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This article is about the U.S. state. Vermont_sentence_0

For other uses, see Vermont (disambiguation). Vermont_sentence_1

"Vermonter" redirects here. Vermont_sentence_2

For the Amtrak train service, see Vermonter (train). Vermont_sentence_3


CountryVermont_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesVermont_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodVermont_header_cell_0_2_0 Vermont RepublicVermont_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionVermont_header_cell_0_3_0 March 4, 1791 (14th)Vermont_cell_0_3_1
CapitalVermont_header_cell_0_4_0 MontpelierVermont_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityVermont_header_cell_0_5_0 BurlingtonVermont_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroVermont_header_cell_0_6_0 Greater BurlingtonVermont_cell_0_6_1
GovernorVermont_header_cell_0_8_0 Phil Scott (R)Vermont_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorVermont_header_cell_0_9_0 David Zuckerman (P)Vermont_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureVermont_header_cell_0_10_0 General AssemblyVermont_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseVermont_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateVermont_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseVermont_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesVermont_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryVermont_header_cell_0_13_0 Vermont Supreme CourtVermont_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsVermont_header_cell_0_14_0 Patrick Leahy (D)

Bernie Sanders (I)Vermont_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationVermont_header_cell_0_15_0 Peter Welch (D) (list)Vermont_cell_0_15_1
TotalVermont_header_cell_0_17_0 9,616 sq mi (24,923 km)Vermont_cell_0_17_1
LandVermont_header_cell_0_18_0 9,250 sq mi (23,957.39 km)Vermont_cell_0_18_1
WaterVermont_header_cell_0_19_0 382 sq mi (989 km)  4.1%Vermont_cell_0_19_1
Area rankVermont_header_cell_0_20_0 45thVermont_cell_0_20_1
LengthVermont_header_cell_0_22_0 160 mi (260 km)Vermont_cell_0_22_1
WidthVermont_header_cell_0_23_0 80 mi (130 km)Vermont_cell_0_23_1
ElevationVermont_header_cell_0_24_0 1,000 ft (300 m)Vermont_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Mount Mansfield)Vermont_header_cell_0_25_0 4,395 ft (1,340 m)Vermont_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (Lake Champlain)Vermont_header_cell_0_26_0 95 to 100 ft (29 to 30 m)Vermont_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)Vermont_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalVermont_header_cell_0_28_0 623,989Vermont_cell_0_28_1
RankVermont_header_cell_0_29_0 49thVermont_cell_0_29_1
DensityVermont_header_cell_0_30_0 67.7/sq mi (26.1/km)Vermont_cell_0_30_1
Density rankVermont_header_cell_0_31_0 30thVermont_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomeVermont_header_cell_0_32_0 $57,513Vermont_cell_0_32_1
Income rankVermont_header_cell_0_33_0 28thVermont_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)Vermont_header_cell_0_34_0 VermonterVermont_cell_0_34_1
Time zoneVermont_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC−05:00 (Eastern)Vermont_cell_0_36_1
Summer (DST)Vermont_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)Vermont_cell_0_37_1
USPS abbreviationVermont_header_cell_0_38_0 VTVermont_cell_0_38_1
ISO 3166 codeVermont_header_cell_0_39_0 US-VTVermont_cell_0_39_1
Traditional abbreviationVermont_header_cell_0_40_0 Vt.Vermont_cell_0_40_1
LatitudeVermont_header_cell_0_41_0 42°44′ N to 45°1′ NVermont_cell_0_41_1
LongitudeVermont_header_cell_0_42_0 71°28′ W to 73°26′ WVermont_cell_0_42_1
WebsiteVermont_header_cell_0_43_0 Vermont_cell_0_43_1


Vermont state symbolsVermont_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaVermont_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianVermont_header_cell_1_2_0 Northern leopard frog

Rana pipiensVermont_cell_1_2_1

BirdVermont_header_cell_1_3_0 Hermit thrush

Catharus guttatusVermont_cell_1_3_1

FishVermont_header_cell_1_4_0 Brook trout

Salvelinus fontinalis


Sander vitreous vitreousVermont_cell_1_4_1

FlowerVermont_header_cell_1_5_0 Red clover

Trifolium pratenseVermont_cell_1_5_1

InsectVermont_header_cell_1_6_0 Western honey bee

Apis melliferaVermont_cell_1_6_1

MammalVermont_header_cell_1_7_0 Morgan horseVermont_cell_1_7_1
ReptileVermont_header_cell_1_8_0 Painted turtleVermont_cell_1_8_1
TreeVermont_header_cell_1_9_0 Sugar maple

Acer saccharumVermont_cell_1_9_1

Inanimate insigniaVermont_header_cell_1_10_0
BeverageVermont_header_cell_1_11_0 MilkVermont_cell_1_11_1
FoodVermont_header_cell_1_12_0 Apple pieVermont_cell_1_12_1
FossilVermont_header_cell_1_13_0 Beluga whaleVermont_cell_1_13_1
GemstoneVermont_header_cell_1_14_0 Grossular garnetVermont_cell_1_14_1
MineralVermont_header_cell_1_15_0 TalcVermont_cell_1_15_1
RockVermont_header_cell_1_16_0 Granite, marble, slateVermont_cell_1_16_1
SoilVermont_header_cell_1_17_0 TunbridgeVermont_cell_1_17_1
State route markerVermont_header_cell_1_18_0
State quarterVermont_header_cell_1_19_0

Vermont (/vərˈmɒnt/ (listen)) is a northeastern state in the New England region of the United States. Vermont_sentence_4

It borders the states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, and New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont_sentence_5

Vermont is the only state in New England that does not border the Atlantic Ocean. Vermont_sentence_6

Vermont is the second-least-populated U.S. state and the sixth-smallest by area of the 50 U.S. states. Vermont_sentence_7

The state capital is Montpelier, the least-populous state capital in the United States. Vermont_sentence_8

The most-populous city, Burlington, is the least-populous city to be the most-populous city in a state. Vermont_sentence_9

For some 12,000 years, indigenous peoples inhabited this area. Vermont_sentence_10

The historically competitive tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki and Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk were active in the area at the time of European encounter. Vermont_sentence_11

During the 17th century, French colonists claimed the territory as part of the Kingdom of France's colony of New France. Vermont_sentence_12

After the Kingdom of Great Britain began to settle colonies to the south along the Atlantic coast, the two nations competed in North America in addition to Europe. Vermont_sentence_13

For years, each country enlisted Native American allies in continuous raiding and warfare between the New England and New France colonies. Vermont_sentence_14

This produced an active trade in captives taken during such raids, often held for ransom, although some captives were adopted by families into the Mohawk or Abenaki tribes. Vermont_sentence_15

After being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War, France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain. Vermont_sentence_16

Thereafter, the nearby British Thirteen Colonies, especially the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed the extent of the area called the New Hampshire Grants to the west of the Connecticut River, encompassing present-day Vermont. Vermont_sentence_17

The provincial government of New York sold land grants to settlers in the region, which conflicted with earlier grants from the government of New Hampshire. Vermont_sentence_18

The Green Mountain Boys militia protected the interests of the established New Hampshire land grant settlers against the newly arrived settlers with land titles granted by New York. Vermont_sentence_19

Ultimately, a group of settlers with New Hampshire land grant titles established the Vermont Republic in 1777 as an independent state during the American Revolutionary War. Vermont_sentence_20

The Vermont Republic abolished slavery before any of the other states. Vermont_sentence_21

Vermont was also the first state to produce an African-American university graduate, Alexander Twilight, in 1823. Vermont_sentence_22

Vermont was admitted to the newly established United States as the fourteenth state in 1791. Vermont_sentence_23

Vermont is one of the four U.S. states that were previously sovereign states (along with Texas, California, and Hawaii). Vermont_sentence_24

During the mid-19th century, Vermont was a strong source of abolitionist sentiment, although it was also tied to King Cotton through the development of textile mills in the region, which relied on southern cotton. Vermont_sentence_25

It sent a significant contingent of soldiers to participate in the American Civil War. Vermont_sentence_26

The geography of the state is marked by the Green Mountains, which run north–south up the middle of the state, separating Lake Champlain and other valley terrain on the west from the Connecticut River valley that defines much of its eastern border. Vermont_sentence_27

A majority of its terrain is forested with hardwoods and conifers, and a majority of its open land is devoted to agriculture. Vermont_sentence_28

The state's climate is characterized by warm, humid summers and cold, snowy winters. Vermont_sentence_29

Vermont's economic activity of $34 billion in 2018 ranked 52nd on the list of U.S. states and territories by GDP (every state plus Washington, D.C. and Puerto Rico were larger), but 34th in GDP per capita. Vermont_sentence_30

In 1960, Vermonters' politics started to shift from being reliably Republican toward favoring Democratic candidates. Vermont_sentence_31

Starting in 1963, Vermont voters have alternated between electing Republican and Democratic governors. Vermont_sentence_32

Since 2007, Vermont has elected only Democrats and independents to Congress. Vermont_sentence_33

In 2000, the state legislature was the first to recognize civil unions for same-sex couples. Vermont_sentence_34

