University of London

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This article is about the present federal university, founded in 1836. University of London_sentence_0

For the institution founded in 1826 and known until 1836 as London University, see University College London. University of London_sentence_1

The University of London (abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a federal research university located in London, England. University of London_sentence_2

As of March 2020, the university consists of 17 member institutions and three central academic bodies. University of London_sentence_3

The university has around 48,000 distance learning external students and 178,735 campus-based internal students, making it the largest university by number of students in the United Kingdom. University of London_sentence_4

The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London and King's College London and "other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom", allowing it to be one of three institutions to claim the title of the third-oldest university in England, and moved to a federal structure in 1900. University of London_sentence_5

It is now incorporated by its fourth (1863) royal charter and governed by the University of London Act 2018. University of London_sentence_6

It was the first university in the United Kingdom to introduce examinations for women in 1869 and, a decade later, the first to admit women to degrees. University of London_sentence_7

In 1913, it appointed Caroline Spurgeon as only the second woman professor at a British university, and in 1948 was the first British university to appoint a woman as its vice chancellor (chief executive). University of London_sentence_8

The university's member institutions house the oldest teaching hospitals in England. University of London_sentence_9

For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the member institutions operate on an independent basis, with many awarding their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university. University of London_sentence_10

The largest colleges by enrolment as of 2016/17 are UCL, King's College London, City, Queen Mary, Birkbeck, the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway, and Goldsmiths, each of which has over 9,000 students. University of London_sentence_11

Smaller, more specialist, colleges are the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), St George's (medicine), the Royal Veterinary College, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Academy of Music, the Courtauld Institute of Art, and the Institute of Cancer Research. University of London_sentence_12

Imperial College London was formerly a member from 1907 before it became an independent university in 2007, and Heythrop College was a member from 1970 until its closure in 2018. University of London_sentence_13

City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016. University of London_sentence_14

Under the 2018 act, member institutions ceased to be termed colleges and gained the right to seek university status without having to leave the federal university: Birkbeck, City, Goldsmiths’, King's College London, the LSE, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Queen Mary, the Royal Veterinary College, Royal Holloway, SOAS, St George's and UCL have all indicated that they intend to do so. University of London_sentence_15

As of 2015, there are around 2 million University of London alumni across the world, including 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers (including 1 Prime Minister of the United Kingdom), 85 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners, 3 Olympic gold medalists and the "Father of the Nation" of several countries. University of London_sentence_16

The university also owns University of London Press. University of London_sentence_17

History University of London_section_0

19th century University of London_section_1

See also: London University (UK Parliament constituency) and General Examination for Women University of London_sentence_18

University College London (UCL) was founded under the name “London University” (but without recognition by the state) in 1826 as a secular alternative to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which limited their degrees to members of the established Church of England. University of London_sentence_19

As a result of the controversy surrounding UCL's establishment, King's College London was founded as an Anglican college by royal charter in 1829. University of London_sentence_20

In 1830, UCL applied for a royal charter as a university which would allow it to confer degrees. University of London_sentence_21

This was rejected, but renewed in 1834. University of London_sentence_22

In response to this, opposition to "exclusive" rights grew among the London medical schools. University of London_sentence_23

The idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. University of London_sentence_24

and in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education. University of London_sentence_25

However, the blocking of a bill to open up Oxford and Cambridge degrees to dissenters led to renewed pressure on the Government to grant degree awarding powers to an institution that would not apply religious tests, particularly as the degrees of the new University of Durham were also to be closed to non-Anglicans. University of London_sentence_26

In 1835, the government announced the response to UCL's petition for a charter. University of London_sentence_27

Two charters would be issued, one to UCL incorporating it as a college rather than a university, without degree awarding powers, and a second "establishing a Metropolitan University, with power to grant academical degrees to those who should study at the London University College, or at any similar institution which his Majesty might please hereafter to name". University of London_sentence_28

Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the new University of London started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837. University of London_sentence_29

The death of William IV in June, however, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted "during our Royal will and pleasure", meaning it was annulled by the king's death. University of London_sentence_30

Queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837, reincorporating the university. University of London_sentence_31

The university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to students from UCL and King's College. University of London_sentence_32

The university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was essentially an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts, laws and medicine. University of London_sentence_33

However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, considered the senior faculty in the other three English universities. University of London_sentence_34

In medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. University of London_sentence_35

In arts and law, by contrast, it would examine students from UCL, King's College, or any other institution granted a royal warrant, effectively giving the government control of which institutions could submit students for examination by the university. University of London_sentence_36

Beyond this right to submit students for examination, there was no other connection between the colleges and the university. University of London_sentence_37

