

A 2006 Newsweek overall ranking, which combined elements of the THES-QS and ARWU rankings with other factors that purportedly evaluated an institution's global "openness and diversity", suggested Cambridge was sixth around the globe. University of Cambridge_sentence_291

In The Guardian newspaper's 2012 rankings, Cambridge had overtaken Oxford in philosophy, law, politics, theology, maths, classics, anthropology and modern languages. University of Cambridge_sentence_292

In the 2009 Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings, it was ranked top (or joint top) in 34 out of the 42 subjects which it offers. University of Cambridge_sentence_293

But Cambridge has been ranked only 30th in the world and 3rd in the UK by the Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities based on the number of alumni holding CEO position in Fortune Global 500 companies. University of Cambridge_sentence_294

Sexual harassment University of Cambridge_section_32

In recent years, Cambridge has come under increased criticism and legal challenges for its mishandling of sexual harassment claims. University of Cambridge_sentence_295

In 2019, for example, former student Danielle Bradford sued Cambridge through noted sexual harassment lawyer Ann Olivarius for how the university handled her complaint of sexual misconduct. University of Cambridge_sentence_296

"I was told that I should think about it very carefully because making a complaint could affect my place in my department." University of Cambridge_sentence_297

In 2020, hundreds of current and former students accused the university in a letter of “a complete failure” to deal with complaints of sexual misconduct. University of Cambridge_sentence_298

Student life University of Cambridge_section_33

Student Unions University of Cambridge_section_34

Main articles: Cambridge University Students' Union and University of Cambridge Graduate Union University of Cambridge_sentence_299

There are two Student Unions in Cambridge: CUSU (the Cambridge University Students‘ Union) and the GU (the Graduate Union). University of Cambridge_sentence_300

CUSU represents all University students, and the GU solely represents graduate students. University of Cambridge_sentence_301

All students are automatically members of either CUSU or both CUSU and GU, depending on their course of study. University of Cambridge_sentence_302

CUSU was founded in 1964 as the Students' Representative Council (SRC); the six most important positions in the Union are occupied by sabbatical officers. University of Cambridge_sentence_303

However, turnout in recent elections has been low, with the 2014/15 president elected with votes in favour from only 7.5% of the whole student body. University of Cambridge_sentence_304

Sport University of Cambridge_section_35

See also: :Category:Sport at the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_305

Rowing is a particularly popular sport at Cambridge, and there are competitions between colleges, notably the bumps races, and against Oxford, the Boat Race. University of Cambridge_sentence_306

There are also Varsity matches against Oxford in many other sports, ranging from cricket and rugby, to chess and tiddlywinks. University of Cambridge_sentence_307

Athletes representing the university in certain sports are entitled to apply for a Cambridge Blue at the discretion of the Blues Committee, consisting of the captains of the thirteen most prestigious sports. University of Cambridge_sentence_308

There is also the self-described "unashamedly elite" Hawks' Club, which is for men only, whose membership is usually restricted to Cambridge Full Blues and Half Blues. University of Cambridge_sentence_309

The Ospreys are the equivalent female club. University of Cambridge_sentence_310

The University of Cambridge Sports Centre opened in August 2013. University of Cambridge_sentence_311

Phase 1 included a 37x34m Sports Hall, a Fitness Suite, a Strength and Conditioning Room, a Multi-Purpose Room and Eton and Rugby Fives courts. University of Cambridge_sentence_312

Phase 1b included 5 glass backed squash courts and a Team Training Room. University of Cambridge_sentence_313

Future phases include indoor and outdoor tennis courts and a swimming pool. University of Cambridge_sentence_314

The university also has an Athletics Track at Wilberforce Road, an Indoor Cricket School and Fenner's Cricket Ground. University of Cambridge_sentence_315

Societies University of Cambridge_section_36

See also: List of social activities at the University of Cambridge and :Category:Clubs and societies of the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_316

Numerous student-run societies exist in order to encourage people who share a common passion or interest to periodically meet or discuss. University of Cambridge_sentence_317

As of 2010, there were 751 registered societies. University of Cambridge_sentence_318

