Variety (magazine)

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Variety (magazine)_table_infobox_0

VarietyVariety (magazine)_table_caption_0
Editor-in-ChiefVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_0_0 Claudia EllerVariety (magazine)_cell_0_0_1
EditorVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_1_0 Andrew WallensteinVariety (magazine)_cell_0_1_1
CategoriesVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_2_0 Trade, entertainmentVariety (magazine)_cell_0_2_1
FrequencyVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_3_0 WeeklyVariety (magazine)_cell_0_3_1
Paid circulationVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_4_0 54,000Variety (magazine)_cell_0_4_1
FounderVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_5_0 Sime SilvermanVariety (magazine)_cell_0_5_1
First issueVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_6_0 Weekly:

December 16, 1905; 114 years ago (1905-12-16) (New York City) Dailies: 1933 (1933) (Los Angeles) 1998 (1998) (New York City)Variety (magazine)_cell_0_6_1

CompanyVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_7_0 Variety Media, LLC. (Penske Media Corporation)Variety (magazine)_cell_0_7_1
CountryVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_8_0 U.S.Variety (magazine)_cell_0_8_1
Based inVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_9_0 Los Angeles, California, U.S.Variety (magazine)_cell_0_9_1
LanguageVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_10_0 EnglishVariety (magazine)_cell_0_10_1
WebsiteVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_11_0 Variety (magazine)_cell_0_11_1
ISSNVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_12_0 Variety (magazine)_cell_0_12_1
OCLCVariety (magazine)_header_cell_0_13_0 Variety (magazine)_cell_0_13_1

Variety is an American media company owned by Penske Media Corporation. Variety (magazine)_sentence_0

The company was founded by Sime Silverman in New York City in 1905 as a weekly newspaper reporting on theater and vaudeville. Variety (magazine)_sentence_1

In 1933 it added Daily Variety, based in Los Angeles, to cover the motion-picture industry. Variety (magazine)_sentence_2 features breaking entertainment news, reviews, box office results, cover stories, videos, photo galleries and features, plus a credits database, production charts and calendar, with archive content dating back to 1905. Variety (magazine)_sentence_3

History Variety (magazine)_section_0

Variety has been published since December 16, 1905, when it was launched by Sime Silverman as a weekly periodical covering theater and vaudeville with its headquarters in New York City. Variety (magazine)_sentence_4

Sime was fired by The Morning Telegraph in 1905 for panning an act which had taken out an advert for $50, and said that it looked like he would have to start his own paper in order to be able to tell the truth. Variety (magazine)_sentence_5

With a loan of $1,500 from his father-in-law, he launched Variety as publisher and editor. Variety (magazine)_sentence_6

In addition to Sime's former employer The Morning Telegraph, other major competitors on launch were The New York Clipper and the New York Dramatic Mirror. Variety (magazine)_sentence_7

The original cover design, which is very similar to the current design, was sketched by Edgar M. Miller, a scenic painter, who refused payment. Variety (magazine)_sentence_8

The front cover contained pictures of the original editorial staff, who were Alfred Greason, Epes W Sargeant (Chicot or Chic) and Joshua Lowe, as well as Sime. Variety (magazine)_sentence_9

The first issue contained a review by Sime's son Sidne, also known as Skigie (based on the childish lisping of his name) who was claimed to be the youngest critic in the world at seven years old. Variety (magazine)_sentence_10

In 1922 Sime acquired The New York Clipper which had been reporting on the stage and other entertainment since 1853 and folded it two years later, merging some of its features into Variety. Variety (magazine)_sentence_11

Also in 1922, Sime launched the Times Square Daily, which he referred to as "the world's worst daily" and soon scrapped. Variety (magazine)_sentence_12

During that period, Variety staffers worked on all three papers. Variety (magazine)_sentence_13

After the launch of The Hollywood Reporter in 1930, which Variety sued for alleged plagiarism in 1932, Sime launched Daily Variety in 1933, based in Hollywood, with Arthur Ungar as the editor. Variety (magazine)_sentence_14