In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, who had previously received their degrees without any ceremony. University of London_sentence_38

About 250 students graduated at this ceremony. University of London_sentence_39

The London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their "rich velvet facings". University of London_sentence_40

The list of institutions whose students could enter University of London examinations grew rapidly by 1858, including all other British universities as well as over 30 other schools and colleges outside of London. University of London_sentence_41

In that year, a new charter opened up the examinations to everyone, effectively abolishing the weak link between the university and the colleges. University of London_sentence_42

This led the Earl of Kimberley, a member of the university's senate, to tell the House of Lords in 1888 "that there were no Colleges affiliated to the University of London, though there were some many years ago". University of London_sentence_43

The reforms of 1858 also incorporated the graduates of the university into a convocation, similar to those of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham, and authorised the granting of degrees in science, the first BSc being awarded in 1860. University of London_sentence_44

The expanded role meant the university needed more space, particularly with the growing number of students at the provincial university colleges. University of London_sentence_45

Between 1867 and 1870 a new headquarters was built at 6 Burlington Gardens, providing the university with exam halls and offices. University of London_sentence_46

In 1863, via a fourth charter, the university gained the right to grant degrees in surgery. University of London_sentence_47

This 1863 charter remains the authority under which the university is incorporated, although all its other provisions were abolished under the 1898 University of London Act. University of London_sentence_48

In 1878, the university set another first when it became the first university in the UK to admit women to degrees, via the grant of a supplemental charter. University of London_sentence_49

Four female students obtained Bachelor of Arts degrees in 1880 and two obtained Bachelor of Science degrees in 1881, again the first in the country. University of London_sentence_50

In the late 19th century, the university came under criticism for merely serving as a centre for the administration of tests, and there were calls for a "teaching university" for London. University of London_sentence_51

UCL and KCL considered separating from the university to form a separate university, variously known as the Albert University, Gresham University and Westminster University. University of London_sentence_52

Following two royal commissions the University of London Act 1898 was passed, reforming the university and giving it a federal structure with responsibility for monitoring course content and academic standards within its institutions. University of London_sentence_53

This was implemented in 1900 with the approval of new statutes for the university. University of London_sentence_54

University of London_unordered_list_0

  • University of London_item_0_0
  • University of London_item_0_1
  • University of London_item_0_2

20th century University of London_section_2

See also: First Universal Races Congress University of London_sentence_55

The reforms initiated by the 1898 act came into force with the approval of the new federal statutes in 1900. University of London_sentence_56

Many of the colleges in London became schools of the university, including UCL, King's College, Bedford College, Royal Holloway and the London School of Economics. University of London_sentence_57

Regent's Park College, which had affiliated in 1841, became an official divinity school of the university in 1901 (the new statutes having given London the right to award degrees in theology) and Richmond (Theological) College followed as a divinity school of the university in 1902; Goldsmiths College joined in 1904; Imperial College was founded in 1907; Queen Mary College joined in 1915; the School of Oriental and African Studies was founded in 1916; and Birkbeck College, which was founded in 1823, joined in 1920. University of London_sentence_58

The previous provision for colleges outside London was not abandoned on federation, instead London offered two routes to degrees: "internal" degrees offered by schools of the university and "external" degrees offered at other colleges (now the University of London flexible and distance learning programmes). University of London_sentence_59

UCL and King's College, whose campaign for a teaching university in London had resulted in the university's reconstitution as a federal institution, went even further than becoming schools of the university and were actually merged into it. University of London_sentence_60

UCL's merger, under the 1905 University College London (Transfer) Act, happened in 1907. University of London_sentence_61

The charter of 1836 was surrendered and all of UCL's property became the University of London's. University of London_sentence_62

King's College followed in 1910 under the 1908 King's College London (Transfer) Act. University of London_sentence_63

This was a slightly more complicated case, as the theological department of the college (founded in 1846) did not merge into the university but maintained a separate legal existence under King's College's 1829 charter. University of London_sentence_64

The expansion of the university's role meant that the Burlington Garden premises were insufficient, and in March 1900 it moved to the Imperial Institute in South Kensington. University of London_sentence_65

However, its continued rapid expansion meant that it had outgrown its new premises by the 1920s, requiring yet another move. University of London_sentence_66

A large parcel of land in Bloomsbury near the British Museum was acquired from the Duke of Bedford and Charles Holden was appointed architect with the instruction to create a building "not to suggest a passing fashion inappropriate to buildings which will house an institution of so permanent a character as a University." University of London_sentence_67

