University of Manchester

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"Manchester University" redirects here. University of Manchester_sentence_0

For the institution in Indiana, see Manchester University (Indiana). University of Manchester_sentence_1

The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. University of Manchester_sentence_2

The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century. University of Manchester_sentence_3

The main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road. University of Manchester_sentence_4

The university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory—a UNESCO World Heritage Site. University of Manchester_sentence_5

In 2018/19, the university had 40,250 students and 10,400 staff, making it the second largest university in the UK (out of 169 including the Open University), and the largest single-site university. University of Manchester_sentence_6

The university had a consolidated income of £1.1 billion in 2018–19, of which £323.6 million was from research grants and contracts (6th place nationally behind Oxford, UCL, Cambridge, Imperial and Edinburgh). University of Manchester_sentence_7

It has the fifth-largest endowment of any university in the UK, after the universities of Cambridge, Oxford, Edinburgh and King's College London. University of Manchester_sentence_8

It is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association, the Russell Group of British research universities and the N8 Group. University of Manchester_sentence_9

The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, the fourth-highest number of any single university in the United Kingdom. University of Manchester_sentence_10

Four Nobel laureates are currently among its staff – more than any other British university. University of Manchester_sentence_11

History University of Manchester_section_0

Origins University of Manchester_section_1

Main articles: UMIST and Victoria University of Manchester University of Manchester_sentence_12

The University of Manchester traces its roots to the formation of the Mechanics' Institute (later UMIST) in 1824, and its heritage is linked to Manchester's pride in being the world's first industrial city. University of Manchester_sentence_13

The English chemist John Dalton, together with Manchester businessmen and industrialists, established the Mechanics' Institute to ensure that workers could learn the basic principles of science. University of Manchester_sentence_14

John Owens, a textile merchant, left a bequest of £96,942 in 1846 (around £5.6 million in 2005 prices) to found a college to educate men on non-sectarian lines. University of Manchester_sentence_15

His trustees established Owens College in 1851 in a house on the corner of Quay Street and Byrom Street which had been the home of the philanthropist Richard Cobden, and subsequently housed Manchester County Court. University of Manchester_sentence_16

The locomotive designer, Charles Beyer became a governor of the college and was the largest single donor to the college extension fund, which raised the money to move to a new site and construct the main building now known as the John Owens building. University of Manchester_sentence_17

He also campaigned and helped fund the engineering chair, the first applied science department in the north of England. University of Manchester_sentence_18

He left the college the equivalent of £10 million in his will in 1876, at a time when it was in great financial difficulty. University of Manchester_sentence_19

Beyer funded the total cost of construction of the Beyer building to house the biology and geology departments. University of Manchester_sentence_20

His will also funded Engineering chairs and the Beyer Professor of Applied mathematics. University of Manchester_sentence_21

The university has a rich German heritage. University of Manchester_sentence_22

The Owens College Extension Movement based their plans after a tour of mainly German universities and polytechnics. University of Manchester_sentence_23

Manchester mill owner, Thomas Ashton, chairman of the extension movement had studied at Heidelberg University. University of Manchester_sentence_24

Sir Henry Roscoe also studied at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen and they collaborated for many years on research projects. University of Manchester_sentence_25

Roscoe promoted the German style of research led teaching that became the role model for the redbrick universities. University of Manchester_sentence_26

Charles Beyer studied at Dresden Academy Polytechnic. University of Manchester_sentence_27

There were many Germans on the staff, including Carl Schorlemmer, Britain's first chair in organic chemistry, and Arthur Schuster, professor of Physics. University of Manchester_sentence_28

There was even a German chapel on the campus. University of Manchester_sentence_29

In 1873 the college moved to new premises on Oxford Road, Chorlton-on-Medlock and from 1880 it was a constituent college of the federal Victoria University. University of Manchester_sentence_30

The university was established and granted a Royal Charter in 1880 becoming England's first civic university; it was renamed the Victoria University of Manchester in 1903 and absorbed Owens College the following year. University of Manchester_sentence_31

By 1905, the institutions were large and active forces. University of Manchester_sentence_32

The Municipal College of Technology, forerunner of UMIST, was the Victoria University of Manchester's Faculty of Technology while continuing in parallel as a technical college offering advanced courses of study. University of Manchester_sentence_33

Although UMIST achieved independent university status in 1955, the universities continued to work together. University of Manchester_sentence_34

However, in the late-20th century, formal connections between the university and UMIST diminished and in 1994 most of the remaining institutional ties were severed as new legislation allowed UMIST to become an autonomous university with powers to award its own degrees. University of Manchester_sentence_35

A decade later the development was reversed. University of Manchester_sentence_36

The Victoria University of Manchester and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology agreed to merge into a single institution in March 2003. University of Manchester_sentence_37

Before the merger, Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST counted 23 Nobel Prize winners amongst their former staff and students, with two further Nobel laureates being subsequently added. University of Manchester_sentence_38

Manchester has traditionally been strong in the sciences; it is where the nuclear nature of the atom was discovered by Ernest Rutherford, and the world's first electronic stored-program computer was built at the university. University of Manchester_sentence_39

Notable scientists associated with the university include physicists Ernest Rutherford, Osborne Reynolds, Niels Bohr, James Chadwick, Arthur Schuster, Hans Geiger, Ernest Marsden and Balfour Stewart. University of Manchester_sentence_40

Contributions in other fields such as mathematics were made by Paul Erdős, Horace Lamb and Alan Turing and in philosophy by Samuel Alexander, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Alasdair MacIntyre. University of Manchester_sentence_41

The author Anthony Burgess, Pritzker Prize and RIBA Stirling Prize-winning architect Norman Foster and composer Peter Maxwell Davies all attended, or worked at, Manchester. University of Manchester_sentence_42

2004 to present University of Manchester_section_2

The current University of Manchester was officially launched on 1 October 2004 when Queen Elizabeth bestowed its royal charter. University of Manchester_sentence_43

The university was named the Sunday Times University of the Year in 2006 after winning the inaugural Times Higher Education Supplement University of the Year prize in 2005. University of Manchester_sentence_44