In addition to these, individual colleges often promote their own societies and sports teams. University of Cambridge_sentence_319

Although technically independent from the university, the Cambridge Union serves as a focus for debating and public speaking, as the oldest free speech society in the world, and the largest in Cambridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_320

Drama societies notably include the Amateur Dramatic Club (ADC) and the comedy club Footlights, which are known for producing well-known show-business personalities. University of Cambridge_sentence_321

The Cambridge University Chamber Orchestra explores a range of programmes, from popular symphonies to lesser known works; membership of the orchestra is composed of students of the university. University of Cambridge_sentence_322

Newspapers and radio University of Cambridge_section_37

See also: :Category:Publications associated with the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_323

Cambridge's oldest student newspaper is Varsity. University of Cambridge_sentence_324

Established in 1947, notable figures to have edited the paper include Jeremy Paxman, BBC media editor Amol Rajan, and Vogue international editor Suzy Menkes. University of Cambridge_sentence_325

It has also featured the early writings of Zadie Smith (who appeared in Varsity's literary anthology offshoot, The Mays), Robert Webb, Tristram Hunt, and Tony Wilson. University of Cambridge_sentence_326

With a print run of 9,000, Varsity is the only student paper to go to print on a weekly basis. University of Cambridge_sentence_327

News stories from the paper have recently appeared in The Guardian, The Times, The Sunday Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, and The i. University of Cambridge_sentence_328

Other student publications include The Cambridge Student, which is funded by Cambridge University Students' Union and goes to print on a fortnightly basis, and The Tab. University of Cambridge_sentence_329

Founded by two Cambridge students in 2009, The Tab is online-only (apart from one print edition in Freshers' Week), and mostly features light-hearted features content. University of Cambridge_sentence_330

The Mays is a literary anthology made up of student prose, poetry, and visual art from both Cambridge and Oxford. University of Cambridge_sentence_331

Founded in 1992 by three Cambridge students, the anthology goes to print on an annual basis. University of Cambridge_sentence_332

It is overseen by Varsity Publications Ltd, the same body that is responsible for Varsity, the newspaper. University of Cambridge_sentence_333

There are many other journals, magazines, and zines. University of Cambridge_sentence_334

Another literary journal, Notes, is published roughly two times per term. University of Cambridge_sentence_335

Many colleges also have their own publications run by students. University of Cambridge_sentence_336

The student radio station, Cam FM, is run together with students from Anglia Ruskin university. University of Cambridge_sentence_337

One of few student radio stations to have an FM licence (frequency 97.2 MHz), the station hosts a mixture of music, talk, and sports shows. University of Cambridge_sentence_338

JCR and MCR University of Cambridge_section_38

In addition to university-wide representation, students can benefit from their own college student unions, which are known as JCR (Junior Combination Room) for undergraduates and MCR (Middle Combination Room) for postgraduates. University of Cambridge_sentence_339

These serve as a link between college staff and members and consists of officers elected annually between the fellow students; individual JCR and MCRs also report to CUSU, which offers training courses for some of the positions within the body. University of Cambridge_sentence_340

Formal Halls and May Balls University of Cambridge_section_39

One privilege of student life at Cambridge is the opportunity to attend formal dinners at college. University of Cambridge_sentence_341

These are called Formal Hall and occur regularly during term time. University of Cambridge_sentence_342

Students sit down for a meal in their gowns, while Fellows eat separately at High Table: the beginning and end of the function is usually marked with a grace said in Latin. University of Cambridge_sentence_343

Special Formal Halls are organised for events such as Christmas and the Commemoration of Benefactors. University of Cambridge_sentence_344

After the exam period, May Week is held and it is customary to celebrate by attending May Balls. University of Cambridge_sentence_345

These are all-night long lavish parties held in the colleges where food and drinks are served and entertainment is provided. University of Cambridge_sentence_346

Time magazine argues that some of the larger May Balls are among the best private parties in the world. University of Cambridge_sentence_347

Suicide Sunday, the first day of May Week, is a popular date for organising garden parties. University of Cambridge_sentence_348