In 2011–2012, the state officially recognized four Abenaki tribes. Vermont_sentence_35

Etymology Vermont_section_0

Samuel de Champlain claimed the area around what is now Lake Champlain, giving the name Verd Mont (Green Mountain) to the region he found, on a 1647 map. Vermont_sentence_36

Evidence suggests that this name came into use among English settlers, before it morphed to "Vermont", ca. 1760. Vermont_sentence_37

In 1777, Thomas Young introduced the name in writing with a broadside "To the Inhabitants of Vermont, a Free and Independent State". Vermont_sentence_38

Geography Vermont_section_1

See also: List of counties in Vermont, List of towns in Vermont, and List of mountains of Vermont Vermont_sentence_39

Vermont is located in the New England region of the Northeastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles (24,900 km), making it the 45th-largest state. Vermont_sentence_40

It is the only state that does not have any buildings taller than 124 feet (38 m). Vermont_sentence_41

Land comprises 9,250 square miles (24,000 km) and water comprises 365 square miles (950 km), making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. Vermont_sentence_42

In total area, it is larger than El Salvador and smaller than Haiti. Vermont_sentence_43

It is the only landlocked state in New England, and it is the easternmost and the smallest in area of all landlocked states. Vermont_sentence_44

The Green Mountains in Vermont form a north–south spine running most of the length of the state, slightly west of its center. Vermont_sentence_45

In the southwest portion of the state are located the Taconic Mountains. Vermont_sentence_46

In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. Vermont_sentence_47

In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen. Vermont_sentence_48

The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the state's eastern border with New Hampshire, though much of the river flows within New Hampshire's territory. Vermont_sentence_49

41% of Vermont's land area is part of the Connecticut River's watershed. Vermont_sentence_50

Lake Champlain, the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States, separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. Vermont_sentence_51

From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles (256 km) long. Vermont_sentence_52

Its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles (143 km) at the Canada–U.S. Vermont_sentence_53

border; the narrowest width is 37 miles (60 km) near the Massachusetts border. Vermont_sentence_54

The width averages 60.5 miles (97.4 km). Vermont_sentence_55

The state's geographic center is approximately three miles (5 km) east of Roxbury, in Washington County. Vermont_sentence_56

There are fifteen U.S. federal border crossings between Vermont and Canada. Vermont_sentence_57

Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state; Killington Peak, the second-highest; Camel's Hump, the state's third-highest; and Mount Abraham, the fifth-highest peak. Vermont_sentence_58

Areas in Vermont administered by the National Park Service include the Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (in Woodstock) and the Appalachian National Scenic Trail. Vermont_sentence_59

Cities Vermont_section_2

Vermont has nine incorporated cities. Vermont_sentence_60

The most populous city in Vermont is Burlington. Vermont_sentence_61

Its metropolitan area is also the most populous in the state, with an estimate of 218,395 as of 2017. Vermont_sentence_62

Largest towns Vermont_section_3

Although these towns are large enough to be considered cities, they are not incorporated as such. Vermont_sentence_63

Climate Vermont_section_4

See also: Climate of New England Vermont_sentence_64

The annual mean temperature for the state is 43 °F (6 °C). Vermont_sentence_65

Vermont has a humid continental climate, with muddy springs, in general a mild early summer, hot Augusts; it has colorful autumns: Vermont's hills reveal red, orange, and (on sugar maples) gold foliage as cold weather approaches. Vermont_sentence_66

Winters are colder at higher elevations. Vermont_sentence_67

It has a Köppen climate classification of Dfb, a warm humid continental climate. Vermont_sentence_68

The rural northeastern section known as the "Northeast Kingdom" often averages 10 °F (5.6 °C) colder than the southern areas of the state during winter. Vermont_sentence_69

The annual snowfall averages between 60 and 100 inches (1,500 and 2,500 mm) depending on elevation. Vermont_sentence_70

Vermont is the seventh coldest state in the country. Vermont_sentence_71

The highest recorded temperature was 105 °F (41 °C), at Vernon, on July 4, 1911. Vermont_sentence_72

The lowest recorded temperature was −50 °F (−46 °C), at Bloomfield, on December 30, 1933; this is the lowest temperature recorded in New England alongside Big Black River, which recorded a verified −50 °F (−46 °C) in 2009. Vermont_sentence_73

The agricultural growing season ranges from 120 to 180 days. Vermont_sentence_74

The United States Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones for the state range between zone 3b, no colder than −35 °F (−37 °C), in the Northeast Kingdom and northern part of the state and zone 5b, no colder than −15 °F (−26 °C), in the southern part of the state. Vermont_sentence_75

The state receives between 2,200 and 2,400 hours of sunshine annually. Vermont_sentence_76

New England as a whole receives a range of less than 2,000 hours of sunshine in part of New Hampshire to as much as 2,600 hours of sunshine per year in Connecticut and Rhode Island. Vermont_sentence_77

Climate change Vermont_section_5

Geology Vermont_section_6

Further information: Geology of New England Vermont_sentence_78

There are five distinct physiographic regions of Vermont. Vermont_sentence_79

Categorized by geological and physical attributes, they are the Northeastern Highlands, the Green Mountains, the Taconic Mountains, the Champlain Lowlands, and the Vermont Piedmont. Vermont_sentence_80

About 500 million years ago, Vermont was part of Laurentia and located in the tropics. Vermont_sentence_81

The central and southern Green Mountain range include the oldest rocks in Vermont, formed about one billion years ago during the first mountain building period (or orogeny). Vermont_sentence_82

Subsequently, about 400 million years ago, the second mountain building period created Green Mountain peaks that were 15,000–20,000 feet (4,600–6,100 m) tall, three to four times their current height and comparable to the Himalayas. Vermont_sentence_83

The geological pressures that created those peaks remain evident as the Champlain Thrust, running north–south to the west of the mountains (now the eastern shore of Lake Champlain). Vermont_sentence_84

It is an example of geological fault thrusting where bedrock is pushed over the newer rock formation. Vermont_sentence_85

As a result of tectonic formation, Vermont east of the Green Mountains tends to be formed from rocks produced in the Silurian and Devonian periods, and western Vermont mainly from the older Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian material. Vermont_sentence_86

Several large deposits within the state contain granite. Vermont_sentence_87

The remains of the Chazy Formation can be observed in Isle La Motte. Vermont_sentence_88

It was one of the first tropical reefs. Vermont_sentence_89

It is the site of the limestone Fisk Quarry, which contains a collection of ancient marine fossils, such as stromatoporoids, that date to 200 million years ago. Vermont_sentence_90

At one point, Vermont is believed to have been connected to Africa (Pangaea); the fossils found and the rock formations found on the coasts in both Africa and America are evidence affirming the Pangaea theory. Vermont_sentence_91

In the past four centuries, Vermont has experienced a few earthquakes, rarely centered under the state. Vermont_sentence_92

The highest ranked, in 1952, had a Richter magnitude scale 6.0 and was based in Canada. Vermont_sentence_93

Fauna Vermont_section_7

The state contains 41 species of reptiles and amphibians, 89 species of fish, of which 12 are non native; 193 species of breeding birds, 58 species of mammals, more than 15,000 insect species, and 2,000 higher plant species, plus fungi, algae, and 75 different types of natural communities. Vermont_sentence_94

Vermont contains one species of venomous snake, the timber rattlesnake, which is confined to a few acres in western Rutland County. Vermont_sentence_95

Wildlife has suffered because of human development of the state. Vermont_sentence_96

By the mid-19th century, wild turkeys were exterminated in the state through overhunting and destruction of habitat. Vermont_sentence_97

Sixteen were re-introduced in 1969, and had grown to a flock estimated to number 45,000 in 2009. Vermont_sentence_98

In 2013, hunters killed 6,968 of these. Vermont_sentence_99

Since 1970, reduction of farmland has resulted in reduced environment for, and resulted in a decline in numbers of various shrubland birds, including the American woodcock, brown thrasher, eastern towhee, willow flycatcher, golden-winged warbler, blue-winged warbler, field sparrow, and Baltimore oriole. Vermont_sentence_100

The use of DDT for insect control resulted in ospreys laying eggs that were too thin to support the development of young. Vermont_sentence_101

This species disappeared from the state. Vermont_sentence_102

It began to reappear in 1998, when ospreys were observed again locally. Vermont_sentence_103

As of 2010, they were no longer endangered in the state. Vermont_sentence_104

From 2008 to 2010, White-nose syndrome killed an estimated two-thirds of all cave-wintering bats in the state. Vermont_sentence_105

The New England cottontail disappeared from the state in the early 1970s, out-competed by the eastern cottontail rabbit, imported in the 1800s for hunting. Vermont_sentence_106

It is better able to detect and avoid predators. Vermont_sentence_107

Out of a total of 33 species of bumblebee, by 2013 the number declined to 19 or 20 species in the state. Vermont_sentence_108

Bombus terricola (the yellow-banded bumblebee), although once common in Vermont, has not been seen in most of its range since 1999 and is now absent from the state. Vermont_sentence_109

For honey bees, colony collapse disorder has affected bee population in the state, as elsewhere. Vermont_sentence_110