The founding president and vice-chancellor of the new university was Alan Gilbert, former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Melbourne, who retired at the end of the 2009–2010 academic year. University of Manchester_sentence_45

His successor was Dame Nancy Rothwell, who had held a chair in physiology at the university since 1994. University of Manchester_sentence_46

One of the university's aims stated in the Manchester 2015 Agenda is to be one of the top 25 universities in the world, following on from Alan Gilbert's aim to "establish it by 2015 among the 25 strongest research universities in the world on commonly accepted criteria of research excellence and performance". University of Manchester_sentence_47

In 2011, four Nobel laureates were on its staff: Andre Geim, Konstantin Novoselov, Sir John Sulston and Joseph E. Stiglitz. University of Manchester_sentence_48

The EPSRC announced in February 2012 the formation of the National Graphene Institute. University of Manchester_sentence_49

The University of Manchester is the "single supplier invited to submit a proposal for funding the new £45m institute, £38m of which will be provided by the government" – (EPSRC & Technology Strategy Board). University of Manchester_sentence_50

In 2013, an additional £23 million of funding from European Regional Development Fund was awarded to the institute taking investment to £61 million. University of Manchester_sentence_51

In August 2012, it was announced that the university's Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences had been chosen to be the "hub" location for a new BP International Centre for Advanced Materials, as part of a $100 million initiative to create industry-changing materials. University of Manchester_sentence_52

The centre will be aimed at advancing fundamental understanding and use of materials across a variety of oil and gas industrial applications and will be modelled on a hub and spoke structure, with the hub located at Manchester, and the spokes based at the University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, and the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. University of Manchester_sentence_53

Campus University of Manchester_section_3

The university's main site contains most of its facilities and is often referred to as the campus, however Manchester is not a campus university as the concept is commonly understood. University of Manchester_sentence_54

It is centrally located in the city and its buildings are integrated into the fabric of Manchester, with non-university buildings and major roads between. University of Manchester_sentence_55

The campus occupies an area shaped roughly like a boot: the foot of which is aligned roughly south-west to north-east and is joined to the broader southern part of the boot by an area of overlap between former UMIST and former VUM buildings; it comprises two parts: University of Manchester_sentence_56

University of Manchester_unordered_list_0

  • North campus or Sackville Street Campus, centred on Sackville StreetUniversity of Manchester_item_0_0
  • South campus or Oxford Road Campus, centred on Oxford Road.University of Manchester_item_0_1

The names are not officially recognised by the university, but are commonly used, including in parts of its website and roughly correspond to the campuses of the old UMIST and Victoria University respectively. University of Manchester_sentence_57

Fallowfield Campus is the main residential campus in Fallowfield, approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) south of the main site. University of Manchester_sentence_58

There are other university buildings across the city and the wider region, such as Jodrell Bank Observatory in Cheshire and One Central Park in Moston, a collaboration between the university and other partners which offers office space for start-up firms and venues for conferences and workshops, University of Manchester_sentence_59

Major projects University of Manchester_section_4

Following the merger, the university embarked on a £600 million programme of capital investment, to deliver eight new buildings and 15 major refurbishment projects by 2010, partly financed by a sale of unused assets. University of Manchester_sentence_60

These include: University of Manchester_sentence_61

University of Manchester_unordered_list_1

  • £60 m Flagship University Place building (new)University of Manchester_item_1_2
  • £56 m Alan Turing Building houses Mathematics, replaced Mathematics Tower. Home to the Photon Sciences Institute and the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics (new)University of Manchester_item_1_3
  • £50 m Life Sciences Research Building (A. V. Hill Building) (new)University of Manchester_item_1_4
  • £38 m Manchester Institute of Biotechnology (MIB) (new)University of Manchester_item_1_5
  • £33 m Life Sciences and Medical and Human Sciences Building (Michael Smith Building) (new)University of Manchester_item_1_6
  • £31 m Humanities Building – now officially called the "Arthur Lewis Building" (new)University of Manchester_item_1_7
  • £20 m Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre (WMIC) (new)University of Manchester_item_1_8
  • £18 m Re-location of School of PharmacyUniversity of Manchester_item_1_9
  • £17 m John Rylands Library, Deansgate (extension & refurbishment of existing building)University of Manchester_item_1_10
  • £13 m Chemistry BuildingUniversity of Manchester_item_1_11
  • £10 m Functional Biology BuildingUniversity of Manchester_item_1_12

Old Quadrangle University of Manchester_section_5

The buildings around the Old Quadrangle date from the time of Owens College, and were designed in a Gothic style by Alfred Waterhouse and his son Paul Waterhouse. University of Manchester_sentence_62

The first to be built was the John Owens Building (1873), formerly the Main Building; the others were added over the next thirty years. University of Manchester_sentence_63

Today, the museum continues to occupy part of one side, including the tower. University of Manchester_sentence_64

The grand setting of the Whitworth Hall is used for the conferment of degrees, and part of the old Christie Library (1898) now houses Christie's Bistro. University of Manchester_sentence_65

The remainder of the buildings house administrative departments. University of Manchester_sentence_66

The less easily accessed Rear Quadrangle, dating mostly from 1873, is older in its completed form than the Old Quadrangle. University of Manchester_sentence_67

Contact University of Manchester_section_6

Main article: Contact Theatre University of Manchester_sentence_68

Contact stages modern live performance for all ages, and participatory workshops primarily for young people aged 13 to 30. University of Manchester_sentence_69

The building on Devas Street was completed in 1999 incorporating parts of its 1960s predecessor. University of Manchester_sentence_70

It has a unique energy-efficient ventilation system, using its high towers to naturally ventilate the building without the use of air conditioning. University of Manchester_sentence_71

The colourful and curvaceous interior houses three performance spaces, a lounge bar and Hot Air, a reactive public artwork in the foyer. University of Manchester_sentence_72

Chancellors Hotel and Conference Centre University of Manchester_section_7

Main articles: Manchester Conference Centre and Chancellors Hotel & Conference Centre University of Manchester_sentence_73

The Chancellors Hotel & Conference Centre was built around The Firs, a house built in 1850 for Sir Joseph Whitworth by Edward Walters, who also designed Manchester's Free Trade Hall. University of Manchester_sentence_74