It replaced Variety Bulletin that was issued in Hollywood on Fridays. Variety (magazine)_sentence_15

Daily Variety was initially published every day other than Sunday but mostly on Monday to Friday. Variety (magazine)_sentence_16

Ungar was editor until 1950, followed by Joe Schoenfeld (1950–1959) and then Thomas M. Pryor (1959–1988), who was succeeded by his son Pete. Variety (magazine)_sentence_17

The Daily and the Weekly were initially run as virtually independent newspapers, with the Daily concentrating mostly on Hollywood news and the Weekly on U.S. and International coverage. Variety (magazine)_sentence_18

Sime Silverman had passed on the editorship of the Weekly Variety to Abel Green as his replacement in 1931; he remained as publisher until his death in 1933 soon after launching Daily Variety. Variety (magazine)_sentence_19

Green remained as editor from 1931 until his death in 1973. Variety (magazine)_sentence_20

Sime's son Sidne succeeded him as publisher of both publications but upon contracting tuberculosis in 1936 he could no longer take a day to day role at the paper. Variety (magazine)_sentence_21

Green, the editor, and Harold Erichs, the treasurer and chief financial officer, ran the paper during his illness. Variety (magazine)_sentence_22

Following Sidne's death in 1950, his only son Syd Silverman, was the sole heir to what was then Variety Inc. Young Syd's legal guardian Harold Erichs assumed the presidency and continued to oversee Variety until 1956. Variety (magazine)_sentence_23

After that date, Syd Silverman managed the company as publisher of both the Weekly Variety in New York and the Daily Variety in Hollywood, until the sale of both papers in 1987 to Cahners Publishing for $64 million. Variety (magazine)_sentence_24

He remained as publisher until 1990 when he was succeeded on Weekly Variety by Gerard A. Byrne and on Daily Variety by Sime's great grandson, Michael Silverman. Variety (magazine)_sentence_25

Syd became chairman of both publications. Variety (magazine)_sentence_26

In 1953 Army Archerd's "Just for Variety" column appeared on page two of Daily Variety and swiftly became popular in Hollywood. Variety (magazine)_sentence_27

Archerd broke countless exclusive stories, reporting from film sets, announcing pending deals, giving news of star-related hospitalizations, marriages, and births. Variety (magazine)_sentence_28

The column appeared daily for 52 years until September 1, 2005. Variety (magazine)_sentence_29

On December 7, 1988, the editor, Roger Watkins, proposed and oversaw the transition to four-color print. Variety (magazine)_sentence_30

Upon its launch, the new-look Variety measured one inch shorter with a washed-out color on the front. Variety (magazine)_sentence_31

The old front-page box advertisement was replaced by a strip advertisement, along with the first photos published in Variety since Sime gave up using them in the old format in 1920: they depicted Sime, Abel and Syd. Variety (magazine)_sentence_32

For 20 years from 1989 its editor-in-chief was Peter Bart, originally only of the weekly New York edition, with Michael Silverman (Syd's son) running the Daily in Hollywood. Variety (magazine)_sentence_33

Bart had worked previously at Paramount Pictures and The New York Times. Variety (magazine)_sentence_34

In April 2009 Bart moved to the position of "vice president and editorial director", characterized online as "Boffo No More: Bart Up and Out at Variety". Variety (magazine)_sentence_35

From mid 2009 to 2013, Timothy M. Gray oversaw the publication as Editor-in-Chief, after over 30 years of various reporter and editor positions in the newsroom. Variety (magazine)_sentence_36

In October 2012 Reed Business Information, the periodical's owner, (formerly known as Reed-Elsevier, which had been parent to Cahner's Corp. in the United States) sold the publication to Penske Media Corporation. Variety (magazine)_sentence_37

PMC is the owner of Deadline Hollywood, which since the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike has been considered Variety's largest competitor in online showbiz news. Variety (magazine)_sentence_38