Invasive species included the Asian spotted-wing drosophila, which started damaging berry crops in 2012. Vermont_sentence_111

Vermont was the initial point of invasion in New England. Vermont_sentence_112

Since 2010, the Vermont Department of Health has worked with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conduct blood serum surveys of the state's deer and moose populations. Vermont_sentence_113

Tests for eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies were positive in moose or deer in each of Vermont's counties. Vermont_sentence_114

In 2012, 12% of deer and 2.4% of moose tested positive. Vermont_sentence_115

Flora Vermont_section_8

Vermont is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. Vermont_sentence_116

Much of the state, in particular the Green Mountains, is covered by the conifers and northern hardwoods of the New England-Acadian forests. Vermont_sentence_117

The western border with New York and the area around Lake Champlain lies within the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests. Vermont_sentence_118

The southwest corner of the state and parts of the Connecticut River are covered by northeastern coastal forests of mixed oak. Vermont_sentence_119

Invasive wild honeysuckle has been deemed a threat to the state's forests, native species of plants, and wildlife. Vermont_sentence_120

Many of Vermont's rivers, including the Winooski River, have been subjected to man-made barriers to prevent flooding. Vermont_sentence_121

Climate change appears to be affecting the maple sugar industry. Vermont_sentence_122

Sugar maples have been subject to stress by acid rain, asian longhorn beetles, and pear thrips. Vermont_sentence_123

In 2011 the deer herd had grown too large for habitat, and many resorted to eating bark to survive the winter, destroying trees in the process. Vermont_sentence_124

In addition, the sugar maples need a certain period of cold to produce sap for maple syrup. Vermont_sentence_125

The time to tap these trees has shrunk to one week in some years. Vermont_sentence_126

The tree may be replaced by the more aggressive Norway maples, in effect forcing the sugar maples to "migrate" north to Canada. Vermont_sentence_127

History Vermont_section_9

Main article: History of Vermont Vermont_sentence_128

Native American Vermont_section_10

Between 8500 and 7000 BCE, at the time of the Champlain Sea, Native Americans inhabited and hunted in present-day Vermont. Vermont_sentence_129

During the Archaic period, from the 8th millennium BCE to 1000 BCE, Native Americans migrated year-round. Vermont_sentence_130

During the Woodland period, from 1000 BCE to 1600 CE, they established villages and trade networks, and developed ceramic and bow and arrow technology. Vermont_sentence_131

Their population in 1500 CE was estimated to be around 10,000 people. Vermont_sentence_132

During colonial times, where encounters and settlement were initiated by French colonists, the territory was occupied mainly by an Abenaki tribe known as the Sokoki, or Missisquois. Vermont_sentence_133

The eastern part of the state may have also been occupied by the Androscoggin and Pennacook peoples. Vermont_sentence_134

To the west, the Missisquois competed with the Iroquoian Mohawk, based in the Mohawk valley but with a large territory, and the Algonquin Mohican peoples. Vermont_sentence_135

Many of the tribes later formed the Wabanaki Confederacy during King Philip's War. Vermont_sentence_136

The warfare by English colonists defeated and scattered most of the surviving Abenaki tribes. Vermont_sentence_137

Colonial Vermont_section_11

Main articles: New France, Canada (New France), Province of New York, Dominion of New England, French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), and Indian Reserve (1763) Vermont_sentence_138

See also: List of forts in Vermont Vermont_sentence_139

The first European to see Vermont is thought to have been French explorer Jacques Cartier in 1535. Vermont_sentence_140

On July 30, 1609, French explorer Samuel de Champlain claimed this territory as part of New France. Vermont_sentence_141

In 1666, French settlers erected Fort Sainte Anne on Isle La Motte, the first European settlement in Vermont. Vermont_sentence_142

The "violent" 1638 New Hampshire earthquake was centered in the St. Lawrence Valley and reported throughout New England. Vermont_sentence_143

This was the first seismic event noted in Vermont. Vermont_sentence_144

In 1690, a group of Dutch-British settlers from Albany established a settlement and trading post at Chimney Point, 8 miles (13 km) west of present-day Addison. Vermont_sentence_145

During Dummer's War, the first permanent English settlement was established in 1724 with the construction of Fort Dummer. Vermont_sentence_146

It was intended to protect the nearby settlements of Dummerston and Brattleboro. Vermont_sentence_147

From 1731 to 1734, the French constructed Fort St. Frédéric, which gave them control of the New France–Vermont frontier region in the Lake Champlain Valley. Vermont_sentence_148

With the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1754, the North American front of the Seven Years' War between the French and British, the French began construction in 1755 of Fort Carillon at present-day Ticonderoga, New York. Vermont_sentence_149

The British failed to take either fort between 1755 and 1758. Vermont_sentence_150

In 1759 a combined force of 12,000 British regular and provincial troops under Sir Jeffery Amherst captured Carillon, after which the French abandoned Fort St. Frédéric. Vermont_sentence_151

Amherst constructed Fort Crown Point next to the remains of the Fort St. Frédéric, securing British control over the area. Vermont_sentence_152

Following France's loss in the French and Indian War, through the 1763 Treaty of Paris, it ceded control of land east of the Mississippi River to the British. Vermont_sentence_153

The Crown attempted to limit colonial settlement to lands east of the Appalachians, in order to prohibit encroachment on Native American lands. Vermont_sentence_154

The territory of Vermont was divided nearly in half in a jagged line running from Fort William Henry in Lake George diagonally north-eastward to Lake Memphremagog. Vermont_sentence_155

With the end of the war, new settlers arrived in Vermont. Vermont_sentence_156

Ultimately, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York all claimed this frontier area. Vermont_sentence_157

On July 20, 1764, King George III established the boundary between New Hampshire and New York along the west bank of the Connecticut River, north of Massachusetts, and south of 45 degrees north latitude. Vermont_sentence_158

New York refused to recognize the land titles known as the New Hampshire Grants (towns created by land grants sold by New Hampshire Governor Benning Wentworth) and dissatisfied New Hampshire settlers organized in opposition. Vermont_sentence_159

In 1770 Ethan Allen, his brothers Ira and Levi, and the Allens' cousins Seth Warner and Remember Baker, recruited an informal militia known as the Green Mountain Boys to protect the interests of the original New Hampshire settlers against newcomers from New York. Vermont_sentence_160

In 1775, after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, the Green Mountain Boys assisted a force from Connecticut, led by Benedict Arnold, in capturing the British fort at Ticonderoga. Vermont_sentence_161

Thereafter, the Continental Congress in Philadelphia directed the New York colony's revolutionary congress to fund and equip Allen's militia as a ranger regiment of the Continental Army, which it did. Vermont_sentence_162

Seth Warner was chosen by the men of the regiment to lead, while Ethan Allen later served as a colonel in Schuyler's Army of Northern New York. Vermont_sentence_163

Sovereignty Vermont_section_12

Main articles: Vermont Republic and Constitution of Vermont (1777) Vermont_sentence_164

On January 15, 1777, representatives of the New Hampshire Grants declared the independence of Vermont. Vermont_sentence_165

For the first six months of its existence, it was called the Republic of New Connecticut. Vermont_sentence_166

On June 2, 1777, a second convention of 72 delegates met and adopted the name "Vermont." Vermont_sentence_167

This was on the advice of a friendly Pennsylvanian, Dr. Thomas Young, friend and mentor of Ethan Allen. Vermont_sentence_168

He was advising them on how to achieve admission into the newly independent United States of America as the 14th state. Vermont_sentence_169

On July 4, they completed the drafting of the Constitution of Vermont at the Windsor Tavern, and adopted it on July 8. Vermont_sentence_170

This was the first written constitution in North America to ban adult slavery, saying male slaves become free at the age of 21 and females at 18. Vermont_sentence_171

It provided for universal adult male suffrage and required support of public schools. Vermont_sentence_172

It was in effect from 1777 to 1786. Vermont_sentence_173

Revolutionary War Vermont_section_13

Main articles: American Revolutionary War, Northern theater of the American Revolutionary War, and Treaty of Paris (1783) Vermont_sentence_174

The Battle of Bennington, fought on August 16, 1777, was a seminal event in the history of the state of Vermont and the United States. Vermont_sentence_175

A combined American force, under General John Stark's command, attacked the Hessian column at Hoosick, New York, just across the border from Bennington. Vermont_sentence_176

It killed or captured virtually the entire Hessian detachment. Vermont_sentence_177

General Burgoyne never recovered from this loss and eventually surrendered the remainder of his 6,000-man force at Saratoga, New York, on October 17 that year. Vermont_sentence_178

The battles of Bennington and Saratoga together are recognized as the turning point in the Revolutionary War because they were the first major defeat of a British army. Vermont_sentence_179

The anniversary of the battle is still celebrated in Vermont as a legal holiday. Vermont_sentence_180

The Battle of Hubbardton (July 7, 1777) was the only Revolutionary battle within the present boundaries of Vermont. Vermont_sentence_181

Although the Continental forces were technically defeated, the British forces were damaged to the point that they did not pursue the Americans (retreating from Fort Ticonderoga) any further. Vermont_sentence_182

Admission to the Union Vermont_section_14

Main articles: Admission to the Union and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Vermont_sentence_183