Whitworth used the house as a social, political and business base, entertaining radicals such as John Bright, Richard Cobden, William Forster and T.H. University of Manchester_sentence_75 Huxley at the time of the Reform Bill of 1867. University of Manchester_sentence_76

Whitworth, credited with raising the art of machine-tool building to a previously unknown level, supported the Mechanics Institute – the birthplace of UMIST – and was a founder the Manchester School of Design. University of Manchester_sentence_77

Whilst living there, Whitworth used land at the rear (now the site of the University's botanical glasshouses) for testing his "Whitworth rifle". University of Manchester_sentence_78

In 1882, The Firs was leased to C.P. University of Manchester_sentence_79 Scott, editor of the Manchester Guardian and after Scott's death became the property of Owens College. University of Manchester_sentence_80

It was the Vice-Chancellor's residence until 1991. University of Manchester_sentence_81

The house now forms the western wing of the Chancellors Hotel & Conference Centre. University of Manchester_sentence_82

The eastern wing houses the circular Flowers Theatre, six conference rooms and most of the hotel's bedrooms. University of Manchester_sentence_83

Other notable buildings University of Manchester_section_8

Other notable buildings in the Oxford Road Campus include the Stephen Joseph Studio, a former German Protestant church and the Samuel Alexander Building, a grade II listed building erected in 1919 and home of the School of Arts, Languages and Cultures. University of Manchester_sentence_84

In the Sackville Street Campus is the Sackville Street Building which was formerly UMIST's "Main Building". University of Manchester_sentence_85

It was opened in 1902 by the then Prime Minister, Arthur Balfour. University of Manchester_sentence_86

Built using Burmantofts terracotta, the building is now Grade II listed. University of Manchester_sentence_87

It was extended along Whitworth Street, towards London Road, between 1927 and 1957 by the architects Bradshaw Gass & Hope, completion being delayed due to the depression in the 1930s and the Second World War. University of Manchester_sentence_88

Organisation and administration University of Manchester_section_9

Faculties and schools University of Manchester_section_10

The University of Manchester was divided into four faculties, but from 1 August 2016 it was restructured into three faculties, each sub-divided into schools. University of Manchester_sentence_89

On 25 June 2015 The University of Manchester announced the results of a review of the position of life sciences as a separate faculty. University of Manchester_sentence_90

As a result of this review the Faculty of Life Sciences was to be dismantled, most of its personnel to be incorporated into a single medical/biological faculty, with a substantial minority being incorporated into a science and engineering faculty. University of Manchester_sentence_91

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health University of Manchester_section_11

The faculty is divided into the School of Biological Sciences, the School of Medical Sciences and the School of Health Sciences. University of Manchester_sentence_92

Biological Sciences have been taught at Manchester as far back as the foundation of Owens College in 1851. University of Manchester_sentence_93

At UMIST, biological teaching and research began in 1959, with the creation of a Biochemistry department. University of Manchester_sentence_94

The present school, though unitary for teaching, is divided into a number of sections for research purposes. University of Manchester_sentence_95

The medical college was established in 1874 and is one of the largest in the country, with more than 400 medical students trained in each clinical year and more than 350 students in the pre-clinical/phase 1 years. University of Manchester_sentence_96

The university is a founding partner of the Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, established to focus high-end healthcare research in Greater Manchester. University of Manchester_sentence_97

In November 2018, Expertscape recognized it as one of the top ten institutions worldwide in COPD research and treatment. University of Manchester_sentence_98

In 1883, a department of pharmacy was established at the university and, in 1904, Manchester became the first British university to offer an honours degree in the subject. University of Manchester_sentence_99

The School of Pharmacy benefits from links with Manchester Royal Infirmary and Wythenshawe and Hope hospitals providing its undergraduate students with hospital experience. University of Manchester_sentence_100

Manchester Dental School was rated the country's best dental school by Times Higher Education in 2010 and 2011 and it is one of the best funded because of its emphasis on research and enquiry-based learning approach. University of Manchester_sentence_101

The university has obtained multimillion-pound backing to maintain its high standard of dental education. University of Manchester_sentence_102

Faculty of Science and Engineering University of Manchester_section_12

The Faculty of Science and Engineering is divided into two schools. University of Manchester_sentence_103

The School of Engineering comprises the departments of: Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Computer Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering. University of Manchester_sentence_104

The School of Natural Sciences comprises the departments of: Chemistry, Earth and Environmental Science, Physics and Astronomy, Materials and Mathematics. University of Manchester_sentence_105

The Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics comprises the University's astronomical academic staff in Manchester and Jodrell Bank Observatory on rural land near Goostrey, about ten miles (16 km) west of Macclesfield. University of Manchester_sentence_106

The observatory's Lovell Telescope is named after Sir Bernard Lovell, a professor at the Victoria University of Manchester who first proposed the telescope. University of Manchester_sentence_107

Constructed in the 1950s, it is the third largest fully movable radio telescope in the world. University of Manchester_sentence_108

It has played an important role in the research of quasars, pulsars and gravitational lenses, and in confirming Einstein's theory of General Relativity. University of Manchester_sentence_109

Faculty of Humanities University of Manchester_section_13

The Faculty of Humanities includes the School of Arts, Languages and Cultures (incorporating Archaeology; Art History & Visual Studies; Classics and Ancient History; Drama; English and American Studies; History; Linguistics; Modern Languages; Museology; Music; Religions and Theology and the University Language Centre) and the Schools of Combined Studies; Education; Environment and Development; Architecture; Law; Social Sciences and the Manchester Business School. University of Manchester_sentence_110

The Faculty of Humanities also jointly administers the Manchester School of Architecture (MSA) in conjunction with Manchester Metropolitan University and MSA students are classified as students of both universities. University of Manchester_sentence_111

Additionally, the faculty comprises a number of research institutes: the Centre for New Writing, the Institute for Social Change, the Brooks World Poverty Institute, Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute, the Manchester Institute for Innovation Research, the Research Institute for Cosmopolitan Cultures, the Centre for Chinese Studies, the Institute for Development Policy and Management, the Centre for Equity in Education and the Sustainable Consumption Institute. University of Manchester_sentence_112