In October 2012, Jay Penske, Chairman and CEO of PMC, announced that the website's paywall would come down, the print publication would stay, and he would invest more into Variety's digital platform in a townhall. Variety (magazine)_sentence_39

In March 2013 owner Penske appointed three co-editors to oversee different parts of the publication's industry coverage; Claudia Eller as Editor, Film; Cynthia Littleton as Editor, TV; and Andrew Wallenstein as Editor, Digital. Variety (magazine)_sentence_40

The decision was also made to stop printing Daily Variety with the last printed edition published on March 19, 2013 with the headline "Variety Ankles Daily Pub Hubbub". Variety (magazine)_sentence_41

In October 2014 Eller and Wallenstein were upped to Co-Editors in Chief, with Littleton continuing to oversee the trade's television coverage. Variety (magazine)_sentence_42

In June 2014, Penske Media Corporation (PMC) entered into an agreement with Reuters to syndicate news from Variety and Variety Latino-Powered by Univision to distribute leading entertainment news to the international news agency's global readership. Variety (magazine)_sentence_43

This dissemination comes in the form of columns, news stories, images, video, and data-focused products. Variety (magazine)_sentence_44

In July 2015, Variety was awarded a Los Angeles Area Emmy Award by the Television Academy in the Best Entertainment Program category for Variety Studio: Actors on Actors, a series of one-hour specials that take viewers inside Hollywood films and television programs through conversations with acclaimed actors. Variety (magazine)_sentence_45

A second Los Angeles Area Emmy Award was awarded in 2016. Variety (magazine)_sentence_46

A significant portion of the publication's advertising revenue comes during the film-award season leading up to the Academy Awards. Variety (magazine)_sentence_47

During this "Awards Season", large numbers of colorful, full-page "For Your Consideration" advertisements inflate the size of Variety to double or triple its usual page count. Variety (magazine)_sentence_48

These advertisements are the studios' attempt to reach other Hollywood professionals who will be voting on the many awards given out in the early part of the year, including the Academy Awards, the Golden Globes and various guild award honors. Variety (magazine)_sentence_49

Circulation Variety (magazine)_section_1

The first issue of Variety sold 320 copies in 1905. Variety (magazine)_sentence_50

Paid circulation for the weekly Variety magazine in 2013 was 40,000 (Source: BPA Audit Statement, 2013). Variety (magazine)_sentence_51

Each copy of each Variety issue is read by an average of three people, with an estimated total readership of 120,000 (Source: Ipsos Subscriber Study, 2013). Variety (magazine)_sentence_52 has 17 million unique monthly visitors (Source: Google Analytics, 2015). Variety (magazine)_sentence_53

Editions Variety (magazine)_section_2

Variety (magazine)_unordered_list_0

  • Variety (first edition published December 16, 1905) is a weekly entertainment publication with a broad coverage of movies, television, theater, music and technology, written for entertainment executives. It is published weekly and delivered internationally.Variety (magazine)_item_0_0
  • Daily Variety (first edition published September 6, 1933 and last published March 19, 2013) was the name of the Los Angeles-based Hollywood and Broadway daily edition. The Daily Variety brand was revived in 2019 as a Mon-Fri email newsletter presenting the top stories of the last 24 hours. Top stories are also posted on the Daily Variety page of (magazine)_item_0_1
  • Daily Variety Gotham, (first edition published March 16, 1998) was the name of the New York City-based edition which gave a priority focus to East Coast show-business news and was produced earlier in the evening than the Los Angeles edition so it could be delivered to New York the following morning.Variety (magazine)_item_0_2
  • (launched January 5, 1998) is the Internet version of Variety. It was initially divided into two tiers with a free area and a subscription area (variety.extra) that had full text of the daily and additional features, which was one of the first online newspapers to charge for access when it launched. In June 2010, all content on the website became paywalled. The paywall was removed in April 2013, although access to additional content, such as the archives, require subscription.Variety (magazine)_item_0_3
  • Variety On-The-Go Variety is also available as an app on the iPad, iPhone, Android, Blackberry, and Windows phone. This app is an interactive content-driven platform providing entertainment industry updates on the go.Variety (magazine)_item_0_4
  • @Variety is available across multiple social media platforms and channels, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Tumblr, with videos streaming on and on the "Variety" YouTube channel.Variety (magazine)_item_0_5