Notable alumni and academics University of Cambridge_section_40

See also: List of University of Cambridge people, List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Cambridge, Alumni Cantabrigienses, :Category:Alumni of the University of Cambridge, and :Category:Academics of the University of Cambridge University of Cambridge_sentence_349

Over the course of its history, a number of Cambridge University academics and alumni have become notable in their fields, both academic and in the wider world. University of Cambridge_sentence_350

As of October 2020, 121 affiliates of the University of Cambridge have won 122 Nobel prizes (Frederick Sanger won twice), with 70 former students of the university having won the prize. University of Cambridge_sentence_351

In addition, as of 2019, Cambridge alumni, faculty members and researchers have won 11 Fields Medals and 7 Turing Awards. University of Cambridge_sentence_352

Mathematics and sciences University of Cambridge_section_41

Among the most famous of Cambridge natural philosophers is Sir Isaac Newton, who conducted many of his experiments in the grounds of Trinity College. University of Cambridge_sentence_353

Others are Sir Francis Bacon, who was responsible for the development of the scientific method and the mathematicians John Dee and Brook Taylor. University of Cambridge_sentence_354

Pure mathematicians include G. University of Cambridge_sentence_355 H. Hardy, John Edensor Littlewood, Mary Cartwright and Augustus De Morgan; Sir Michael Atiyah, a specialist in geometry; William Oughtred, inventor of the logarithmic scale; John Wallis, first to state the law of acceleration; Srinivasa Ramanujan, the self-taught genius who made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series and continued fractions; and James Clerk Maxwell, who brought about the "second great unification of physics" (the first being accredited to Newton) with his classical theory of electromagnetic radiation. University of Cambridge_sentence_356

In 1890, mathematician Philippa Fawcett was the person with the highest score in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos exams, but as a woman was unable to take the title of 'Senior Wrangler'. University of Cambridge_sentence_357

In biology, Charles Darwin, famous for developing the theory of natural selection, was an alumnus of Christ's College, although his education was intended to allow him to become a clergyman. University of Cambridge_sentence_358

Biologists Francis Crick and James Watson worked out a model for the three-dimensional structure of DNA while working at the Cavendish Laboratory; Cambridge graduates Maurice Wilkins and especially Rosalind Franklin produced key X-ray crystallography data, which was shared with Watson by Wilkins. University of Cambridge_sentence_359

Wilkins went on to help verify the proposed structure and win the Nobel Prize with Watson and Crick. University of Cambridge_sentence_360

More recently, Sir Ian Wilmut was part of the team responsible for the first cloning of a mammal (Dolly the Sheep in 1996), naturalist and broadcaster David Attenborough, ethologist Jane Goodall, expert on chimpanzees was a PhD student, anthropologist Dame Alison Richard, former vice-chancellor of the university, and Frederick Sanger, a biochemist known for developing Sanger sequencing and receiving two Nobel prizes. University of Cambridge_sentence_361

Despite the university's delay in admitting women to full degrees, Cambridge women were at the heart of scientific research throughout the 20th century. University of Cambridge_sentence_362

Notable female scientists include; biochemist Marjory Stephenson, plant physiologist Gabrielle Howard, social anthropologist Audrey Richards, psycho-analyst Alix Strachey, who with her husband translated the works of Sigmund Freud, Kavli Prize-winner Brenda Milner, co-discovery of specialised brain networks for memory and cognition. University of Cambridge_sentence_363

Veterinary epidemiologist Sarah Cleaveland has worked to eliminate rabies in the Serengeti. University of Cambridge_sentence_364

The university can be considered the birthplace of the computer, mathematician and "father of the computer" Charles Babbage designed the world's first computing system as early as the mid-1800s. University of Cambridge_sentence_365

Alan Turing went on to devise what is essentially the basis for modern computing and Maurice Wilkes later created the first programmable computer. University of Cambridge_sentence_366

The webcam was also invented at Cambridge University, showing the Trojan Room coffee pot in the Computer Laboratories. University of Cambridge_sentence_367