Finances University of Manchester_section_14

In the financial year ending 31 July 2011, the University of Manchester had a total income of £808.58 million (2009/10 – £787.9 million) and total expenditure of £754.51 million (2009/10 – £764.55 million). University of Manchester_sentence_113

Key sources of income included £247.28 million from tuition fees and education contracts (2009/10 – £227.75 million), £203.22 million from funding body grants (2009/10 – £209.02 million), £196.24 million from research grants and contracts (2009/10 – £194.6 million) and £14.84 million from endowment and investment income (2009/10 – £11.38 million). University of Manchester_sentence_114

During the 2010/11 financial year the University of Manchester had a capital expenditure of £57.42 million (2009/10 – £37.95 million). University of Manchester_sentence_115

At year end the University of Manchester had endowments of £158.7 million (2009/10 – £144.37 million) and total net assets of £731.66 million (2009/10 – £677.12 million). University of Manchester_sentence_116

Academic profile University of Manchester_section_15

The University of Manchester is the second largest university in the UK (out of 169 including the Open University), and the largest single-site university. University of Manchester_sentence_117

It teaches more academic subjects than any other British university. University of Manchester_sentence_118

The University of Manchester attracts thousands of international students coming from 154 countries around the world. University of Manchester_sentence_119

Well-known figures among the university's current academic staff include computer scientist Steve Furber, economist Richard Nelson, novelist Jeanette Winterson (who succeeded Colm Tóibín in 2012) and biochemist Sir John Sulston, Nobel laureate of 2002. University of Manchester_sentence_120

Research University of Manchester_section_16

The University of Manchester is a major centre for research and a member of the Russell Group of leading British research universities. University of Manchester_sentence_121

In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the university was ranked fifth in the UK in terms of research power and fifteenth for grade point average quality of staff submitted among multi-faculty institutions (seventeenth when including specialist institutions) Manchester has the sixth largest research income of any English university (after Oxford, UCL, Cambridge, Imperial and King's College London), and has been informally referred to as part of a "golden diamond" of research-intensive UK institutions (adding Manchester to the Oxford–Cambridge–London "Golden Triangle"). University of Manchester_sentence_122

Manchester has a strong record in terms of securing funding from the three main UK research councils, EPSRC, MRC and BBSRC, being ranked fifth, seventh and first respectively. University of Manchester_sentence_123

In addition, the university is one of the richest in the UK in terms of income and interest from endowments: an estimate in 2008 placed it third, surpassed only by Oxford and Cambridge. University of Manchester_sentence_124

The University of Manchester has attracted the most research income from UK industry of any institution in the country. University of Manchester_sentence_125

The figures, from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA), show that Manchester attracted £24,831,000 of research income in 2016–2017 from UK industry, commerce and public corporations. University of Manchester_sentence_126

Historically, Manchester has been linked with high scientific achievement: the university and its constituent former institutions combined had 25 Nobel laureates among their students and staff, the third largest number of any single university in the United Kingdom (after Oxford and Cambridge) and the ninth largest of any university in Europe. University of Manchester_sentence_127

Furthermore, according to an academic poll two of the top ten discoveries by university academics and researchers were made at the university (namely the first working computer and the contraceptive pill). University of Manchester_sentence_128

The university currently employs four Nobel Prize winners amongst its staff, more than any other in the UK. University of Manchester_sentence_129

The Langworthy Professorship, an endowed chair at the University's Department of Physics and Astronomy, has been historically given to a long line of academic luminaries, including Ernest Rutherford (1907–19), Lawrence Bragg (1919–37), Patrick Blackett (1937–53) and more recently Konstantin Novoselov, all of whom have won the Nobel Prize. University of Manchester_sentence_130

In 2013 Manchester was given the Regius Professorship in Physics, the only one of its kind in the UK; the current holder is Andre Geim. University of Manchester_sentence_131

University of Manchester Library University of Manchester_section_17

Main article: University of Manchester Library University of Manchester_sentence_132

The University of Manchester Library is the largest non-legal deposit library in the UK and the third-largest academic library after those of Oxford and Cambridge. University of Manchester_sentence_133

It has the largest collection of electronic resources of any library in the UK. University of Manchester_sentence_134

The John Rylands Library, founded in memory of John Rylands by his wife Enriqueta Augustina Rylands as an independent institution, is situated in a Victorian Gothic building on Deansgate, in the city centre. University of Manchester_sentence_135

It houses an important collection of historic books and other printed materials, manuscripts, including archives and papyri. University of Manchester_sentence_136

The papyri are in ancient languages and include the oldest extant New Testament document, Rylands Library Papyrus P52, commonly known as the St John Fragment. University of Manchester_sentence_137

In April 2007 the Deansgate site reopened to readers and the public after major improvements and renovations, including the construction of the pitched roof originally intended and a new wing. University of Manchester_sentence_138

Collections University of Manchester_section_18

Manchester Museum University of Manchester_section_19

Main article: Manchester Museum University of Manchester_sentence_139

The Manchester Museum holds nearly 4.25 million items sourced from many parts of the world. University of Manchester_sentence_140

The collections include butterflies and carvings from India, birds and bark-cloth from the Pacific, live frogs and ancient pottery from America, fossils and native art from Australia, mammals and ancient Egyptian craftsmanship from Africa, plants, coins and minerals from Europe, art from past civilisations of the Mediterranean, and beetles, armour and archery from Asia. University of Manchester_sentence_141

In November 2004, the museum acquired a cast of a fossilised Tyrannosaurus rex called "Stan". University of Manchester_sentence_142

The museum's first collections were assembled in 1821 by the Manchester Society of Natural History, and subsequently expanded by the addition of the collections of Manchester Geological Society. University of Manchester_sentence_143

Due to the society's financial difficulties and on the advice of evolutionary biologist Thomas Huxley, Owens College accepted responsibility for the collections in 1867. University of Manchester_sentence_144

The college commissioned Alfred Waterhouse, architect of London's Natural History Museum, to design a museum on a site in Oxford Road to house the collections for the benefit of students and the public. University of Manchester_sentence_145

The Manchester Museum was opened to the public in 1888. University of Manchester_sentence_146