On December 15, 1906, Variety published its first anniversary edition containing 64 pages, double the size of a regular edition. Variety (magazine)_sentence_54

It regularly published large anniversary editions each year, most often at the beginning of January, normally with a review of the year and other charts and data, including, from 1938 onwards, lists of the top performing films of the year and, from 1949, the annually updated all-time rental chart. Variety (magazine)_sentence_55

The editions also contained many advertisements from show business personalities and companies. Variety (magazine)_sentence_56

The 100th anniversary edition was published in October 2005, listing Variety's icons of the century. Variety (magazine)_sentence_57

As well as the large anniversary editions, Variety also published special editions containing much additional information, charts and data (and advertising) for the following film festivals: Variety (magazine)_sentence_58

Variety (magazine)_unordered_list_1

Daily Variety also published an anniversary issue each October. Variety (magazine)_sentence_59

This regularly contained a day-by-day review of the year in show business and in the 1970s started to contain republication of the film reviews published during the year. Variety (magazine)_sentence_60

Older back issues of Variety are available on microfilm. Variety (magazine)_sentence_61

In 2010, allowed access to digitized versions of all issues of Variety and Daily Variety with a subscription. Variety (magazine)_sentence_62

Certain articles and reviews prior to 1998 have been republished on Variety (magazine)_sentence_63

The Media History Digital Library has scans of the archive of Variety from 1905–1961 available online. Variety (magazine)_sentence_64

Culture Variety (magazine)_section_3

For much of its existence, Variety's writers and columnists have used a jargon called slanguage or varietyese (a form of headlinese) that refers especially to the movie industry, and has largely been adopted and imitated by other writers in the industry. Variety (magazine)_sentence_65

The language initially reflected that spoken by the actors of the early days during the newspaper. Variety (magazine)_sentence_66

Such terms as "legit", "boffo", "sitcom", "sex appeal", "payola", and "striptease" are attributed to the magazine. Variety (magazine)_sentence_67

Its attempt to popularize "infobahn" as a synonym for "information superhighway" never caught on. Variety (magazine)_sentence_68

Television series are referred to as "skeins", and heads of companies or corporate teams are called "toppers". Variety (magazine)_sentence_69

In addition to a stylistic grammatical blip – very frequent omissions of the definite article the –, more-common English words and phrases are shortened; "audience members" becomes simply "auds", "performance" "perf", and "network" becomes "net", for example. Variety (magazine)_sentence_70

In 1934, founder Sime Silverman headed a list in Time magazine of the "ten modern Americans who have done most to keep American jargon alive". Variety (magazine)_sentence_71

According to The Boston Globe, the Oxford English Dictionary cites Variety as the earliest source for about two dozen terms, including "show biz" (1945). Variety (magazine)_sentence_72

In 2005, Welcome Books published The Hollywood Dictionary by Timothy M. Gray and J. C. Suares, which defines nearly 200 of these terms. Variety (magazine)_sentence_73

One of its popular headlines was during the Wall Street Crash of 1929: "Wall St. Lays An Egg". Variety (magazine)_sentence_74

The most famous was "Sticks Nix Hick Pix" (the movie-prop version renders it as "Stix nix hix pix!" Variety (magazine)_sentence_75

in Yankee Doodle Dandy (1942), Michael Curtiz's musicalbiographical film about George M. Cohan starring James Cagney). Variety (magazine)_sentence_76

In 2012 Rizzoli Books published Variety: An Illustrated History of the World from the Most Important Magazine in Hollywood by Gray. Variety (magazine)_sentence_77