This unusual remit may have been inspired by the fact that William Beveridge, having just become director of LSE, upon asking a taxi driver to take him to the University of London was met with the response "Oh, you mean the place near the Royal School of Needlework". University of London_sentence_68

Holden responded by designing Senate House, the current headquarters of the university, and at the time of completion the second largest building in London. University of London_sentence_69

The University of London contingent of the Officers' Training Corps (OTC) was formed in 1908 and had enrolled 950 students by autumn 1914. University of London_sentence_70

During the First World War, the OTC supplied 500 officers to the British Army between August 1914 and March 1915. University of London_sentence_71

Some 665 officers associated with the university died during the First World War and 245 officers in the Second World War. University of London_sentence_72

As of 2004 the London University Officers' Training Corps (UOTC), drawn from 52 universities and colleges in the London area (not just the University of London), was the largest UOTC in the country, with about 400 officer cadets. University of London_sentence_73

It has been based at Yeomanry House in Handel Street, London since 1992. University of London_sentence_74

In 2011, Canterbury Company was founded to recruit officer cadets from universities in Kent. University of London_sentence_75

During the Second World War, the colleges of the university (with the exception of Birkbeck) and their students left London for safer parts of the UK, while Senate House was used by the Ministry of Information, with its roof becoming an observation point for the Royal Observer Corps. University of London_sentence_76

Though the building was hit by bombs several times, it emerged from the war largely unscathed; rumour at the time had it that the reason the building had fared so well was that Adolf Hitler had planned to use it as his headquarters in London. University of London_sentence_77

The latter half of the last century was less eventful. University of London_sentence_78

In 1948, Athlone Press was founded as the publishing house for the university, and sold to the Bemrose Corporation in 1979, subsequent to which it was acquired by Continuum publishing. University of London_sentence_79

However, the post-WWII period was mostly characterised by expansion and consolidation within the university, such as the acquisition as a constituent body of the Jesuit theological institution Heythrop College on its move from Oxfordshire in 1969. University of London_sentence_80

The 1978 University of London Act saw the university defined as a federation of self-governing colleges, starting the process of decentralisation that would lead to a marked transference of academic and financial power in this period from the central authorities in Senate House to the individual colleges. University of London_sentence_81

In the same period, UCL and King's College regained their legal independence via acts of parliament and the issuing of new royal charters. University of London_sentence_82

UCL was reincorporate in 1977, while King's College's new charter in 1980 reunited the main body of the college with the corporation formed in 1829. University of London_sentence_83

In 1992 centralised graduation ceremonies at the Royal Albert Hall were replaced by individual ceremonies at the colleges. University of London_sentence_84

One the largest shifts in power of this period came in 1993, when HEFCE (now the Office for Students, OfS) switched from funding the University of London, which then allocated money to the colleges, to funding the colleges directly and them paying a contribution to the university. University of London_sentence_85

There was also a tendency in the late 20th century for smaller colleges to be amalgamated into larger "super-colleges". University of London_sentence_86

Some of the larger colleges (most notably UCL, King's College, LSE and Imperial) periodically put forward the possibility of their departure from the university, although no steps were taken to actually putting this into action until the early 21st century. University of London_sentence_87

21st century University of London_section_3

In 2002, Imperial College and UCL mooted the possibility of a merger, raising the question of the future of the University of London and the smaller colleges within it. University of London_sentence_88

Subsequently, considerable opposition from academic staff of both UCL and Imperial led to a rejection of the merger. University of London_sentence_89

Despite this failure, the trend of decentralising power continued. University of London_sentence_90

A significant development in this process was the closing down of the Convocation of all the university's alumni in October 2003; this recognised that individual college alumni associations were now increasingly the centre of focus for alumni. University of London_sentence_91

However, the university continued to grow even as it moved to a looser federation, and, in 2005, admitted the Central School of Speech and Drama. University of London_sentence_92

On 9 December 2005, Imperial College became the second constituent body (after Regent's Park College) to make a formal decision to leave the university. University of London_sentence_93

Its council announced that it was beginning negotiations to withdraw from the university in time for its own centenary celebrations, and in order to be able to award its own degrees. University of London_sentence_94

On 5 October 2006, the University of London accepted Imperial's formal request to withdraw from it. University of London_sentence_95

Imperial became fully independent on 9 July 2007, as part of the celebrations of the college's centenary. University of London_sentence_96

The Times Higher Education Supplement announced in February 2007 that the London School of Economics, University College London and King's College London all planned to start awarding their own degrees, rather than degrees from the federal University of London as they had done previously, from the start of the academic year starting in Autumn 2007. University of London_sentence_97