Vermont continued to govern itself as a sovereign entity based in the eastern town of Windsor for 14 years. Vermont_sentence_184

The independent state of Vermont issued its own coinage from 1785 to 1788 and operated a national postal service. Vermont_sentence_185

Thomas Chittenden was the Governor in 1778–89 and in 1790–91. Vermont_sentence_186

Because the state of New York continued to assert a disputed claim that Vermont was a part of New York, Vermont could not be admitted to the Union under Article IV, Section 3 of the Constitution until the legislature of New York consented. Vermont_sentence_187

On March 6, 1790, the legislature made its consent contingent upon a negotiated agreement on the precise boundary between the two states. Vermont_sentence_188

When commissioners from New York and Vermont met to decide on the boundary, Vermont's negotiators insisted on also settling the property ownership disputes with New Yorkers, rather than leaving that to be decided later in a federal court. Vermont_sentence_189

The negotiations were successfully concluded in October 1790 with an agreement that Vermont would pay $30,000 to New York to be distributed among New Yorkers who claimed land in Vermont under New York land patents. Vermont_sentence_190

In January 1791, a convention in Vermont voted 105–4 to petition Congress to become a state in the federal union. Vermont_sentence_191

Congress acted on February 18, 1791, to admit Vermont to the Union as the 14th state as of March 4, 1791. Vermont_sentence_192

Vermont became the first to enter the Union after the original 13 states. Vermont_sentence_193

The revised constitution of 1786, which established a greater separation of powers, continued in effect until 1793, two years after Vermont's admission to the Union. Vermont_sentence_194

Under the Act "To Secure Freedom to All Persons Within This State," Slavery was officially banned by state law on November 25, 1858, less than three years before the American Civil War. Vermont_sentence_195

Vermonters provided refuge in several sites for escaped slaves, fleeing to Canada, as part of what was called the Underground Railroad. Vermont_sentence_196

Civil War Vermont_section_15

Main article: Vermont in the American Civil War Vermont_sentence_197

From the mid-1850s on, some Vermonters became activists opposing slavery, which they had previously worked to contain in the South. Vermont_sentence_198

Abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens was born in Vermont and later represented a district in Pennsylvania in Congress. Vermont_sentence_199

He developed as a national leader and later promoted Radical Republican goals after the American Civil War. Vermont_sentence_200

While the Whig Party shriveled, and the Republican Party emerged, Vermont supported Republican candidates. Vermont_sentence_201

In 1860 it voted for Abraham Lincoln, giving him the largest margin of victory of any state. Vermont_sentence_202

During the American Civil War, Vermont sent 33,288 men into United States service. Vermont_sentence_203

5,224 Vermonters (more than 15 percent) were killed. Vermont_sentence_204

The northernmost land action of the war was the St. Vermont_sentence_205 Albans Raid—the robbery of three St. Albans banks, perpetrated in October 1864 by 21 Confederate agents. Vermont_sentence_206

A posse pursued the Confederate raiders into Canada and captured several of them. Vermont_sentence_207

They had to turn their captives over to Canadian officials. Vermont_sentence_208

Canada reimbursed the banks, released, and later re-arrested some of the perpetrators. Vermont_sentence_209

Postbellum era to present Vermont_section_16

Demographic changes and rise of eugenics in 20th century Vermont_section_17

As English speakers came to dominate the population in Vermont, they anglicized the names of many ethnic French residents and often discriminated against them. Vermont_sentence_210

In the mid-20th century, descendants began to reclaim their French names, especially surnames. Vermont_sentence_211

Beginning in the mid-19th century, Vermont industries attracted numerous Irish, Scots-Irish and Italian immigrants, adding to its residents of mostly English and some French-Canadian ancestry. Vermont_sentence_212

Many of the immigrants migrated to Barre, where the men worked as stonecutters of granite, for which there was a national market. Vermont_sentence_213

Vermont granite was used in major public buildings in many states. Vermont_sentence_214

In this period, many Italian and Scottish women operated boarding houses to support their families. Vermont_sentence_215

Such facilities also helped absorb new residents and help them learn the new culture; European immigrants peaked in number between 1890 and 1900. Vermont_sentence_216

Typically immigrants boarded with people of their own language and ethnicity, but sometimes they boarded with others. Vermont_sentence_217

Gradually the new immigrants were absorbed into the state. Vermont_sentence_218

Times of tension aroused divisions. Vermont_sentence_219

In the early 20th century, some people in Vermont became alarmed about what they considered to be a decline in rural areas; people left farming to move to cities and others seemed unable to fit within society. Vermont_sentence_220

In addition, there was a wave of immigration by French Canadians, and those of Protestant Yankee stock feared being overtaken by the new people, who added to the Catholic population of Irish and Italians. Vermont_sentence_221

Based on the colonial past, some Yankee residents considered the French Canadians to have intermarried too frequently with Native Americans. Vermont_sentence_222

In an era influenced by ideas of Social Darwinism, some Vermont leaders promoted eugenics, an idea that the population could be managed and improved by limiting marriage and reproduction by certain members classified as unfit or defective. Vermont_sentence_223

It passed a marriage law, to limit marriage by people considered unfit. Vermont_sentence_224

In 1915 the Brandon State School opened, the beginning of a related effort to segregate and control those judged unfit to reproduce. Vermont_sentence_225

The state followed efforts to improve children's welfare by establishing other institutions to house the mentally ill or disabled. Vermont_sentence_226

From 1925 to 1928 the Eugenics Survey of Vermont conducted research and recorded the histories of families it determined were degenerate or dependent. Vermont_sentence_227

It also attempted to educate the public about why restrictive measures, including voluntary sterilization, were desirable. Vermont_sentence_228

Review by current historians reveals the results were socially prejudiced, as the surveys tended to target the poor and disenfranchised minorities, including French Canadians, Abenaki, and disabled. Vermont_sentence_229

In 1931 Vermont was the 29th state to pass a eugenics law. Vermont_sentence_230

Vermont like other states, sterilized some patients in institutions and persons it had identified through surveys as degenerate or unfit. Vermont_sentence_231

It nominally had permission from the patients or their guardians, but abuses have been documented. Vermont_sentence_232

Two-thirds of the sterilizations were done on women, and poor, unwed mothers were targeted, among others. Vermont_sentence_233

The surgery was performed at institutions and hospitals in the state supposedly devoted to care of people in need. Vermont_sentence_234

There is disagreement about how many sterilizations were performed; most were completed from 1931 to 1941, but such procedures were recorded as late as 1970. Vermont_sentence_235

Natural disasters Vermont_section_18

In addition to the increased intensity and flooding caused by climate change, the state has suffered several extreme natural disasters in the 20th and 21st centuries related to hurricanes, and extensive rain and flooding. Vermont_sentence_236

Large-scale flooding occurred in early November 1927. Vermont_sentence_237

During this incident, 84 people died, including the state's lieutenant governor. Vermont_sentence_238

The 1938 New England hurricane in the fall of that year blew down 15,000,000 acres (61,000 km) of trees, one-third of the total forest at the time in New England. Vermont_sentence_239

Three billion board feet were salvaged. Vermont_sentence_240

Today many of the older trees in Vermont are about 75 years old, dating from after this storm. Vermont_sentence_241

A major flood occurred in 1973, causing the deaths of two people and millions of dollars in property damage. Vermont_sentence_242

The state suffered severe flooding in late August 2011 caused by Tropical Storm Irene. Vermont_sentence_243

Heavy rains caused flooding in many towns built along narrow river valleys. Vermont_sentence_244

The governor described it as one of the worst natural disasters of the 20th and 21st centuries, second only to the flood of 1927. Vermont_sentence_245

The state was classified as a federal disaster area. Vermont_sentence_246

Political changes Vermont_section_19

Vermont approved women's suffrage decades before it became part of the national constitution. Vermont_sentence_247

Women were first allowed to vote in the elections of December 18, 1880, when women were granted limited suffrage. Vermont_sentence_248

They were first allowed to vote in town elections, and later in state legislative races. Vermont_sentence_249

In 1964, the U.S. Vermont_sentence_250 Supreme Court decision in Reynolds v. Sims required "one man, one vote" redistricting in all states. Vermont_sentence_251

It had found that many state legislatures had not redistricted and were unjustly dominated by rural interests, years after the development of densely populated and industrial urban areas. Vermont_sentence_252

In addition, it found that many states had an upper house based on geographical jurisdictions, such as counties. Vermont_sentence_253

This gave disproportionate power to rural and lightly populated counties. Vermont_sentence_254

The court ruled there was no basis for such a structure. Vermont_sentence_255

Major changes in political apportionment took place in Vermont and other affected states. Vermont_sentence_256

This ruling required districts to be reassessed after every census and to be based on roughly equal population, rather than geography (such as counties). Vermont_sentence_257

Under redistricting, residents in urban areas were to gain an equitable share of apportionment in both houses in every state. Vermont_sentence_258

Vermont and some other northern states had long been dominated by rural districts, as were several Southern states in those years, who had not redistricted since the turn of the century. Vermont_sentence_259