Whitworth Art Gallery University of Manchester_section_20

Main article: Whitworth Art Gallery University of Manchester_sentence_147

The Whitworth Art Gallery houses collections of internationally famous British watercolours, textiles and wallpapers, modern and historic prints, drawings, paintings and sculpture. University of Manchester_sentence_148

It contains 31,000 items in its collection. University of Manchester_sentence_149

A programme of temporary exhibitions runs throughout the year and the Mezzanine Court displays sculpture. University of Manchester_sentence_150

The gallery was founded by Robert Darbishire with a donation from Sir Joseph Whitworth in 1889, as The Whitworth Institute and Park. University of Manchester_sentence_151

In 1959 the gallery became part of the Victoria University of Manchester. University of Manchester_sentence_152

In October 1995 the Mezzanine Court in the centre of the building was opened. University of Manchester_sentence_153

It was designed to display sculptures and won a RIBA regional award. University of Manchester_sentence_154

Rankings and reputation University of Manchester_section_21

University of Manchester_table_infobox_0

RankingsUniversity of Manchester_table_caption_0
National rankingsUniversity of Manchester_header_cell_0_0_0
Complete (2021)University of Manchester_header_cell_0_1_0 17=University of Manchester_cell_0_1_1
Guardian (2021)University of Manchester_header_cell_0_2_0 34University of Manchester_cell_0_2_1
Times / Sunday Times (2021)University of Manchester_header_cell_0_3_0 18University of Manchester_cell_0_3_1
Global rankingsUniversity of Manchester_header_cell_0_4_0
ARWU (2020)University of Manchester_header_cell_0_5_0 33University of Manchester_cell_0_5_1
CWTS Leiden (2020)University of Manchester_header_cell_0_6_0 55University of Manchester_cell_0_6_1
QS (2021)University of Manchester_header_cell_0_7_0 27=University of Manchester_cell_0_7_1
THE (2021)University of Manchester_header_cell_0_8_0 51=University of Manchester_cell_0_8_1
British Government assessmentUniversity of Manchester_header_cell_0_9_0
Teaching Excellence FrameworkUniversity of Manchester_header_cell_0_10_0 SilverUniversity of Manchester_cell_0_10_1

In an employability ranking published by Emerging in 2015, where CEOs and chairmen were asked to select the top universities they recruited from, Manchester was placed 24th in the world and 5th nationally. University of Manchester_sentence_155

In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, Manchester came fifth in terms of research power and seventeenth for grade point average quality when including specialist institutions. University of Manchester_sentence_156

According to the 2017 High Fliers Report, Manchester is the second most targeted university by the largest number of leading graduate employers in the UK. University of Manchester_sentence_157

According to The Sunday Times in 2006, "Manchester has a formidable reputation spanning most disciplines, but most notably in the life sciences, engineering, humanities, economics, sociology and the social sciences". University of Manchester_sentence_158

As of 2016, Manchester is ranked as the 8th, 10th and 49th most reputable university in the UK, Europe and the world respectively. University of Manchester_sentence_159

Manchester was also given a prestigious award for Excellence and Innovation in the Arts by the Times Higher Education Awards 2010. University of Manchester_sentence_160

In a recent ranking published by the New York Times, Manchester was placed as the 9th most innovative university in Europe and 3rd nationally behind Imperial and Cambridge. University of Manchester_sentence_161

The QS World University Rankings 2018–19 placed Manchester 29th in the world. University of Manchester_sentence_162

The Academic Ranking of World Universities 2016 ranked Manchester 5th in the UK and 35th in the world. University of Manchester_sentence_163

Manchester is ranked 56th in the world (and 8th in the UK) in the 2016 Round University Ranking. University of Manchester_sentence_164

In 2019, it ranked 59th among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings. University of Manchester_sentence_165

In 2017, the Alliance Manchester Business School was ranked 3rd in UK, 10th in Europe and 30th in the world by the Financial Times in its global MBA ranking. University of Manchester_sentence_166

However, while world rankings (such as QS, ARWU, THE) typically place the university within the top 10 in the UK, in national studies the university ranks less favourably. University of Manchester_sentence_167

In The Sunday Times 10-year (1998–2007) average ranking of British universities based on consistent league table performance, Manchester was ranked 17th overall in the UK. University of Manchester_sentence_168

The Times/Sunday Times 'Good University Guide 2015' ranked Manchester 28th out of universities in the UK, 'The Complete University Guide 2016' placed it at 28th, whilst 'The Guardian University Guide 2016' ranked Manchester at 29th in the UK. University of Manchester_sentence_169

This apparent paradox is mainly a reflection of the different ranking methodologies employed by each listing: global rankings focus on research and international reputation, whereas national rankings are largely based on entry standards, graduate prospects and student satisfaction with teaching at the university. University of Manchester_sentence_170

In fact, a recent poll voted Manchester as the third "most underrated university in the UK" University of Manchester_sentence_171

Admissions University of Manchester_section_22

University of Manchester_table_general_1

UCAS Admission StatisticsUniversity of Manchester_table_caption_1
University of Manchester_header_cell_1_0_0 2017University of Manchester_header_cell_1_0_1 2016University of Manchester_header_cell_1_0_2 2015University of Manchester_header_cell_1_0_3 2014University of Manchester_header_cell_1_0_4 2013University of Manchester_header_cell_1_0_5
ApplicationsUniversity of Manchester_cell_1_1_0 63,950University of Manchester_cell_1_1_1 63,570University of Manchester_cell_1_1_2 63,980University of Manchester_cell_1_1_3 61,285University of Manchester_cell_1_1_4 55,870University of Manchester_cell_1_1_5
Offer Rate (%)University of Manchester_cell_1_2_0 70.1University of Manchester_cell_1_2_1 72.4University of Manchester_cell_1_2_2 73.4University of Manchester_cell_1_2_3 72.6University of Manchester_cell_1_2_4 72.6University of Manchester_cell_1_2_5
EnrolsUniversity of Manchester_cell_1_3_0 8,315University of Manchester_cell_1_3_1 8,705University of Manchester_cell_1_3_2 9,330University of Manchester_cell_1_3_3 9,040University of Manchester_cell_1_3_4 8,605University of Manchester_cell_1_3_5
Yield (%)University of Manchester_cell_1_4_0 18.5University of Manchester_cell_1_4_1 18.9University of Manchester_cell_1_4_2 19.9University of Manchester_cell_1_4_3 20.3University of Manchester_cell_1_4_4 21.2University of Manchester_cell_1_4_5
Applicant/Enrolled RatioUniversity of Manchester_cell_1_5_0 7.69University of Manchester_cell_1_5_1 7.30University of Manchester_cell_1_5_2 6.86University of Manchester_cell_1_5_3 6.78University of Manchester_cell_1_5_4 6.49University of Manchester_cell_1_5_5
Average Entry TariffUniversity of Manchester_cell_1_6_0 n/aUniversity of Manchester_cell_1_6_1 169University of Manchester_cell_1_6_2 431University of Manchester_cell_1_6_3 435University of Manchester_cell_1_6_4 433University of Manchester_cell_1_6_5