Although this plan to award their own degrees did not amount to a decision to leave the University of London, the THES suggested that this "rais[ed] new doubts about the future of the federal University of London". University of London_sentence_98

The School of Pharmacy, University of London, merged with UCL on 1 January 2012, becoming the UCL School of Pharmacy within the Faculty of Life Sciences. University of London_sentence_99

This was followed on 2 December 2014 by the Institute of Education also merging with UCL, becoming the UCL Institute of Education. University of London_sentence_100

Since 2010, the university has been outsourcing support services such as cleaning and portering. University of London_sentence_101

This has prompted industrial action by the largely Latin American workforce under the "3Cosas" campaign (the 3Cosas – 3 causes –being sick pay, holiday pay, and pensions for outsourced workers on parity with staff employed directly by the university). University of London_sentence_102

The 3Cosas campaigners were members of the UNISON trade union. University of London_sentence_103

However, documents leaked in 2014 revealed that UNISON representatives tried to counter the 3Cosas campaign in meetings with university management. University of London_sentence_104

The 3Cosas workers subsequently transferred to the Independent Workers Union of Great Britain. University of London_sentence_105

Following good results in the Research Excellence Framework in December 2014, City University London said that they were exploring the possibility of joining the University of London. University of London_sentence_106

It was subsequently announced in July 2015 that City would join the University of London in August 2016. University of London_sentence_107

It will cease to be an independent university and become a college as "City, University of London". University of London_sentence_108

In 2016 reforms were proposed that would see the colleges become member institutions and be allowed to legally become universities in their own right. University of London_sentence_109

A bill to amend the university's statutes was introduced into the House of Lords in late 2016. University of London_sentence_110

The bill was held up by procedural matters in the House of Commons, with MP Christopher Chope objecting to it receiving a second reading without debate and no time having been scheduled for such debate. University of London_sentence_111

Twelve of the colleges, including UCL and King's, have said that they will seek university status once the bill is passed. University of London_sentence_112

The bill was debated and passed its second reading on 16 October 2018. University of London_sentence_113

It received royal assent on 20 December 2018. University of London_sentence_114

In 2018, Heythrop College became the first major British higher education institution to close since the medieval University of Northampton in 1265. University of London_sentence_115

Its library of over 250,000 volumes was moved to the Senate House Library. University of London_sentence_116

In 2019, the University of London Press, founded in 1910, was relaunched as a fully open-access publisher specializing in "distinctive scholarship at the forefront of the Humanities". University of London_sentence_117

Campuses University of London_section_4

The university owns a considerable central London estate 12 hectares freehold land in Bloomsbury, near Russell Square tube station. University of London_sentence_118

Some of the university's colleges have their main buildings on the estate. University of London_sentence_119

The Bloomsbury Campus also contains eight Halls of Residence and Senate House, which houses Senate House Library, the chancellor's official residence and previously housed the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, now part of University College London (UCL) and housed in its own new building. University of London_sentence_120

Almost all of the School of Advanced Study is housed in Senate House and neighbouring Stewart House. University of London_sentence_121

The university also owns many of the squares that formed part of the Bedford Estate, including Gordon Square, Tavistock Square, Torrington Square and Woburn Square, as well as several properties outside Bloomsbury, with many of the university's colleges and institutes occupying their own estates across London: University of London_sentence_122

University of London_unordered_list_1

The university also has several properties outside London, including a number of residential and catering units further afield and the premises of the University of London Institute in Paris, which offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in French and historical studies. University of London_sentence_123

Organisation and administration University of London_section_5

See also: List of Vice-Chancellors of the University of London University of London_sentence_124

The University's Board of Trustees, the governing and executive body of the University, comprises eleven appointed independent persons – all of whom are non-executive; the Vice-Chancellor, the Deputy Vice Chancellor and four Heads of member institutions, appointed by the Collegiate Council. University of London_sentence_125

The Board of Trustees is supported by the Collegiate Council, which comprises the Heads of the member institutions of the University, the Deputy Vice-Chancellor, the Dean and Chief Executive of the School of Advanced Study, the Chief Executive of the University of London Worldwide and the Collegiate Council's Chair, the Vice-Chancellor. University of London_sentence_126

Chancellors University of London_section_6

The Chancellors of the University of London since its founding are as follows: University of London_sentence_127

University of London_unordered_list_2

Member institutions University of London_section_7

Main article: Member institutions of the University of London University of London_sentence_128

For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 17 member institutions are treated as individual universities. University of London_sentence_129

Legally speaking they are known as Recognised Bodies, with the authority to examine students and award them degrees of the university. University of London_sentence_130