In physics, Ernest Rutherford who is regarded as the father of nuclear physics, spent much of his life at the university where he worked closely with E. University of Cambridge_sentence_368 J. Williams and Niels Bohr, a major contributor to the understanding of the atom, J. University of Cambridge_sentence_369 J. Thomson, discoverer of the electron, Sir James Chadwick, discoverer of the neutron, and Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, responsible for first splitting the atom. University of Cambridge_sentence_370

J. University of Cambridge_sentence_371 Robert Oppenheimer, leader of the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb, also studied under Rutherford and Thomson. University of Cambridge_sentence_372

Joan Curran devised the 'chaff' technique during the Second World War to disrupt radar on enemy planes. University of Cambridge_sentence_373

Astronomers Sir John Herschel, Sir Arthur Eddington, Paul Dirac, the discoverer of antimatter and one of the pioneers of quantum mechanics; Stephen Hawking, theoretical physicist and the university's long-serving Lucasian Professor of Mathematics until 2009; and Lord Martin Rees, the current Astronomer Royal and former Master of Trinity College. University of Cambridge_sentence_374

John Polkinghorne, a mathematician before his entrance into the Anglican ministry, received the Templeton Prize for his work reconciling science and religion. University of Cambridge_sentence_375

Other significant scientists include Henry Cavendish, the discoverer of hydrogen; Frank Whittle, co-inventor of the jet engine; William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), who formulated the original Laws of Thermodynamics; William Fox Talbot, who invented the camera, Alfred North Whitehead, Einstein's major opponent; Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, one of the fathers of radio science; Lord Rayleigh, who made extensive contributions to both theoretical and experimental physics in the 20th century; and Georges Lemaître, who first proposed a Big Bang theory. University of Cambridge_sentence_376

Humanities, music and art University of Cambridge_section_42

In the humanities, Greek studies were inaugurated at Cambridge in the early sixteenth century by Desiderius Erasmus; contributions to the field were made by Richard Bentley and Richard Porson. University of Cambridge_sentence_377

John Chadwick was associated with Michael Ventris in the decipherment of Linear B. University of Cambridge_sentence_378

The Latinist A. University of Cambridge_sentence_379 E. Housman taught at Cambridge but is more widely known as a poet. University of Cambridge_sentence_380

Simon Ockley made a significant contribution to Arabic Studies. University of Cambridge_sentence_381

Distinguished Cambridge academics include economists such as John Maynard Keynes, Thomas Malthus, Alfred Marshall, Milton Friedman, Joan Robinson, Piero Sraffa, Ha-Joon Chang and Amartya Sen, a former Master of Trinity College. University of Cambridge_sentence_382

Philosophers Sir Francis Bacon, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Leo Strauss, George Santayana, G. University of Cambridge_sentence_383 E. M. Anscombe, Sir Karl Popper, Sir Bernard Williams, Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal and G. University of Cambridge_sentence_384 E. Moore were all Cambridge scholars, as were historians such as Thomas Babington Macaulay, Frederic William Maitland, Lord Acton, Joseph Needham, E. University of Cambridge_sentence_385 H. Carr, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Rhoda Dorsey, E. University of Cambridge_sentence_386 P. Thompson, Eric Hobsbawm, Quentin Skinner, Niall Ferguson and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., and famous lawyers such as Glanville Williams, Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, and Sir Edward Coke. University of Cambridge_sentence_387

Religious figures have included Rowan Williams, former archbishop of Canterbury and his predecessors; William Tyndale, the biblical translator; Thomas Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, and Nicholas Ridley, known as the "Oxford martyrs" from the place of their execution; Benjamin Whichcote and the Cambridge Platonists; William Paley, the Christian philosopher known primarily for formulating the teleological argument for the existence of God; William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson, largely responsible for the abolition of the slave trade; Evangelical churchman Charles Simeon; John William Colenso, the bishop of Natal who developed views on the interpretation of Scripture and relations with native peoples that seemed dangerously radical at the time; John Bainbridge Webster and David F. Ford, theologians; and six winners of the Templeton Prize, the highest accolade for the study of religion since its foundation in 1972. University of Cambridge_sentence_388