More students apply to Manchester than to any other university in the country, with more than 55,000 applications for undergraduate courses in 2014 resulting in 6.5 applicants for every available place. University of Manchester_sentence_172

Manchester had the 17th highest average entry qualification for undergraduates of any UK university in 2018, with new students averaging 267 UCAS points, equivalent to 1/8th of a grade below A*A*A* in A-level grades. University of Manchester_sentence_173

In 2015, the university gave offers of admission to 73.4% of its applicants, the 10th lowest amongst the Russell Group. University of Manchester_sentence_174

The university was one of twelve that between them took over half of students with AAB or higher A-Level grades recruited to English universities in 2009–10. University of Manchester_sentence_175

17.2% of Manchester's undergraduates are privately educated, the 23rd highest proportion amongst mainstream British universities. University of Manchester_sentence_176

In the 2016–17 academic year, the university had a domicile breakdown of 67:6:27 of UK:EU:non-EU students respectively with a female to male ratio of 53:47. University of Manchester_sentence_177

Manchester University Press University of Manchester_section_23

Main article: Manchester University Press University of Manchester_sentence_178

Manchester University Press is the university's academic publishing house. University of Manchester_sentence_179

It publishes academic monographs, textbooks and journals, most of which are works from authors based elsewhere in the international academic community, and is the third-largest university press in England after Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press. University of Manchester_sentence_180

Student life University of Manchester_section_24

Students' Union University of Manchester_section_25

Main article: University of Manchester Students' Union University of Manchester_sentence_181

The University of Manchester Students' Union is the representative body of students at the university and the UK's largest students' union. University of Manchester_sentence_182

It was formed out of the merger between UMIST Students' Association and University of Manchester Union when the parent organisations UMIST and the Victoria University of Manchester merged on 1 October 2004. University of Manchester_sentence_183

Unlike many other students' unions in the UK, it does not have a president, but is run by an eight-member executive team who share joint responsibility. University of Manchester_sentence_184

Sport University of Manchester_section_26

See also: List of University of Manchester people § Sport University of Manchester_sentence_185

The University of Manchester operates sports clubs through its athletics union while student societies are operated by the Students' Union. University of Manchester_sentence_186

The university has more than 80 health and fitness classes while over 3,000 students are members of the 44 various Athletic Union clubs. University of Manchester_sentence_187

The sports societies vary widely in their level and scope. University of Manchester_sentence_188

Many more popular sports operate several university teams and departmental teams which compete in leagues against other teams within the university. University of Manchester_sentence_189

Teams include: badminton, lacrosse, korfball, dodgeball, hockey, rugby league, rugby union, football, basketball, fencing, netball, squash, water polo, ultimate and cricket. University of Manchester_sentence_190

The athletic union was formed at Owens College in 1885 from four clubs: rugby, lacrosse, cricket and tennis. University of Manchester_sentence_191

In 1901 the women's athletic union was founded. University of Manchester_sentence_192

In 1981 the two unions were amalgamated. University of Manchester_sentence_193

After the acquisition of the Firs estate in Fallowfield a sports ground and pavilion were provided there. University of Manchester_sentence_194

From 1940 the McDougall Centre in Burlington Street was also in use as a sports centre. University of Manchester_sentence_195

Ron Hill, Rowena Sweatman, James Hickman, Cyril Holmes and Harry Whittle are former students who have achieved Olympic success. University of Manchester_sentence_196

The Manchester Aquatics Centre, the swimming pool used for the Manchester Commonwealth Games is on the campus and used for water sports. University of Manchester_sentence_197

The main facilities used for sports are the Sugden Centre in Grosvenor Street, the Armitage Site near Owens Park and the Wythenshawe Sports Ground. University of Manchester_sentence_198

The university has achieved success in the BUCS (British University & College Sports) competitions, with its men's water polo 1st team winning the national championships (2009, 2010, 2011) under the tutelage of their coach Andy Howard. University of Manchester_sentence_199

It was positioned in eighth place in the overall BUCS rankings for 2009/10 University of Manchester_sentence_200

The university competes annually in 28 different sports against Leeds and Liverpool universities in the Christie Cup, which Manchester has won for seven consecutive years. University of Manchester_sentence_201

The Christie Cup is an inter-university competition between Liverpool, Leeds and Manchester in numerous sports since 1886. University of Manchester_sentence_202

After the Oxford and Cambridge rivalry, the Christie's Championships is the oldest Inter–University competition on the sporting calendar: the cup was a benefaction of Richard Copley Christie. University of Manchester_sentence_203

Every year elite sportsmen and sportswomen are selected for membership of the XXI Club, a society formed in 1932 to promote sporting excellence at the university. University of Manchester_sentence_204

Most members have gained a Full Maroon for representing the university and many have excelled at a British Universities or National level. University of Manchester_sentence_205

No more than 21 active members are allowed, each elected for up to three years (after graduating they become passive members). University of Manchester_sentence_206

An example of the university clubs is the lacrosse club which was founded in the season 1883–84 and in the following years won the North of England Flags twice and maintained its position among the leading English clubs. University of Manchester_sentence_207

In 1885 it was one of the four founding clubs of the athletic union. University of Manchester_sentence_208

The merging of Owens College with the university in 1904 affected the club by restricting the pool of players available for selection. University of Manchester_sentence_209