Some member institutions also have the power to award their own degrees instead of those of the university; those which exercise that power include: University of London_sentence_131

University of London_unordered_list_3

Most decisions affecting the member institutions and institutes of the University of London are made at the level of the member institutions or institutes themselves. University of London_sentence_132

The University of London does retain its own decision-making structure, however, with the Collegiate Council and Board of Trustees, responsible for matters of academic policy. University of London_sentence_133

The Collegiate Council is made up of the heads of member institutions of the university. University of London_sentence_134

The 12 institutes, or Listed Bodies, within the University of London offer courses leading to degrees that are both examined and awarded by the University of London. University of London_sentence_135

Additionally, twelve universities in England, several in Canada and many in other Commonwealth countries (notably in East Africa) began life as associate colleges of the university offering such degrees. University of London_sentence_136

By the 1970s, almost all of these colleges had achieved independence from the University of London. University of London_sentence_137

An increasing number of overseas and UK-based academic institutes offer courses to support students registered for the University of London flexible and distance learning diplomas and degrees and the Teaching Institutions Recognition Framework enables the recognition of these institutions. University of London_sentence_138

Member Institutions University of London_section_8

See also: List of heads of member institutions of the University of London University of London_sentence_139

Under the University of London Act 2018, a member institution is defined as "an educational, academic or research institution which is a constituent member of the University and has for the time being― (a) the status of a college under the statutes; or (b) the status of a university". University of London_sentence_140

As of February 2019, 12 of the colleges of the university have said they are seeking university status. University of London_sentence_141

This does not affect their status as member institution of the university or the degrees they award. University of London_sentence_142

The member institutions of the University of London (as of September 2018) are: University of London_sentence_143

University of London_table_general_0

College NameUniversity of London_header_cell_0_0_0 Year EnteredUniversity of London_header_cell_0_0_1 PhotographUniversity of London_header_cell_0_0_2 StudentsUniversity of London_header_cell_0_0_3
Birkbeck, University of London (BBK)University of London_cell_0_1_0 1920University of London_cell_0_1_1 University of London_cell_0_1_2 11,390University of London_cell_0_1_3
City, University of London (CUL)University of London_cell_0_2_0 2016University of London_cell_0_2_1 University of London_cell_0_2_2 20,210University of London_cell_0_2_3
Courtauld Institute of Art (CIA)University of London_cell_0_3_0 1932University of London_cell_0_3_1 University of London_cell_0_3_2 495University of London_cell_0_3_3
Goldsmiths, University of London (GUL)University of London_cell_0_4_0 1904University of London_cell_0_4_1 University of London_cell_0_4_2 10,410University of London_cell_0_4_3
Institute of Cancer Research (ICR)University of London_cell_0_5_0 2003University of London_cell_0_5_1 University of London_cell_0_5_2 265University of London_cell_0_5_3
King's College London (KCL)University of London_cell_0_6_0 1836 (Founding College)University of London_cell_0_6_1 University of London_cell_0_6_2 32,895University of London_cell_0_6_3
London Business School (LBS)University of London_cell_0_7_0 1964University of London_cell_0_7_1 University of London_cell_0_7_2 2,075University of London_cell_0_7_3
London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)University of London_cell_0_8_0 1900University of London_cell_0_8_1 University of London_cell_0_8_2 11,850University of London_cell_0_8_3
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)University of London_cell_0_9_0 1924University of London_cell_0_9_1 University of London_cell_0_9_2 1,170University of London_cell_0_9_3
Queen Mary University of London (QMUL)University of London_cell_0_10_0 1915University of London_cell_0_10_1 University of London_cell_0_10_2 20,560University of London_cell_0_10_3
Royal Academy of Music (RAM)University of London_cell_0_11_0 2003University of London_cell_0_11_1 University of London_cell_0_11_2 880University of London_cell_0_11_3
Royal Central School of Speech and Drama (RCSSD)University of London_cell_0_12_0 2005University of London_cell_0_12_1 University of London_cell_0_12_2 1,055University of London_cell_0_12_3
Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL)University of London_cell_0_13_0 1900University of London_cell_0_13_1 University of London_cell_0_13_2 11,040University of London_cell_0_13_3
Royal Veterinary College (RVC)University of London_cell_0_14_0 1915University of London_cell_0_14_1 University of London_cell_0_14_2 2,525University of London_cell_0_14_3
SOAS, University of London (SOAS)University of London_cell_0_15_0 1916University of London_cell_0_15_1 University of London_cell_0_15_2 5,800University of London_cell_0_15_3
St George's, University of London (SGUL)University of London_cell_0_16_0 1838University of London_cell_0_16_1 University of London_cell_0_16_2 4,690University of London_cell_0_16_3
University College London (UCL)University of London_cell_0_17_0 1836 (Founding College)University of London_cell_0_17_1 University of London_cell_0_17_2 41,180University of London_cell_0_17_3
University of LondonUniversity of London_cell_0_18_0 Founded UniversityUniversity of London_cell_0_18_1 University of London_cell_0_18_2 161,270 (internal)^ + 50,000 (external)University of London_cell_0_18_3