Composers Ralph Vaughan Williams, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, William Sterndale Bennett, Orlando Gibbons and, more recently, Alexander Goehr, Thomas Adès, John Rutter, Julian Anderson and Judith Weir were all at Cambridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_389

The university has also produced instrumentalists and conductors, including Colin Davis, John Eliot Gardiner, Roger Norrington, Trevor Pinnock, Andrew Manze, Richard Egarr, Mark Elder, Richard Hickox, Christopher Hogwood, Andrew Marriner, David Munrow, Simon Standage, Endellion Quartet and Fitzwilliam Quartet. University of Cambridge_sentence_390

Although known primarily for its choral music, the university has also produced members of contemporary bands such as Radiohead, Hot Chip, Procol Harum, Clean Bandit, Sports Team songwriter and entertainer Jonathan King, Henry Cow, and the singer-songwriter Nick Drake. University of Cambridge_sentence_391

Artists Quentin Blake, Roger Fry and Julian Trevelyan, sculptors Antony Gormley, Marc Quinn and Sir Anthony Caro, and photographers Antony Armstrong-Jones, Sir Cecil Beaton and Mick Rock all attended as undergraduates. University of Cambridge_sentence_392

Literature University of Cambridge_section_43

Writers to have studied at the university include the Elizabethan dramatist Christopher Marlowe, his fellow University Wits Thomas Nashe and Robert Greene, arguably the first professional authors in England, and John Fletcher, who collaborated with Shakespeare on The Two Noble Kinsmen, Henry VIII and the lost Cardenio and succeeded him as house playwright of The King's Men. University of Cambridge_sentence_393

Samuel Pepys matriculated in 1650, known for his diary, the original manuscripts of which are now housed in the Pepys Library at Magdalene College. University of Cambridge_sentence_394

Lawrence Sterne, whose novel Tristram Shandy is judged to have inspired many modern narrative devices and styles. University of Cambridge_sentence_395

In the following century, the novelists W. University of Cambridge_sentence_396 M. Thackeray, best known for Vanity Fair, Charles Kingsley, author of Westward Ho! University of Cambridge_sentence_397

and Water Babies, and Samuel Butler, remembered for The Way of All Flesh and Erewhon, were all at Cambridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_398

Ghost story writer M. University of Cambridge_sentence_399 R. James served as provost of King's College from 1905 to 1918. University of Cambridge_sentence_400

Novelist Amy Levy was the first Jewish woman to attend the university. University of Cambridge_sentence_401

Modernist writers to have attended the university include E. University of Cambridge_sentence_402 M. Forster, Rosamond Lehmann, Vladimir Nabokov, Christopher Isherwood and Malcolm Lowry. University of Cambridge_sentence_403

Although not a student, Virginia Woolf wrote her essay A Room of One's Own while in residence at Newnham College. University of Cambridge_sentence_404

Playwright J. University of Cambridge_sentence_405 B. Priestley, physicist and novelist C. University of Cambridge_sentence_406 P. Snow and children's writer A. University of Cambridge_sentence_407 A. Milne were also among those who passed through the university in the early 20th century. University of Cambridge_sentence_408

They were followed by the postmodernists Patrick White, J. University of Cambridge_sentence_409 G. Ballard, and the early postcolonial writer E. University of Cambridge_sentence_410 R. Braithwaite. University of Cambridge_sentence_411

More recently, alumni include comedy writers Douglas Adams, Tom Sharpe and Howard Jacobson, the popular novelists A. University of Cambridge_sentence_412 S. Byatt, Sir Salman Rushdie, Nick Hornby, Zadie Smith, Robert Harris and Sebastian Faulks, the action writers Michael Crichton, David Gibbins and Jin Yong, and contemporary playwrights and screenwriters such as Julian Fellowes, Stephen Poliakoff, Michael Frayn and Sir Peter Shaffer. University of Cambridge_sentence_413