However when the English Universities Lacrosse Championship was set up in 1925–26 with five university teams the Manchester team won in the first season and again in 1932–33 and continued to do so in the 1930s. University of Manchester_sentence_210

University Challenge quiz programme University of Manchester_section_27

In the eight years up to 2013, Manchester has won the BBC2 quiz programme University Challenge four times, drawing equal with Magdalen College, Oxford, for the highest number of series wins. University of Manchester_sentence_211

Since merging as the University of Manchester, the university has consistently reached the latter stages of the competition, progressing to at least the semi-finals every year since 2005. University of Manchester_sentence_212

In 2006, Manchester beat Trinity Hall, Cambridge, to record the university's first win in the competition. University of Manchester_sentence_213

The next year, the university finished in second place after losing to the University of Warwick in the final. University of Manchester_sentence_214

In 2009, the team battled hard in the final against Corpus Christi College, Oxford. University of Manchester_sentence_215

At the gong, the score was 275 to 190 in favour of Corpus Christi College after a winning performance from Gail Trimble. University of Manchester_sentence_216

However, the title was eventually given to the University of Manchester after it was discovered that Corpus Christi team member Sam Kay had graduated eight months before the final was broadcast, so the team was disqualified. University of Manchester_sentence_217

Manchester reached the semi-finals in the 2010 competition before being beaten by Emmanuel College, Cambridge. University of Manchester_sentence_218

The university did not enter the 2011 series for an unknown reason. University of Manchester_sentence_219

However, Manchester did enter a year later and won University Challenge 2012. University of Manchester_sentence_220

Manchester has since defended its title to win University Challenge 2013, beating University College London, 190 to 140. University of Manchester_sentence_221

Student housing University of Manchester_section_28

Before they merged, the two former universities had for some time been sharing their residential facilities. University of Manchester_sentence_222

City Campus University of Manchester_section_29

Whitworth Park Halls of Residence University of Manchester_section_30

Whitworth Park Halls of Residence is owned by the University of Manchester and houses 1,085 students, located next to Whitworth Park. University of Manchester_sentence_223

It is notable for its triangular shaped accommodation blocks which gave rise to the nickname of ’Toblerones’, after the chocolate bar. University of Manchester_sentence_224

Their designer took inspiration from a hill created from excavated soil which had been left in 1962 from an archaeological dig led by John Gater. University of Manchester_sentence_225

A consequence of the triangular design was a reduced cost for the construction company. University of Manchester_sentence_226

A deal struck between the university and Manchester City Council meant the council would pay for the roofs of all student residential buildings in the area, Allan Pluen's team is believed to have saved thousands on the final cost of the halls. University of Manchester_sentence_227

They were built in the mid-1970s. University of Manchester_sentence_228

The site of the halls was previously occupied by many small streets whose names have been preserved in the names of the halls. University of Manchester_sentence_229

Grove House is an older building that has been used by the university for many different purposes over the last sixty years. University of Manchester_sentence_230

Its first occupants in 1951 were the Appointments Board and the Manchester University Press. University of Manchester_sentence_231

The shops in Thorncliffe Place were part of the same plan and include banks and a convenience store. University of Manchester_sentence_232

Notable people associated with the halls include Friedrich Engels, whose residence is commemorated by a blue plaque on Aberdeen House; the physicist Brian Cox; and Irene Khan, Secretary General of Amnesty International. University of Manchester_sentence_233

Sackville Street University of Manchester_section_31

The former UMIST Campus has four halls of residence near to Sackville Street building (Weston, Lambert, Fairfield, and Wright Robinson). University of Manchester_sentence_234

Chandos Hall, a former residence, has been closed prior to demolition. University of Manchester_sentence_235

University of Manchester_description_list_2

Moberly Tower has been demolished. University of Manchester_sentence_236

Other residences include Vaughn House, once the home of the clergy serving the Church of the Holy Name, and George Kenyon Hall at University Place; Crawford House and Devonshire House adjacent to the Manchester Business School and Victoria Hall on Upper Brook Street. University of Manchester_sentence_237

Grosvenor Campus University of Manchester_sentence_238

The Grosvenor Halls of residence was an accommodation campus that was open until summer 2014. University of Manchester_sentence_239

It was located just off Oxford Road next to the Manchester Aquatics Centre and opposite the Materials Science building. University of Manchester_sentence_240

The Grosvenor Halls consisted of four different accommodation buildings, which were Grosvenor Place, Grosvenor Street Building, Bowden Court and Ronson Hall. University of Manchester_sentence_241

As a City Campus accommodation, Grosvenor Halls enjoyed widespread popularity primarily due to the convenience of its central location to University academic buildings and Manchester city centre. University of Manchester_sentence_242

The halls had their own residence association, which organised social events and activities throughout the year to foster its own social community. University of Manchester_sentence_243

During its time, Grosvenor Halls certainly garnered a reputation amongst its occupants for a variety of different reasons. University of Manchester_sentence_244

The accommodation campus continued to remain open until its closure in 2014; with demolition taking place in summer 2015 to make way for a new ‘super’ Engineering campus. University of Manchester_sentence_245

Victoria Park Campus University of Manchester_section_32

Victoria Park Campus comprises several halls of residence. University of Manchester_sentence_246

Among these are St. University of Manchester_sentence_247 Anselm Hall with Canterbury Court, Dalton-Ellis Hall, Hulme Hall (including Burkhardt House) and Opal Gardens Hall. University of Manchester_sentence_248

Fallowfield Campus University of Manchester_section_33

The Fallowfield Campus, 2 miles (3.2 km) south of the Oxford Road Campus is the largest of the university's residential campuses. University of Manchester_sentence_249

The Owens Park group of halls with a landmark tower is at its centre, while Oak House is another hall of residence. University of Manchester_sentence_250

Woolton Hall is next to Oak House. University of Manchester_sentence_251

Allen Hall is a traditional hall near Ashburne Hall (Sheavyn House being annexed to Ashburne). University of Manchester_sentence_252

Richmond Park is a recent addition to the campus, as well as Unsworth Park which opened in 2019. University of Manchester_sentence_253