Central academic bodies University of London_section_9

University of London_unordered_list_4

Former colleges and schools University of London_section_10

Some colleges and schools of the University of London have been amalgamated into larger colleges, closed or left the University of London. University of London_sentence_144

Those amalgamated with larger colleges include (listed by current parent institution): University of London_sentence_145

University of London_description_list_5

University of London_unordered_list_6

University of London_description_list_7

University of London_unordered_list_8

  • Westfield College – Kidderpore Avenue, Hampstead; now part of Queen Mary and Westfield College (the registered Royal Charter title of Queen Mary, University of London)University of London_item_8_45

University of London_description_list_9

University of London_unordered_list_10

University of London_description_list_11

University of London_unordered_list_12

Institutions that have closed or left the university include: University of London_sentence_146

University of London_unordered_list_13

University colleges in the external degree programme University of London_section_11

Main article: University of London (Worldwide) University of London_sentence_147

A number of major universities originated as university colleges teaching external degrees of the University of London. University of London_sentence_148

These include: University of London_sentence_149

University of London_unordered_list_14

A number of other colleges had degrees validated and awarded by the University of London. University of London_sentence_150

University of London_unordered_list_15

Colleges in special relation University of London_section_12

Main article: University of London International Programmes University of London_sentence_151

Between 1946 and 1970, the university entered into 'schemes of special relation' with university colleges in the Commonwealth of Nations. University of London_sentence_152

These schemes encouraged the development of independent universities by offering a relationship with the University of London. University of London_sentence_153

University colleges in these countries were granted a Royal Charter. University of London_sentence_154

An Academic Board of the university college negotiated with the University of London over the entrance requirements for the admission of students, syllabuses, examination procedures and other academic matters. University of London_sentence_155

During the period of the special relationship, graduates of the colleges were awarded University of London degrees. University of London_sentence_156

Some of the colleges which were in special relation are listed below, along with the year in which their special relation was established. University of London_sentence_157

University of London_unordered_list_16

In 1970, the 'Schemes of Special Relation' were phased out. University of London_sentence_158

Coat of arms University of London_section_13

The University of London received a grant of arms in April 1838. University of London_sentence_159

The arms depict a cross of St George upon which there is a Tudor rose surrounded by detailing and surmounted by a crown. University of London_sentence_160

Above all of this there is a blue field with an open book upon it. University of London_sentence_161

The arms are described in the grant as: University of London_sentence_162

University of London_description_list_17

  • Argent, the Cross of St George, thereon the Union Rose irradiated and ensigned with the Imperial Crown proper, a Chief Azure, thereon an open Book also proper, Clasps goldUniversity of London_item_17_92

Academic dress University of London_section_14

Main article: Academic dress of the University of London University of London_sentence_163

The University of London had established a rudimentary code for academic dress by 1844. University of London_sentence_164

The university was the first to devise a system of academic dress based on faculty colours, an innovation that was subsequently followed by many other universities. University of London_sentence_165

Colleges that award their own degrees have their own academic dress for those degrees. University of London_sentence_166

Student life University of London_section_15

In 2018/19, 178,735 students (approximately 5% of all UK students) attended one of the University of London's affiliated schools. University of London_sentence_167

Additionally, over 50,000 students are part of University of London Worldwide. University of London_sentence_168

The ULU building on Malet Street (close to Senate House) was home to the University of London Union, which acted as the student union for all University of London students alongside the individual college and institution unions. University of London_sentence_169

The building is now rebranded as "Student Central, London", offering full membership to current University of London students, and associate membership to students at other universities, and other groups. University of London_sentence_170

The union previously owned London Student, the largest student newspaper in Europe, which now runs as a digital news organisation University of London_sentence_171

Sports, clubs and traditions University of London_section_16

Though most sports teams are organised at the college level, ULU ran several sports clubs of its own, some of which (for example the rowing team) compete in BUCS leagues. University of London_sentence_172

The union also organised leagues for college teams to participate in. University of London_sentence_173

These leagues and sports clubs are supported by Friends of University of London Sport which aims to promote them. University of London_sentence_174