Cambridge poets include Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queene, the Metaphysical poets John Donne, George Herbert and Andrew Marvell, John Milton, renowned for his late epic Paradise Lost, the Restoration poet and playwright John Dryden, the pre-romantic Thomas Gray, best known his Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, whose joint work Lyrical Ballads is often seen to mark the beginning of the Romantic movement, later Romantics such as Lord Byron and the postromantic Alfred, Lord Tennyson, authors of the best known carpe diem poems including Robert Herrick best known "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time" with the first line "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may" and Andrew Marvell who authored "To His Coy Mistress", classical scholar and lyric poet A. University of Cambridge_sentence_414 E. Housman, war poets Siegfried Sassoon and Rupert Brooke, modernist T. University of Cambridge_sentence_415 E. Hulme, confessional poets Ted Hughes, Sylvia Plath and John Berryman, and, more recently, Cecil Day-Lewis, Joseph Brodsky, Kathleen Raine and Geoffrey Hill. University of Cambridge_sentence_416

At least nine of the Poets Laureate graduated from Cambridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_417

The university has also made a notable contribution to literary criticism, having produced, among others, F. University of Cambridge_sentence_418 R. Leavis, I. University of Cambridge_sentence_419 A. Richards, C. University of Cambridge_sentence_420 K. Ogden and William Empson, often collectively known as the Cambridge Critics, the Marxists Raymond Williams, sometimes regarded as the founding father of cultural studies, and Terry Eagleton, author of Literary Theory: An Introduction, the most successful academic book ever published, the Aesthetician Harold Bloom, the New Historicist Stephen Greenblatt, and biographical writers such as Lytton Strachey, a central figure in the Bloomsbury Group, Peter Ackroyd and Claire Tomalin. University of Cambridge_sentence_421

Actors and directors such as Sir Ian McKellen, Eleanor Bron, Miriam Margolyes, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Michael Redgrave, James Mason, Emma Thompson, Stephen Fry, Hugh Laurie, John Cleese, John Oliver, Freddie Highmore, Eric Idle, Graham Chapman, Graeme Garden, Tim Brooke-Taylor, Bill Oddie, Simon Russell Beale, Tilda Swinton, Thandie Newton, Georgie Henley, Rachel Weisz, Sacha Baron Cohen, Tom Hiddleston, Sara Mohr-Pietsch, Eddie Redmayne, Dan Stevens, Jamie Bamber, Lily Cole, David Mitchell, Robert Webb, Mel Giedroyc and Sue Perkins all studied at the university, as did directors such as Mike Newell, Sam Mendes, Stephen Frears, Paul Greengrass, Chris Weitz and John Madden. University of Cambridge_sentence_422

Sports University of Cambridge_section_44

Athletes who are university graduates or attendees have won a total of 194 Olympic medals, including 88 gold. University of Cambridge_sentence_423

The legendary Chinese six-time world table tennis champion Deng Yaping; the sprinter and athletics hero Harold Abrahams; the inventors of the modern game of football, H. University of Cambridge_sentence_424 de Winton and J. University of Cambridge_sentence_425 C. Thring; and George Mallory, the famed mountaineer all attended Cambridge. University of Cambridge_sentence_426

Education University of Cambridge_section_45

Notable educationalists to have attended the university include the founders and early professors of Harvard University, including John Harvard himself; Emily Davies, founder of Girton College, the first residential higher education institution for women, and John Haden Badley, founder of the first mixed-sex public school (i.e. not public) in England; Anil Kumar Gain, 20th century mathematician and founder of the Vidyasagar University in Bengal, and Menachem Ben-Sasson, Israeli President of Hebrew University of Jerusalem. University of Cambridge_sentence_427

Politics University of Cambridge_section_46

Cambridge has a strong reputation in the fields of politics, having educated: University of Cambridge_sentence_428

University of Cambridge_unordered_list_0

In literature and popular culture University of Cambridge_section_47

Main article: University of Cambridge in popular culture University of Cambridge_sentence_429

See also: List of fictional Cambridge colleges University of Cambridge_sentence_430

Throughout its history, the university has featured in literature and artistic works by various authors. University of Cambridge_sentence_431

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of Cambridge.