The book covers Variety's coverage of hundreds of world events, from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, through Arab Spring in 2012, and argues that the entertainment industry needs to stay aware of changes in politics and tastes since those changes will affect their audiences. Variety (magazine)_sentence_78

In a foreword to the book, Martin Scorsese calls Variety "the single most formidable trade publication ever" and says that the book's content "makes you feel not only like a witness to history, but part of it too." Variety (magazine)_sentence_79

In 2013 Variety staffers tallied more than 200 uses of weekly or Daily Variety in TV shows and films, ranging from I Love Lucy to Entourage. Variety (magazine)_sentence_80

In 2016 Variety endorsed Hillary Clinton for President of the United States, marking the first time the publication endorsed a candidate for elected office in its 111-year history. Variety (magazine)_sentence_81

Office locations Variety (magazine)_section_4

Variety's first offices were in the Knickerbocker Theatre located at 1396 Broadway on 38th and Broadway in New York. Variety (magazine)_sentence_82

Later it moved to 1536 Broadway at the 45th and Broadway corner until Loew's acquired the site to build the Loew's State Theatre. Variety (magazine)_sentence_83

In 1920 Sime Silverman purchased an old brownstone building around the corner at 154 West 46th Street in New York, which became the Variety headquarters until 1987, when the publication was purchased. Variety (magazine)_sentence_84

Under the new management of Cahners Publishing, the New York headquarters of the Weekly Variety was relocated to the corner of 32nd Street and Park Avenue South. Variety (magazine)_sentence_85

Five years later, it was downgraded to a section of one floor in a building housing other Cahner's publications on West 18th Street, until the majority of operations were moved to Los Angeles. Variety (magazine)_sentence_86

When Daily Variety started in 1933, its offices were in various buildings near Hollywood Blvd. Variety (magazine)_sentence_87

and Sunset Blvd. Variety (magazine)_sentence_88

In 1972, Syd Silverman purchased a building at 1400 North Cahuenga Blvd. Variety (magazine)_sentence_89

which housed the Daily's offices until 1988, after which its new corporate owners and new publisher, Arthur Anderman, moved them to a building on the Miracle Mile on Wilshire Boulevard. Variety (magazine)_sentence_90

In late 2008 Variety moved its Los Angeles offices to 5900 Wilshire, a 31-story office building on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile area. Variety (magazine)_sentence_91

The building was dubbed the Variety Building because a red, illuminated "Variety" sign graced the top of the building. Variety (magazine)_sentence_92

In 2013 PMC, the parent company of Variety, announced plans to move Variety's offices to their new corporate headquarters at 11175 Santa Monica Blvd. Variety (magazine)_sentence_93

in Westwood. Variety (magazine)_sentence_94

There, Variety shares the 9-story building with parent company PMC, Variety Insight, Variety 411, and PMC's other media brands, including,,, Robb Report and the West Coast offices of WWD and Footwear News. Variety (magazine)_sentence_95

In 1909, Variety had set up its first overseas office in London. Variety (magazine)_sentence_96

By the time of Sime Silverman's death in 1933, in addition to the New York and Los Angeles offices, there were offices in Chicago and London. Variety (magazine)_sentence_97

Eventually Variety had fully staffed offices based in Sydney (opened 1976), Paris (opened 1975), Rome (opened 1954), Copenhagen, Madrid and Munich. Variety (magazine)_sentence_98

Film reviews Variety (magazine)_section_5

On January 19, 1907, Variety published what is considered the first film review in history. Variety (magazine)_sentence_99

Two reviews written by Sime Silverman were published: Pathé's comedy short An Exciting Honeymoon and Edison Studios' western short The Life of a Cowboy, directed by Edwin S. Porter. Variety (magazine)_sentence_100

Variety discontinued reviews of films between March 1911 until January 1913 as they were convinced by a film producer, believed to be George Kleine, that they were wasting space criticising moving pictures and others had suggested that favourable reviews brought too strong a demand for certain pictures to the exclusion of others. Variety (magazine)_sentence_101