Until that time, apportionment of upper houses was often based on county jurisdictions, which had given more power to rural counties and failed to acknowledge the increased population in urban areas. Vermont_sentence_260

This arrangement had meant that urban areas did not have proportionate political power and often suffered from underinvestment in needed infrastructure; other urban issues were also neglected by rural-dominated legislatures. Vermont_sentence_261

In July 2000, Vermont became the first state to introduce civil unions. Vermont_sentence_262

In 2009, Vermont became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage, unforced by court challenge or ruling. Vermont_sentence_263

Since the late 20th century, Abenaki peoples in Vermont lobbied for recognition. Vermont_sentence_264

In 2011 the state officially recognized their continued presence in the region by recognizing the Elnu Tribe of the Abenaki and the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk Abenaki Nation; in 2012 it recognized the Abenaki Nation of Missisquoi and the Koasek Traditional Band of the Koos Abenaki Nation. Vermont_sentence_265

In 2016 the state governor proclaimed Columbus Day as Indigenous Peoples Day. Vermont_sentence_266

On January 22, 2018, Vermont became the first of the United States to legalize cannabis for recreational use by legislative action, and the ninth state in the United States to legalize marijuana for medical purposes. Vermont_sentence_267

This law was signed by Republican Governor Phil Scott. Vermont_sentence_268

Demographics Vermont_section_20

Population changes Vermont_section_21

According to the United States Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2019, Vermont had an estimated population of 623,989. Vermont_sentence_269

This included a natural increase 3,178 (31,716 births minus 28,538 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 2,432 people out of the state. Vermont_sentence_270

In 2006 it had the second lowest birthrate in the nation, 42/1000 women. Vermont_sentence_271

The center of population of Vermont is located in Washington County, in the town of Warren. Vermont_sentence_272

As of 2014, 51.3% of Vermont's population was born in the state (compared with 58.7% for the United States). Vermont_sentence_273

The changing demographics between those with multi-generational ties to the state and those who are newcomers, bringing different values with them, has resulted in a degree of tension between the two perspectives. Vermont_sentence_274

This tension is expressed in the terms, "Woodchuck", being applied to those established in the state, and "Flatlander", applied to the newcomers. Vermont_sentence_275

Vermont is the least populous New England state. Vermont_sentence_276

As of 2012, Vermont was one of only two states in the U.S. with fewer people than the District of Columbia (Wyoming was the other). Vermont_sentence_277

From 2010 to 2013, 16 out of Vermont's 251 towns experienced an increase in population. Vermont_sentence_278

All towns in Chittenden increased with the exception of Burlington. Vermont_sentence_279

More than 180 towns experienced a decrease, which hadn't happened since the mid-19th century. Vermont_sentence_280

Birth data Vermont_section_22

Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Vermont_sentence_281


Live births by single race/ethnicity of motherVermont_table_caption_2
RaceVermont_header_cell_2_0_0 2013Vermont_header_cell_2_0_1 2014Vermont_header_cell_2_0_2 2015Vermont_header_cell_2_0_3 2016Vermont_header_cell_2_0_4 2017Vermont_header_cell_2_0_5 2018Vermont_header_cell_2_0_6
White:Vermont_cell_2_1_0 5,696 (95.3%)Vermont_cell_2_1_1 5,825 (95.0%)Vermont_cell_2_1_2 5,554 (94.1%)Vermont_cell_2_1_3 ...Vermont_cell_2_1_4 ...Vermont_cell_2_1_5 ...Vermont_cell_2_1_6
> Non-Hispanic WhiteVermont_cell_2_2_0 5,597 (93.7%)Vermont_cell_2_2_1 5,724 (93.4%)Vermont_cell_2_2_2 5,370 (91.0%)Vermont_cell_2_2_3 5,208 (90.5%)Vermont_cell_2_2_4 5,134 (90.8%)Vermont_cell_2_2_5 4,934 (90.8%)Vermont_cell_2_2_6
AsianVermont_cell_2_3_0 153 (2.6%)Vermont_cell_2_3_1 163 (2.7%)Vermont_cell_2_3_2 175 (3.0%)Vermont_cell_2_3_3 154 (2.7%)Vermont_cell_2_3_4 159 (2.8%)Vermont_cell_2_3_5 152 (2.8%)Vermont_cell_2_3_6
BlackVermont_cell_2_4_0 115 (1.9%)Vermont_cell_2_4_1 126 (2.1%)Vermont_cell_2_4_2 149 (2.5%)Vermont_cell_2_4_3 70 (1.2%)Vermont_cell_2_4_4 115 (2.0%)Vermont_cell_2_4_5 118 (2.2%)Vermont_cell_2_4_6
American IndianVermont_cell_2_5_0 11 (0.2%)Vermont_cell_2_5_1 16 (0.3%)Vermont_cell_2_5_2 25 (0.4%)Vermont_cell_2_5_3 11 (0.2%)Vermont_cell_2_5_4 16 (0.3%)Vermont_cell_2_5_5 12 (0.2%)Vermont_cell_2_5_6
Hispanic (of any race)Vermont_cell_2_6_0 92 (1.5%)Vermont_cell_2_6_1 92 (1.5%)Vermont_cell_2_6_2 139 (2.3%)Vermont_cell_2_6_3 136 (2.3%)Vermont_cell_2_6_4 123 (2.2%)Vermont_cell_2_6_5 121 (2.2%)Vermont_cell_2_6_6
Total VermontVermont_cell_2_7_0 5,975 (100%)Vermont_cell_2_7_1 6,130 (100%)Vermont_cell_2_7_2 5,903 (100%)Vermont_cell_2_7_3 5,756 (100%)Vermont_cell_2_7_4 5,655 (100%)Vermont_cell_2_7_5 5,432 (100%)Vermont_cell_2_7_6


  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Vermont_item_0_0

Population characteristics Vermont_section_23

94.3% of the population identified as white not of Hispanic or Latino origin in a 2013 U.S. Census estimate. Vermont_sentence_282

As of the 2010 census, Vermont was the second-whitest state in the Union after Maine. Vermont_sentence_283

In 2009, 12.6% of people over 15 were divorced. Vermont_sentence_284

This was the fifth highest percentage in the nation. Vermont_sentence_285

As of 2008, the median age of Vermonters was 40.6 and that of the work force was 43.7, compared with the national average of 41.1 years. Vermont_sentence_286

Vermont leads U.S. states with the highest rates of LGBT identification, at 5.3%. Vermont_sentence_287

Its LGBT population density is second in the U.S. only to the District of Columbia. Vermont_sentence_288

Following national trends for opioid use which has roughly tripled, people seeking treatment for opioid addiction in Vermont have increased from 650 in 2011 to 7,500 in 2016. Vermont_sentence_289

Owing in part to it having a low population for a US state, it has the smallest number of Hispanics out of any state in the country. Vermont_sentence_290

The lowest percentage of Hispanics was found in West Virginia. Vermont_sentence_291

Vermont speech patterns Vermont_section_24

Main articles: Western New England English and Eastern New England English Vermont_sentence_292

Linguists have identified speech patterns found among Vermonters as belonging to Western New England English, a dialect of New England English, which features full pronunciation of all r sounds, pronouncing horse and hoarse the same, and pronouncing vowels in father and bother the same, none of which are features traditionally shared in neighboring Eastern New England English. Vermont_sentence_293

Some rural speakers realize the t as a glottal stop (mitten sounds like "mi'in" and Vermont like "Vermon' "). Vermont_sentence_294

A dwindling segment of the Vermont population, generally both rural and male, pronounces certain vowels in a distinctive manner (e.g. cows with a raised vowel as [kʰɛʊz] and ride with a backed, somewhat rounded vowel as [ɹɒɪd]). Vermont_sentence_295

Eastern New England English—also found in New Hampshire, Maine and eastern Massachusetts—was common in eastern Vermont in the mid-twentieth century and before, but has become rare. Vermont_sentence_296

This accent drops the r sound in words ending in r (farmer sounds like "farm-uh") and adds an r sound to some words ending in a vowel (idea sounds like "idee-er") was common. Vermont_sentence_297

Those characteristics in eastern Vermont appear to have been inherited from West Country and Scots-Irish ancestors. Vermont_sentence_298

Religion Vermont_section_25

In the 21st century, Protestants (30%) and Catholics (22%) make up the majority of those reporting a religious preference, with 37% reporting no religion, the highest rate of irreligion of all states. Vermont_sentence_299

Other religions individually contribute no more than two percent to the total. Vermont_sentence_300

Economy Vermont_section_26


  • Total employment (2016): 262,705Vermont_item_1_1
  • Total employer establishments (2016): 21,174Vermont_item_1_2

In 2015, Vermont was ranked by Forbes magazine as the 42nd best state in which to do business. Vermont_sentence_301

It was 32nd in 2007, and 30th in 2006. Vermont_sentence_302

In 2008 an economist said that the state had "a really stagnant economy, which is what we are forecasting for Vermont for the next 30 years." Vermont_sentence_303

In May 2010 Vermont's 6.2% unemployment rate was the fourth lowest in the nation. Vermont_sentence_304

This rate reflects the second sharpest decline among the 50 states since the prior May. Vermont_sentence_305