Notable people University of Manchester_section_34

Main article: List of University of Manchester people University of Manchester_sentence_254

Many notable people have worked or studied at one or both of the two former institutions that now form the University of Manchester, including 25 Nobel Prize laureates. University of Manchester_sentence_255

Some of the best-known are: John Dalton (founder of modern atomic theory), Ernest Rutherford who proved the nuclear nature of the atom whilst working at Manchester, Ludwig Wittgenstein (considered one of the most significant philosophers of the 20th century, who studied for a doctorate in engineering), George E. Davis (founder of the discipline of chemical engineering), Marie Stopes (pioneer of birth control and campaigner for women's rights), Bernard Lovell (a pioneer of radio astronomy), Alan Turing (one of the founders of computer science and artificial intelligence), Tom Kilburn and Frederic Calland Williams (who developed the Manchester Baby, the world's first stored-program computer at Victoria University of Manchester in 1948), Irene Khan (former Secretary General of Amnesty International), physicist and television presenter Brian Cox, the author Anthony Burgess and Robert Bolt (two times Academy Award winner and three times Golden Globe winner for writing the screenplay for Lawrence of Arabia and Doctor Zhivago). University of Manchester_sentence_256

A number of politicians are associated with the university, including the current presidents of the Republic of Ireland and the Somaliland region of Somalia and prime ministers of Sudan, Palestine and Iraq, as well as several ministers in the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Canada and Singapore. University of Manchester_sentence_257

The vice president of Tanzania (November 2015 – present), Samia Hassan Suluhu, also attended the University of Manchester, as did Starry Lee Wai King a prominent pro-establishment politician in Hong Kong. University of Manchester_sentence_258

Chaim Weizmann, a senior lecturer at the university, was the first President of Israel. University of Manchester_sentence_259

The university educated some of the leading figures of Alternative Comedy: Ben Elton, Ade Edmondson and Rik Mayall. University of Manchester_sentence_260

Additionally, a number of well-known actors have studied at the university, including Benedict Cumberbatch, who most notably portrays Sherlock Holmes in the TV series Sherlock, as well as playing the role of Manchester's own Alan Turing in the 2014 Oscar-winning biopic The Imitation Game. University of Manchester_sentence_261

Nobel Prize winners University of Manchester_section_35

The University of Manchester, inclusive of its predecessor institutions, numbers 25 Nobel Prize recipients amongst its current and former staff and students, with some of the most important discoveries of the modern age having been made in Manchester. University of Manchester_sentence_262

Manchester University has the fourth largest number of Nobel laureates in the UK, only Cambridge, Oxford and UCL having a greater number. University of Manchester_sentence_263

Chemistry University of Manchester_sentence_264

University of Manchester_unordered_list_3

  • Ernest Rutherford (awarded Nobel Prize in 1908), for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements and the chemistry of radioactive substances.University of Manchester_item_3_13
  • Arthur Harden (awarded Nobel Prize in 1929), for investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes.University of Manchester_item_3_14
  • Walter Haworth (awarded Nobel Prize in 1937), for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C.University of Manchester_item_3_15
  • George de Hevesy (awarded Nobel Prize in 1943), for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes.University of Manchester_item_3_16
  • Robert Robinson (awarded Nobel Prize in 1947), for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids.University of Manchester_item_3_17
  • Alexander Todd (awarded Nobel Prize in 1957), for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.University of Manchester_item_3_18
  • Melvin Calvin (awarded Nobel Prize in 1961), for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants.University of Manchester_item_3_19
  • John Charles Polanyi (awarded Nobel Prize in 1986), for his contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.University of Manchester_item_3_20
  • Michael Smith (awarded Nobel Prize in 1993), for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies.University of Manchester_item_3_21

Physics University of Manchester_sentence_265

University of Manchester_unordered_list_4

  • Joseph John (J. J.) Thomson (awarded Nobel Prize in 1906), in recognition of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases.University of Manchester_item_4_22
  • William Lawrence Bragg (awarded Nobel Prize in 1915), for his services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays.University of Manchester_item_4_23
  • Niels Bohr (awarded Nobel Prize in 1922), for his fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics.University of Manchester_item_4_24
  • Charles Thomson Rees (C. T. R.) Wilson (awarded Nobel Prize in 1927), for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour.University of Manchester_item_4_25
  • James Chadwick (awarded Nobel Prize in 1935), for the discovery of the neutron.University of Manchester_item_4_26
  • Patrick M. Blackett (awarded Nobel prize in 1948), for developing cloud chamber and confirming/discovering positron.University of Manchester_item_4_27
  • Sir John Douglas Cockcroft (awarded Nobel Prize in 1951), for his pioneer work on the splitting of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles and also for his contribution to modern nuclear power.University of Manchester_item_4_28
  • Hans Bethe (awarded Nobel Prize in 1967), for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars.University of Manchester_item_4_29
  • Nevill Francis Mott (awarded Nobel Prize in 1977), for his fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.University of Manchester_item_4_30
  • Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov (awarded Nobel Prize in 2010), for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene.University of Manchester_item_4_31

Physiology and Medicine University of Manchester_sentence_266

University of Manchester_unordered_list_5

  • Archibald Vivian Hill (awarded Nobel Prize in 1922), for his discovery relating to the production of heat in muscle. One of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics and operations research.University of Manchester_item_5_32
  • Sir John Sulston (awarded Nobel Prize in 2002), for his discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'. In 2007, Sulston was announced as Chair of the newly founded Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation (iSEI) at the University of Manchester.University of Manchester_item_5_33

Economics University of Manchester_sentence_267

University of Manchester_unordered_list_6

  • John Hicks (awarded Nobel Prize in 1972), for his pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory.University of Manchester_item_6_34
  • Sir Arthur Lewis (awarded Nobel Prize in 1979), for his pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries.University of Manchester_item_6_35
  • Joseph E. Stiglitz (awarded Nobel Prize in 2001), for his analyses of markets with asymmetric information. Currently heads the Brooks World Poverty Institute (BWPI) at the University of Manchester.University of Manchester_item_6_36

See also University of Manchester_section_36

University of Manchester_unordered_list_7

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of Manchester.