Despite the gap, Variety is still the longest unbroken source of film criticism in existence. Variety (magazine)_sentence_102

In 1930 Variety also started publishing a summary of miniature reviews for the films reviewed that week and in 1951 the editors decided to position the capsules on top of the reviews, a tradition retained today. Variety (magazine)_sentence_103

Reviewers' pen names Variety (magazine)_section_6

Writing reviews was a side job for Variety staff, most of whom were hired to be reporters and not film or theatre critics. Variety (magazine)_sentence_104

Many of the publication's reviewers identified their work with four-letter pen names ("sigs") rather than with their full names. Variety (magazine)_sentence_105

The practice stopped in August 1991. Variety (magazine)_sentence_106

Those abbreviated names include the following: Variety (magazine)_sentence_107

Variety (magazine)_unordered_list_2

  • Abel - Abel Green, editor 1931–1973Variety (magazine)_item_2_9
  • Anby - Vincent Canby, 1951–1957, later chief film critic for The New York TimesVariety (magazine)_item_2_10
  • Army - Army ArcherdVariety (magazine)_item_2_11
  • Bell - Harry EnnisVariety (magazine)_item_2_12
  • Besa - Peter BesasVariety (magazine)_item_2_13
  • Bige - Joe BigelowVariety (magazine)_item_2_14
  • Bing - Claude BinyonVariety (magazine)_item_2_15
  • Cart - Todd McCarthy, 1979–1989; film review editor 1991–2010.Variety (magazine)_item_2_16
  • Chic - Epes W SargeantVariety (magazine)_item_2_17
  • Drek - Derek ElleyVariety (magazine)_item_2_18
  • Edba - Ed BarryVariety (magazine)_item_2_19
  • Gene - Gene ArneelVariety (magazine)_item_2_20
  • Hawk - Robert HawkinsVariety (magazine)_item_2_21
  • Herm - Herman SchoenfeldVariety (magazine)_item_2_22
  • Holl and Hyho - Hy Hollinger, 1953–1960, 1979–1992Variety (magazine)_item_2_23
  • Jolo - Joshua LoweVariety (magazine)_item_2_24
  • Ley - Joe LeydonVariety (magazine)_item_2_25
  • Murf - Arthur D. Murphy, the principal film critic from December 1964 until October 1978.Variety (magazine)_item_2_26
  • Pry - Thomas M. Pryor, editor of Daily Variety from 1959 until his retirement in 1988.Variety (magazine)_item_2_27
  • Rush - Alfred GreasonVariety (magazine)_item_2_28
  • Sid or Skig - Sidne Silverman, Variety publisher and Sime's son.Variety (magazine)_item_2_29
  • Sime - Sime Silverman, founder of Variety and the first to write a film review for the paper.Variety (magazine)_item_2_30
  • Sisk - Robert Sisk, formerly a writer of "news letters" for The Sun in Baltimore, Maryland.Variety (magazine)_item_2_31
  • Syd - Syd Silverman, Sime's grandsonVariety (magazine)_item_2_32
  • The Skirt - Hattie Silverman, Sime's wifeVariety (magazine)_item_2_33
  • Ung - Arthur Ungar, first Daily Variety editorVariety (magazine)_item_2_34
  • Whit - Whitney WilliamsVariety (magazine)_item_2_35

Reprints of reviews Variety (magazine)_section_7

Variety is one of the three English-language periodicals with 10,000 or more film reviews reprinted in book form. Variety (magazine)_sentence_108

These are contained in the 24-volume Variety Film Reviews (1907–1996). Variety (magazine)_sentence_109

Film reviews continue to be published in Variety. Variety (magazine)_sentence_110

The other two periodicals are The New York Times (as The New York Times Film Reviews (1913–2000) in 22 volumes) and Harrison's Reports (as Harrison's Reports and Film Reviews (1919–1962) in 15 volumes). Variety (magazine)_sentence_111