As of 2017, Vermont's gross regional domestic product (GDP) was $19.3 billion, making it the second smallest among the 50 states. Vermont_sentence_306

Its per capita GDP was $51,600, ranking it 34th among the states. Vermont_sentence_307

Components of GSP were: Vermont_sentence_308


  • Government $3 billion (13.4%)Vermont_item_2_3
  • Real estate, rental, and leasing $2.6 billion (11.6%)Vermont_item_2_4
  • Durable goods manufacturing $2.2 billion (9.6%)Vermont_item_2_5
  • Health care and social assistance $2.1 billion (9.4%)Vermont_item_2_6
  • Retail trade $1.9 billion (8.4%)Vermont_item_2_7
  • Finance and insurance $1.3 billion (5.9%)Vermont_item_2_8
  • Construction $1.2 billion (5.5%)Vermont_item_2_9
  • Professional and technical services $1.2 billion (5.5%)Vermont_item_2_10
  • Wholesale trade $1.1 billion (5.1%)Vermont_item_2_11
  • Accommodations and food services $1 billion (4.5%)Vermont_item_2_12
  • Information $958 million (4.2%)Vermont_item_2_13
  • Non-durable goods manufacturing $711 million (3.1%)Vermont_item_2_14
  • Other services $563 million (2.4%)Vermont_item_2_15
  • Utilities $553 million (2.4%)Vermont_item_2_16
  • Educational services $478 million (2.1%)Vermont_item_2_17
  • Transportation and warehousing $484 million (2.1%)Vermont_item_2_18
  • Administrative and waste services $436 million (1.9%)Vermont_item_2_19
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting $375 million (1.6%)Vermont_item_2_20
  • Arts, entertainment, and recreation $194 million (.8%)Vermont_item_2_21
  • Mining $100 million (.4%)Vermont_item_2_22
  • Management of companies $35 million (.2%)Vermont_item_2_23

Canada was Vermont's largest foreign trade partner in 2007. Vermont_sentence_309

The state's second-largest foreign trade partner was Taiwan. Vermont_sentence_310

The state had $4 billion worth of commerce with Quebec. Vermont_sentence_311

One measure of economic activity is retail sales. Vermont_sentence_312

The state had $5.2 billion in 2007. Vermont_sentence_313

In 2008, 8,631 new businesses were registered in Vermont, a decline of 500 from 2007. Vermont_sentence_314

Personal income Vermont_section_27

See also: Vermont locations by per capita income Vermont_sentence_315

The median household income from 2002 to 2004 was $45,692. Vermont_sentence_316

This was 15th nationally. Vermont_sentence_317

The median wage in the state in 2008 was $15.31 hourly or $31,845 annually. Vermont_sentence_318

In 2007 about 80% of the 68,000 Vermonters who qualify for food stamps received them. Vermont_sentence_319

40% of seniors 75 years or older live on annual incomes of $21,660 or less. Vermont_sentence_320

In 2011, 15.2% of Vermonters received food stamps. Vermont_sentence_321

This compares to 14.8% nationally. Vermont_sentence_322

In 2011, 91,000 seniors received an annual average of $14,000 from Social Security. Vermont_sentence_323

This was 59% of the average senior's income. Vermont_sentence_324

This contributed $1.7 billion to the state's economy. Vermont_sentence_325

Agriculture Vermont_section_28

Agriculture contributed 2.2% of the state's domestic product in 2000. Vermont_sentence_326

In 2000 about 3% of the state's working population engaged in agriculture. Vermont_sentence_327

As of 2014, the Pew Research Center estimated that farms in the state employed fewer than 5,000 illegal immigrants. Vermont_sentence_328

In 2017, Vermont Governor Phil Scott announce that the state was "exploring a legal challenge" to the executive order signed by President Donald Trump for Vermont law enforcement authorities to cooperate with U.S. Vermont_sentence_329 Immigration and Customs Enforcement and "perform the functions of immigration officers in relation to the investigation, apprehension, or detention of aliens". Vermont_sentence_330

Dairy farming Vermont_section_29

Dairy farming is the primary source of agricultural income. Vermont_sentence_331

In the second half of the 20th century, developers had plans to build condos and houses on what was relatively inexpensive, open land. Vermont_sentence_332

Vermont's government responded with a series of laws controlling development and with some pioneering initiatives to prevent the loss of Vermont's dairy industry. Vermont_sentence_333

Still, the number of Vermont dairy farms has declined more than 85% from the 11,206 dairy farms operating in 1947. Vermont_sentence_334

In 2003 there were fewer than 1,500 dairy farms in the state; in 2006 there were 1,138; in 2019 there were 658. Vermont_sentence_335

The number of dairy farms has been diminishing by 10% annually. Vermont_sentence_336

80% of open land is controlled by dairy farms. Vermont_sentence_337

The number of cattle in Vermont had declined by 40%; however, milk production has doubled in the same period due to tripling the production per cow. Vermont_sentence_338

While milk production rose, Vermont's market share declined. Vermont_sentence_339

Within a group of states supplying the Boston and New York City markets (called "Federal order Class I"), Vermont was third in market share, with 10.6%; New York has 44.9% and Pennsylvania has 32.9%. Vermont_sentence_340

In 2007 dairy farmers received a record $23.60 for 100 pounds (45 kg) (11.63 gallons at $2.03/gallon) of milk. Vermont_sentence_341

This dropped in 2008 to $17 ($1.46/gallon). Vermont_sentence_342

The average dairy farm produced 1.3 million pounds of milk annually in 2008. Vermont_sentence_343

The dairy barn remains an iconic image of Vermont, but the 87% decrease in active dairy farms between 1947 and 2003 means that preservation of the dairy barns has increasingly become dependent upon a commitment to maintaining a legacy rather than basic need in the agricultural economy. Vermont_sentence_344

The Vermont Barn Census, organized by a collaboration of educational and nonprofit state and local historic preservation programs, has developed educational and administrative systems for recording the number, condition, and features of barns throughout Vermont. Vermont_sentence_345

In 2009, there were 543 organic farms. Vermont_sentence_346

Twenty percent of the dairy farms were organic and 23% (128) vegetable farms were organic. Vermont_sentence_347

Organic farming increased in 2006–07, but leveled off in 2008–09. Vermont_sentence_348

A significant amount of milk is shipped into the Boston market. Vermont_sentence_349

Therefore the Commonwealth of Massachusetts certifies that Vermont farms meet Massachusetts sanitary standards. Vermont_sentence_350

Without this certification, a farmer may not sell milk for distribution into the bulk market. Vermont_sentence_351

In 2019, two-thirds of all milk in New England was produced by Vermont dairies. Vermont_sentence_352

Forestry Vermont_section_30

Forest products have always been a staple to the economy, comprising 1% of the total gross state output and 9% of total manufacturing as of 2013. Vermont_sentence_353

In 2007, Windham County contained the largest concentration of kilns for drying lumber east of the Mississippi River. Vermont_sentence_354

The decline of farms has resulted in a regrowth of Vermont's forests due to ecological succession. Vermont_sentence_355

Today, most of Vermont's forests are secondary. Vermont_sentence_356

The state and non-profit organizations are actively encouraging regrowth and careful forest management. Vermont_sentence_357

Over 78% of the land area of the state is forested compared to only 37% in the 1880s, when sheep farming was at its peak and large amounts of acreage were cleared for grazing. Vermont_sentence_358

Over 85% of that area is non-industrial, private forestland owned by individuals or families. Vermont_sentence_359

In 2013, 73,054 million cubic feet (2,068.7 million cubic meters) of wood was harvested in Vermont. Vermont_sentence_360

A large amount of Vermont forest products are exports with 21,504 million feet (6.554×10 meters) being shipped overseas plus an additional 16,384 million cubic feet (463.9 million cubic meters) to Canada. Vermont_sentence_361

Most of it was processed within the state. Vermont_sentence_362

In this century the manufacture of wood products has fallen by almost half. Vermont_sentence_363

The annual net growth has been estimated at 172,810 million cubic feet (4,893 million cubic meters). Vermont_sentence_364

The USDA estimates that 8,584 billion cubic feet (243.1 billion cubic meters) remain in the state. Vermont_sentence_365

Forest products also add to carbon sequestration since lumber and timber used in houses and furniture hold carbon for long periods of time while the trees that were removed are replaced overtime with new growing stock. Vermont_sentence_366

In 2017, the price of wood products had either plummeted or remained the same when compared to previous decades, which meant there was cause for concern with jobs in the industry. Vermont_sentence_367

For example, in 1994, the price of a thousand board feet was $300, the same as it was in 2017. Vermont_sentence_368

The price of wood chips has halved in the same time frame. Vermont_sentence_369

In 1980, the price for a cord of wood was $50; in 2017, $25. Vermont_sentence_370

For lack of demand, Vermont's forests are growing twice as fast as they are being cut. Vermont_sentence_371

Other Vermont_section_31

An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the manufacture and sale of artisan foods, fancy foods, and novelty items trading in part upon the Vermont "brand," which the state manages and defends. Vermont_sentence_372