In addition to these, ULU catered for sports not covered by the individual colleges through clubs such as the University of London Union Lifesaving Club, which helps students gain awards and learn new skills in lifesaving as well as sending teams to compete throughout the country in the BULSCA league. University of London_sentence_175

ULU also organised several societies, ranging from Ballroom and Latin American Dance to Shaolin Kung Fu, and from the University of London Big Band to the Breakdancing Society. University of London_sentence_176

Affiliated to the university is the University of London Society of Change Ringers, a society for bellringers at all London universities. University of London_sentence_177

The university runs the University of London Boat Club. University of London_sentence_178

Student housing University of London_section_17

The university operates the following eight intercollegiate halls of residence, which accommodate students from most of its colleges and institutions: University of London_sentence_179

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The Garden Halls University of London_sentence_180

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Notable people University of London_section_18

Main articles: List of University of London people and :Category:Academics of the University of London University of London_sentence_181

Notable alumni, faculty and staff University of London_section_19

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A large number of famous individuals have passed through the University of London, either as staff or students, including at least 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 84 Nobel laureates, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners, 1 Ekushey Padak winner and 3 Olympic gold medalists. University of London_sentence_182

The collegiate research university has also produced Father of the Nation for several countries, including several members of Colonial Service and Imperial Civil Service during the British Raj and the British Empire. University of London_sentence_183

Staff and students of the university, past and present, have contributed to a number of important scientific advances, including the discovery of vaccines by Edward Jenner and Henry Gray (author of Gray's Anatomy). University of London_sentence_184

Additional vital progress was made by University of London people in the following fields: the discovery of the structure of DNA (Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin); the invention of modern electronic computers (Tommy Flowers); the discovery of penicillin (Alexander Fleming and Ernest Chain); the development of X-Ray technology (William Henry Bragg and Charles Glover Barkla); discoveries on the mechanism of action of Interleukin 10 (Anne O'Garra); the formulation of the theory of electromagnetism (James Clerk Maxwell); the determination of the speed of light (Louis Essen); the development of antiseptics (Joseph Lister); the development of fibre optics (Charles K. Kao); and the invention of the telephone (Alexander Graham Bell). University of London_sentence_185

Notable political figures who have passed through the university include Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, Romano Prodi, Junichiro Koizumi, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ramsay MacDonald, Desmond Tutu, Basdeo Panday, Taro Aso, Walter Rodney, Nelson Mandela, B. University of London_sentence_186 R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi. University of London_sentence_187

35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy filed an application and paid fees for a year's study at the LSE, but later fell ill and left the university without taking a single class. University of London_sentence_188

In the arts, culture and literature the university has produced many notable figures. University of London_sentence_189

Writers include novelists Malcolm Bradbury, G. University of London_sentence_190 K. Chesterton, H. University of London_sentence_191 G. Wells, Thomas Hardy, Arthur C. Clarke and J.G. University of London_sentence_192 Ballard. University of London_sentence_193

Futurologist Donald Prell. University of London_sentence_194

Artists associated with the university include Jonathan Myles-Lea, and several of the leading figures in the Young British Artists movement (including Ian Davenport, Tracey Emin and Damien Hirst). University of London_sentence_195

Outstanding musicians across a wide range include the conductor Sir Simon Rattle, the soprano Felicity Lott and both members of Gilbert and Sullivan, to Mick Jagger, Elton John, Dido, Pakistani singer Nazia Hassan (known in South Asia as the "Queen of Pop"), and Hong Kong singer Karen Mok, and members of the bands Coldplay, Keane, Suede, The Velvet Underground, Blur, Iron Maiden, Placebo, The Libertines, and Queen. University of London_sentence_196

The university has also played host to film directors (Christopher Nolan, Derek Jarman), philosophers (Karl Popper, Roger Scruton), explorers (David Livingstone), international academics (Sam Karunaratne), Riccarton High School Head of Commerce, Tom Neumann and leading businessmen (Michael Cowpland, George Soros). University of London_sentence_197

Honorary Alumni University of London_section_20

The University of London presented its first honorary degrees in June 1903. University of London_sentence_198

This accolade has been bestowed on several members of British royal family and a wide range of distinguished individuals from both the academic and non-academic worlds. University of London_sentence_199

Honorary degrees are approved by the Collegiate Council, part of the University's governance structure. University of London_sentence_200

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Controversy University of London_section_21

In recent years the University of London has seen much controversy surrounding its treatment of staff and students. University of London_sentence_201

In 2012, outsourced cleaning staff ran the "3 Cosas" campaign, fighting for improvements in three areas - sick pay, holiday and pensions. University of London_sentence_202