In 1992 Variety published the Variety Movie Guide containing a collection of 5,000 abridged reviews edited by Derek Elley. Variety (magazine)_sentence_112

The last edition was published in 2001 with 8,500 reviews. Variety (magazine)_sentence_113

Many of the abridged reviews for films prior to 1998 are published on unless they have later posted the original review. Variety (magazine)_sentence_114

Obituaries Variety (magazine)_section_8

The complete text of approximately 100,000 entertainment-related obituaries (1905–1986) was reprinted as Variety Obituaries, an 11-volume set, including alphabetical index. Variety (magazine)_sentence_115

Four additional bi-annual reprints were published (for 1987–1994) before the reprint series was discontinued. Variety (magazine)_sentence_116

The annual anniversary edition published in January would often contain a necrology of the entertainment people who had died that year. Variety (magazine)_sentence_117

Charts and data Variety (magazine)_section_9

Variety started reporting box office grosses for films by theatre on March 3, 1922, to give exhibitors around the country information on a film's performance on Broadway, which was often where first run showings of a film were held. Variety (magazine)_sentence_118

In addition to New York City, they also endeavored to include all of the key cities in the U.S. in the future and initially also reported results for ten other cities including Chicago and Los Angeles. Variety (magazine)_sentence_119

They continued to report these grosses for films until 1989 when they put the data into a summarized weekly chart and only published the data by theatre for New York and Los Angeles as well as other international cities such as London and Paris. Variety (magazine)_sentence_120

As media expanded over the years, charts and data for other media such as TV ratings and music charts were published, especially in the anniversary editions that were regularly published each January. Variety (magazine)_sentence_121

During the 1930s charts of the top performing films of the year were published and this tradition has been maintained annually since. Variety (magazine)_sentence_122

In 1946 a weekly National Box Office survey was published on page 3 indicating the performance of the week's hits and flops based on the box office results of 25 key U.S. cities. Variety (magazine)_sentence_123

Later in 1946 a list of All-Time Top Grossers with a list of films that had achieved or gave promise of earning $4,000,000 or more in domestic (U.S. and Canada) rentals was published. Variety (magazine)_sentence_124

An updated chart was published annually for over 50 years, normally in the anniversary edition each January. Variety (magazine)_sentence_125

In the late 1960s Variety started to use an IBM 360 computer to collate the grosses from their weekly reports of 22 to 24 U.S. cities from January 1, 1968. Variety (magazine)_sentence_126

The data came from up to 800 theatres which represented around 5% of the U.S. cinema population at the time but around one-third of the total U.S. box office grosses. Variety (magazine)_sentence_127

In 1969, they started to publish the computerized box office compilation of the top 50 grossing films of the week based on this data. Variety (magazine)_sentence_128

"The Love Bug" was the number one in the first chart published for the week ending April 16, 1969. Variety (magazine)_sentence_129

The chart format was changed in 1989 to reduce the list to a top 40 and display a summary of the sample city theater grosses rather than publish the theater grosses separately. Variety (magazine)_sentence_130

The sample chart was discontinued in 1990. Variety (magazine)_sentence_131

Arthur D. Murphy, who joined Variety in 1964 and worked there until 1993, was one of the first to organize and chart domestic box office gross information that became more available during the 1980s and report it in a meaningful form setting a standard for how film box office information is reported today. Variety (magazine)_sentence_132

Murphy used the weekly sample reports to estimate the total US weekly box office compared with previous annual totals which was reported in Variety's US Boxoffice Report each week. Variety (magazine)_sentence_133

The sample also allowed Murphy to estimate the Market Share percentage rankings of distributors. Variety (magazine)_sentence_134

In 1976 the Variety Box Office Index (VBI) was launched where each month's actual key city box office tally, after seasonal adjustment, was simultaneously expressed as an index number, with 1970 as a whole being used as the base initially. Variety (magazine)_sentence_135

The current month's VBI expressed the monthly box office performance as a percentage change from the base year. Variety (magazine)_sentence_136