Examples of these specialty exports include Cabot Cheese, the Vermont Teddy Bear Company, Fine Paints of Europe, Vermont Butter and Cheese Company, several microbreweries, ginseng growers, Burton Snowboards, King Arthur Flour, and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream. Vermont_sentence_373

As of 2019, Vermont was the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. Vermont_sentence_374

There were about 2,000 maple products producers in 2010. Vermont_sentence_375

Production rose to 920,000 US gallons (3,500,000 l; 770,000 imp gal) in 2009. Vermont_sentence_376

The state's share of the nation's production rose to 42% in 2013. Vermont_sentence_377

It had the second lowest price at $33.40/gallon. Vermont_sentence_378

The wine industry in Vermont started in 1985. Vermont_sentence_379

As of 2007, there were 14 wineries. Vermont_sentence_380

Manufacturing Vermont_section_32

As of 2015, GlobalFoundries was the largest private employer in the state and provides jobs to 3,000 employees at its plant in the village of Essex Junction within Chittenden County. Vermont_sentence_381

A 2010 University of Connecticut study reported that Vermont, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire tied as the most costly states in the U.S. for manufacturers. Vermont_sentence_382

Health Vermont_section_33

See also: Vermont § Public health Vermont_sentence_383

An increasingly aging population is expected to improve the position of aging services and health care in the state economy. Vermont_sentence_384

The University of Vermont Medical Center, with approximately 6,400 employees, is the largest employer in the state. Vermont_sentence_385

In 2010, all of Vermont's hospitals billed patients $3.76 billion, and collected $2 billion. Vermont_sentence_386

92,000 people are enrolled in Medicare. Vermont_sentence_387

In 2011, Medicare spent $740 million on health care in the state. Vermont_sentence_388

Housing Vermont_section_34

In 2007, Vermont was the 17th highest state in the nation for mortgage affordability. Vermont_sentence_389

However, in 41 other states, inhabitants contributed within plus or minus 4% of Vermont's 18.4% of household income to a mortgage. Vermont_sentence_390

Because housing prices did not rise much during the early 2000s, the collapse in real estate values was not that precipitous either. Vermont_sentence_391

While foreclosure rose significantly in 2007, the state stood 50th—the most favorable—in ratio of foreclosure filings to households. Vermont_sentence_392

While housing sales dropped annually from 2004 to 2008, prices continued to rise. Vermont_sentence_393

In 2007, Vermont was best in the country for construction of new energy efficient homes as evaluated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under the Energy Star program. Vermont_sentence_394

However, about 60% of Vermont homes were heated with oil in 2008. Vermont_sentence_395

In August 2008, the cost in Vermont of various heating sources per 1 million BTU ranged from $14.39 for cord wood to $43.50 for kerosene. Vermont_sentence_396

While the number of houses sold in the state has dropped from 8,318 in 2004 to 8,120 in 2005, 6,919 in 2006, and 5,820 in 2007, the average price has continued to rise to $202,500 in 2008 ($200,000 in 2007). Vermont_sentence_397

In 2009, the average rent for a two-bedroom apartment was $920 per month. Vermont_sentence_398

Rental vacancy was 5.4%, the lowest in the nation. Vermont_sentence_399

2,800 people were counted as homeless in January 2010, 22% more than in 2008. Vermont_sentence_400

In 2011, Vermont was fifth among the states with the greatest backlog of foreclosures needing court processing, taking an estimated 18 years. Vermont_sentence_401

The national average was eight years. Vermont_sentence_402

Labor Vermont_section_35

In 2009, the state attained a high of 361,290 workers. Vermont_sentence_403

As of 2006, there were 305,000 workers in Vermont. Vermont_sentence_404

Eleven percent of these are unionized. Vermont_sentence_405

Out of a workforce of 299,200 workers, 52,000 were government jobs, federal, state, and local. Vermont_sentence_406

A modern high unemployment rate of 9% was reached in June 1976. Vermont_sentence_407

A modern low of 2.4% was measured in February 2000. Vermont_sentence_408

As of October 2019, the unemployment rate was 2.2%. Vermont_sentence_409

Employment grew 7.5% from 2000 to 2006. Vermont_sentence_410

From 1980 to 2000, employment grew by 3.4%; nationally it was up 4.6%. Vermont_sentence_411

Real wages were $33,385 in 2006 constant dollars and remained there in 2010; the nation, $36,871. Vermont_sentence_412

Insurance Vermont_section_36

Captive insurance plays an increasingly large role in Vermont's economy. Vermont_sentence_413

With this form of alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations form standalone insurance companies to insure their own risks, thereby substantially reducing their insurance premiums and gaining a significant measure of control over types of risks to be covered. Vermont_sentence_414

There are also significant tax advantages to be gained from the formation and operation of captive insurance companies. Vermont_sentence_415

According to the Insurance Information Institute, Vermont in 2009 was the world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance companies, following Bermuda and the Cayman Islands. Vermont_sentence_416

In 2009, there were 560 such companies. Vermont_sentence_417

In 2010, the state had 900 such companies. Vermont_sentence_418

Tourism Vermont_section_37

Summer camps such as Camp Abenaki, Camp Billings, Camp Dudley, and Camp Hochelaga contribute to Vermont's tourist economy. Vermont_sentence_419

In 2005, visitors made an estimated 13.4 million trips to the state, spending $1.57 billion. Vermont_sentence_420

In 2012, fall accounted for $460 million of income, about one-quarter of all tourism. Vermont_sentence_421

In 2011, the state government earned $274 million in taxes and fees from tourism. Vermont_sentence_422

89% of the money came from out-of-state visitors. Vermont_sentence_423

Tourism supported over 26,000 jobs, 7.2% of total employment. Vermont_sentence_424

According to the 2000 Census, almost 15% of all housing units in Vermont were vacant and classified "for seasonal, recreational, or occasional use". Vermont_sentence_425

This was the second highest percentage nationwide, after Maine. Vermont_sentence_426

In some Vermont cities, vacation homes owned by wealthy residents of New England and New York constitute the bulk of all housing stock. Vermont_sentence_427

According to one estimate, as of 2009, 84% of all houses in Ludlow were owned by out-of-state residents. Vermont_sentence_428

Other notable vacation-home resorts include Manchester and Stowe. Vermont_sentence_429

Autumn Vermont_section_38

Hunting is controlled for black bear, wild turkeys, deer, and moose. Vermont_sentence_430

There are 5,500 bears in the state. Vermont_sentence_431

The goal is to keep the numbers between 4,500 and 6,000. Vermont_sentence_432

In 2010, there were about 141,000 deer in the state, which is in range of government goals. Vermont_sentence_433

However, these are distributed unevenly and when in excess of 10–15 per square mile (4–6/km), negatively impact timber growth. Vermont_sentence_434

In 2012, hunting of migratory birds was limited to October 13 to December 16. Vermont_sentence_435

Waterfowl hunting is also controlled by federal law. Vermont_sentence_436

Winter Vermont_section_39

Some of the largest ski areas in New England are located in Vermont. Vermont_sentence_437

Skiers and snowboarders visit Burke Mountain Ski Area, Bolton Valley, Smugglers' Notch, Killington Ski Resort, Mad River Glen, Stowe Mountain Resort, Cochrans Ski Area, Sugarbush, Stratton, Jay Peak, Okemo, Suicide Six, Mount Snow, Bromley, and Magic Mountain Ski Area. Vermont_sentence_438

Summer visitors tour resort towns like Stowe, Manchester, Quechee, Wilmington and Woodstock. Vermont_sentence_439

The effects of global warming have been predicted to shorten the length of the ski season across Vermont, which would continue the contraction and consolidation of the ski industry in Vermont and threaten individual ski businesses and communities that rely on ski tourism. Vermont_sentence_440

In winter, Nordic and backcountry skiers visit to travel the length of the state on the Catamount Trail. Vermont_sentence_441

Several horse shows are annual events. Vermont_sentence_442

Vermont's state parks, historic sites, museums, golf courses, and new boutique hotels with spas were designed to attract tourists. Vermont_sentence_443

In 2000–01, there were 4,579,719 skier and snowboarder visits to the state. Vermont_sentence_444

There were 4,125,082 visits in 2009–2010, a rise from recent years. Vermont_sentence_445

In 2008, there were 35,000 members of 138 snowmobiling clubs in Vermont. Vermont_sentence_446

The combined association of clubs maintains 6,000 miles (9,700 km) of trail often over private lands. Vermont_sentence_447

The industry is said to generate "hundreds of millions of dollars worth of business." Vermont_sentence_448

Quarrying Vermont_section_40

The towns of Rutland and Barre are the traditional centers of marble and granite quarrying and carving in the U.S. For many years Vermont was also the headquarters of the smallest union in the U.S., the Stonecutters Association, of about 500 members. Vermont_sentence_449

The first marble quarry in America was on Mount Aeolus overlooking East Dorset. Vermont_sentence_450

The granite industry attracted numerous skilled stonecutters in the late 19th century from Italy, Scotland, and Ireland. Vermont_sentence_451

Barre is the location of the Rock of Ages quarry, the largest dimension stone granite quarry in the United States. Vermont_sentence_452

Vermont is the largest producer of slate in the country. Vermont_sentence_453

The highest quarrying revenues result from the production of dimension stone. Vermont_sentence_454