After over a year of high-profile strikes, protests and occupations, concessions were made by the university in terms of sick pay and holidays, however these improvements were nowhere near to the extent of what was being demanded by the campaign. University of London_sentence_203

In 2013, after a student occupation in favour of ten demands, including fair pay for workers, a halt to privatisation of the university and an end to plans to shut down the university's student union ULU, police were called, resulting in the violent eviction and arrests of over 60 students, as well as police violence towards students outside supporting the occupation. University of London_sentence_204

After these events, a high-profile "Cops Off Campus" demonstration was held against the university's use of police violence to crush student protest, with thousands in attendance. University of London_sentence_205

In 2018, a student occupation in support of a continued campaign to bring all workers in-house at the university gained national media attention after a video of university staff drilling shut a fire door to trap students in a room they had occupied, putting them at serious risk of harm, was viewed over 19,000 times. University of London_sentence_206

Video footage later emerged of university managers harassing students and harming their property on top of this. University of London_sentence_207

Later on in 2018, an article was published by Vice that reported the militarisation of the university campus at Senate House, where over 25 extra security had been brought in, with students known to be involved in political campaigns being barred from using university facilities, as well as being verbally, physically and sexually assaulted by temporary security staff. University of London_sentence_208

As of June 2018 no staff are known to have been reprimanded for these actions. University of London_sentence_209

In December 2018, the Independent Workers' Union of Great Britain called for a boycott of events at the university's central administration buildings, including Senate House, with the aim of putting pressure on the University of London to bring outsourced cleaning, catering and security staff in-house by targeting a revenue stream worth around £40 million per year. University of London_sentence_210

In May 2019, the congress of the University and College Union, voted to boycott the University of London's central administration buildings including Senate House, raising the pressure on the University of London. University of London_sentence_211

Dr Dion Georgiou, an academic supporting the boycott and a member of UCU, wrote a comment piece for The Guardian shortly before the vote, urging the congress to approve the motion and claiming that "[outsourced workers] face an intransigent university management, whose response has frequently blended short-termism with heavy-handedness". University of London_sentence_212

The motion was passed two days later. University of London_sentence_213

The federal model elsewhere University of London_section_22

In 1850, Queen's University of Ireland was created on the model of the University of London to provide degrees for students from the colleges established at Belfast, Cork and Galway. University of London_sentence_214

When the University of New Zealand was constituted in 1874, it was a federal university modelled on the University of London, functioning principally as an examining body. University of London_sentence_215

University of the Cape of Good Hope, when it was constituted in 1875 and authorised to be responsible for examinations throughout South Africa. University of London_sentence_216

In Canada, similar structures were adopted, but on a regional basis. University of London_sentence_217

The University of Toronto acted as an examining and degree awarding body for the province of Ontario from 1853 to 1887, by utilising an operating model based on that of University of London. University of London_sentence_218

In India, to satisfy the urge for higher education and learning, three universities were set up at three presidency towns in 1857 on the model of University of London as affiliating universities, viz., University of Calcutta, University of Mumbai and University of Madras. University of London_sentence_219

The University of Wales was established in 1893 on a similar model to the University of London, as the universities examined and awarded degrees, while the colleges recruited students and taught them. University of London_sentence_220

Literature and popular culture University of London_section_23

See also: :Category:University of London in fiction University of London_sentence_221

Literature University of London_section_24

Dr. University of London_sentence_222 Watson, a fictional character in the Sherlock Holmes stories by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, received his medical degree from Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry (now part of QMUL) and met Sherlock Holmes in the chemical laboratory there. University of London_sentence_223

Jim Hacker, a fictional character in the 1980s British sitcom Yes Minister and its sequel Yes, Prime Minister, received his degree, a third, from the university (LSE). University of London_sentence_224

During the Second World War, the Senate House, London use by the Ministry of Information inspired two noted English writers: Graham Greene's novel The Ministry of Fear (1943) and its film adaptation Ministry of Fear by Fritz Lang (1944) set in Bloomsbury. University of London_sentence_225

George Orwell's wife Eileen worked in Senate House for the Censorship Department of the Ministry of Information, and her experiences inspired the description of the Ministry of Truth in Orwell's 1949 novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. University of London_sentence_226

Films and others University of London_section_25

A lecturer at the university (SOAS) named William McGovern was one of the real-life inspirations of the film character Indiana Jones. University of London_sentence_227

Senate House and the constituent colleges of the University of London have been featured in Hollywood and British films. University of London_sentence_228

See also University of London_section_26

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of London.