The index was published until 1991 giving a history of comparable monthly and annual box office performance for the past 20 years. Variety (magazine)_sentence_137

During the 1980s, Daily Variety started to publish a weekly chart of the domestic box office grosses of films as compared to the Top 50 chart in Variety which was based on a sample of key markets. Variety (magazine)_sentence_138

Variety started to publish this weekend box office report together with the sample Top 50 chart (later top 40) until they discontinued the sample chart in February 1990 with the weekend box office report being their main source of box office reporting. Variety (magazine)_sentence_139

In 2009 Variety launched a chart showcasing the top performing film trailers ahead of theatrical release in partnership with media measurement firm Visible Measures. Variety (magazine)_sentence_140

Other Variety products Variety (magazine)_section_10

In 1937 Variety compiled and published a Radio Directory compiling a record of events in radio such as program histories, ratings and popularity polls. Variety (magazine)_sentence_141

It published an annual edition for the next three years which are available on the Media History Digital Library. Variety (magazine)_sentence_142

In 1981, Variety International Showbusiness Reference was published, which they claimed was the first book to contain a complete list of all winners and nominees for the Academy Awards, Emmy Awards, Tony Awards, Grammy Awards and Pulitzer Prize. Variety (magazine)_sentence_143

The following year they published Variety major U.S. showbusiness awards containing just this award details and a revised edition, called Variety presents the complete book of major U.S. show business awards, was published in 1985. Variety (magazine)_sentence_144

In 1988, R.R. Variety (magazine)_sentence_145

Bowker, a Reed Reference Publishing Company, part of Reed-Elsevier, PLC, a "sister" company to Variety, published Variety's Video Directory Plus, a CD-ROM subscription product, updated quarterly, containing metadata about 90,000 home video products and full-text film reviews from Variety. Variety (magazine)_sentence_146

Peter Cowie joined Variety in 1989 and his International Film Guide, which had been published annually since 1964, became Variety International Film Guide with reports from countries on the year in cinema as well as information of film festivals. Variety (magazine)_sentence_147

It continued to bear Variety's name until 2006. Variety (magazine)_sentence_148

In 1990 Variety published a 15-volume set of its television reviews (including home video product) from 1923 to 1988. Variety (magazine)_sentence_149

Additional supplements were published covering 1989–1990, 1991-1992 and 1993–1994. Variety (magazine)_sentence_150

In 1999 Cowie published The Variety Insider with detailed information on the year in entertainment as well as historical information. Variety (magazine)_sentence_151

A second edition followed in 2000. Variety (magazine)_sentence_152

In November 2014 Variety announced the premiere of Variety Studio: Actors on Actors, a production with PBS SoCal that featured two actors discussing their craft and thoughts on Hollywood, which subsequently went on to win three Emmy awards, including a Daytime Creative Arts Award in May 2019. Variety (magazine)_sentence_153

In January 2017 they launched the Variety Content Studio, creating custom content for brands. Variety (magazine)_sentence_154

Variety Business Intelligence Variety (magazine)_section_11

Variety established its data and research division, Variety Insight, in 2011 when it acquired entertainment data company, Variety (magazine)_sentence_155

Its film database was announced in December 2011 as FlixTracker, but was later folded into Variety Insight. Variety (magazine)_sentence_156

Variety positioned the subscription service as an alternative to crowd-sourced websites, such as the IMDb. Variety (magazine)_sentence_157

The database uses Variety's existing relationships with the studios to get information. Variety (magazine)_sentence_158

The New York Observer identified the main competitor as Baseline StudioSystems. Variety (magazine)_sentence_159

In 2014, Variety Insight added Vscore, a measure of actors' cachet and bankability. Variety (magazine)_sentence_160

In 2015 they partnered with ScriptNoted, a social media website for film scripts. Variety (magazine)_sentence_161

See also Variety (magazine)_section_12

Variety (magazine)_unordered_list_3

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