The Rock of Ages quarry in Barre is one of the leading exporters of granite in the country. Vermont_sentence_455

The work of the sculptors of this corporation can be seen 3 miles (4.8 km) down the road at the Hope Cemetery, where there are gravestones and mausoleums. Vermont_sentence_456

Non-profits and volunteerism Vermont_section_41

There were 2,682 non-profit organizations in Vermont in 2008, with $2.8 billion in revenue. Vermont_sentence_457

The state ranked ninth in the country for volunteerism for the period 2005–08. Vermont_sentence_458

35.6% of the population volunteered during this period. Vermont_sentence_459

The national average was 26.4%. Vermont_sentence_460

Transportation Vermont_section_42

Vermont's main mode of travel is by automobile. Vermont_sentence_461

5.7% of Vermont households did not own a car in 2008. Vermont_sentence_462

In 2012, there were 605,000 motor vehicles registered, nearly one car for every person in the state. Vermont_sentence_463

This is similar to average car ownership nationwide. Vermont_sentence_464

In 2012, about half the carbon emissions in the state resulted from vehicles. Vermont_sentence_465

In 2007, Vermont was ranked the third safest state for highway fatalities. Vermont_sentence_466

One third of these fatal crashes involved a drunken driver. Vermont_sentence_467

On average, 20–25 people die each year from drunk driving incidents, and 70–80 people are in fatal car crashes in the state. Vermont_sentence_468

In northern Vermont particularly, moose are not uncommon, including in urban areas. Vermont_sentence_469

They constitute a traffic threat since they are unaware of vehicles. Vermont_sentence_470

There are several deaths each year from automobiles striking moose. Vermont_sentence_471

In 2009, 93% of Vermont motorists were insured, tying the state with Pennsylvania for the highest percentage. Vermont_sentence_472

In 2008, Vermont was the fifth best state for fewest uninsured motorists—6%. Vermont_sentence_473

In 2010, Vermont owned 2,840 miles (4,570 km) of highway. Vermont_sentence_474

This was the third smallest quantity among the 50 states. Vermont_sentence_475

2.5% of the highways were listed as "congested," the 5th lowest in the country. Vermont_sentence_476

The highway fatality rate was one per 100,000,000 miles (160,000,000 km), tenth lowest in the nation. Vermont_sentence_477

The highways cost $28,669 per mile ($17,814/km) to maintain, the 17th highest in the states. Vermont_sentence_478

34.4% of its bridges were rated deficient or obsolete, the 8th worst in the nation. Vermont_sentence_479

Individual communities and counties have public transit, but their breadth of coverage is frequently limited. Vermont_sentence_480

Greyhound Lines services a number of small towns. Vermont_sentence_481

Two Amtrak trains serve Vermont, the Vermonter and the Ethan Allen Express. Vermont_sentence_482

In early 2011, Amtrak evaluated the track used by the Ethan Allen Express between Rutland and Whitehall as the worst in the nation, but subsequent improvements to the track later in 2011 vastly improved its performance going forward. Vermont_sentence_483

Trucks weighing less than 80,000 pounds (36,000 kg) can use Vermont's interstate highways. Vermont_sentence_484

The limit for state roads is 99,000 pounds (45,000 kg). Vermont_sentence_485

This means that vehicles too heavy for the interstates can legally use only secondary roads. Vermont_sentence_486

In 1968, Vermont outlawed the use of billboards for advertisement along its roads. Vermont_sentence_487

It is one of four states in the U.S. to have done this, along with Hawaii, Maine, and Alaska. Vermont_sentence_488

Major routes Vermont_section_43

Main article: List of state highways in Vermont Vermont_sentence_489

The state has 2,843 miles (4,575 km) of highways under its control. Vermont_sentence_490

Three Interstate highways and five U.S. highways enter Vermont, in addition to its own state highway network. Vermont_sentence_491

North–south routes Vermont_section_44


  • Interstate 89 runs a northwest–southeast path through Vermont, beginning in White River Junction and heading northwest to serve the cities of Montpelier, Burlington, and St. Albans en route to the Canada–U.S. border. I-89 intersects I-91 in White River Junction and has a short spur route, Interstate 189, just outside of Burlington.Vermont_item_3_24
  • Interstate 91 runs a north–south path from the Massachusetts state line to the Canada–U.S. border, connecting the towns of Brattleboro, White River Junction, St. Johnsbury, and the city of Newport. I-91 intersects I-89 in White River Junction, and I-93 in St. Johnsbury.Vermont_item_3_25
  • Interstate 93 runs a short, 11-mile (18 km) distance from the New Hampshire state line to its northern terminus in St. Johnsbury, where it intersects I-91. I-93 connects the Northeast Kingdom region of Vermont with the White Mountains region of New Hampshire, and points south.Vermont_item_3_26
  • U.S. Route 5 runs a north–south path in eastern Vermont from the Massachusetts state line to the Canada-U.S. border. U.S. Route 5 is a surface road that runs parallel to I-91 for its entire length in the state, and serves nearly all the same towns. The two routes also parallel the New Hampshire state line between Brattleboro and St. Johnsbury.Vermont_item_3_27
  • U.S. Route 7 runs a north–south path in western Vermont from the Massachusetts state line to the Canada-U.S. border. U.S. Route 7 connects the cities and towns of Bennington, Rutland, Middlebury, Burlington, and St. Albans. Between Bennington and Dorset, U.S. Route 7 runs as a Super 2 freeway. It also parallels I-89 between Burlington and the Canada–U.S. border.Vermont_item_3_28
  • Vermont Route 100 runs a north–south path directly through the center of the state, along the length of the Green Mountains. VT Route 100 generally parallels both U.S. Route 5 (which runs to its east) and U.S. Route 7 (which runs to its west). Many of the state's major ski areas are located either directly on, or very close to, VT Route 100. The largest town by population along VT Route 100 is Morristown.Vermont_item_3_29
  • Vermont Route 30 is a 111.870-mile-long north–south road that runs from Brattleboro to Middlebury. Vermont Route 30 runs through the state's historic West River Valley, where it passes through the colonial towns of Newfane, Townshend, West Townshend, East Jamaica, Jamaica, Rawsonville and Bondville.Vermont_item_3_30

East–west routes Vermont_section_45


  • U.S. Route 2 runs a generally east–west path across central and northern Vermont, from Alburgh (on the New York state line) to Guildhall (on the New Hampshire state line). U.S. Route 2 connects the Lake Champlain Islands and the Northeast Kingdom to the population centers of Burlington, Montpelier, and St. Johnsbury. U.S. Route 2 runs parallel to I-89 between Colchester and Montpelier. Although the portion of the road from Alburgh to Burlington follows a north–south orientation, U.S. Route 2 in Vermont is entirely signed as east–west.Vermont_item_4_31
  • U.S. Route 4 runs east–west across south-central Vermont from Fair Haven (on the New York state line) to White River Junction (on the New Hampshire state line). U.S. Route 4 also connects the city of Rutland and the towns of Killington and Woodstock. Between Fair Haven and Rutland, U.S. Route 4 runs as a four-lane freeway that is mostly up to Interstate design standards.Vermont_item_4_32
  • U.S. Route 302 runs an east–west path from its western terminus in Montpelier to the village of Wells River, where it intersects both I-91 and U.S. Route 5, and then crosses into New Hampshire. U.S. Route 302 is one of the main roads connecting Montpelier and Barre in central Vermont.Vermont_item_4_33
  • Vermont Route 9 runs an east–west path across the southern part of the state. VT Route 9 connects the towns of Bennington, Wilmington, and Brattleboro.Vermont_item_4_34
  • Vermont Route 105 runs a generally east–west path across the northernmost parts of Vermont (sometimes within a few miles of the Canada–U.S. border) from St. Albans to Bloomfield (on the New Hampshire state line). VT Route 105 ultimately connects the cities of St. Albans and Newport.Vermont_item_4_35

A 2005–06 study ranked Vermont 37th out of the states for "cost-effective road maintenance", a decline of thirteen places since 2004–05. Vermont_sentence_492

Federal data indicates that 16% of Vermont's 2,691 bridges had been rated structurally deficient by the state in 2006. Vermont_sentence_493

In 2007 Vermont had the sixth worst percentage of structurally deficient bridges in the country. Vermont_sentence_494

Rail Vermont_section_46

The state is served by Amtrak's Vermonter and Ethan Allen Express, the New England Central Railroad, the Vermont Railway, and the Green Mountain Railroad. Vermont_sentence_495

The Ethan Allen Express serves Castleton and Rutland, while the Vermonter serves St. Albans, Essex Junction, Waterbury, Montpelier, Randolph, White River Junction, Windsor, Bellows Falls, and Brattleboro. Vermont_sentence_496

Bus Vermont_section_47

Intercity Vermont_section_48

Greyhound Lines stops at Bellows Falls, Brattleboro, Burlington, Montpelier, and White River Junction. Vermont_sentence_497

Megabus, as of November 2014, stops in Burlington and Montpelier. Vermont_sentence_498

Vermont Translines, an intercity bus company started by Premier Coach in 2013 partnering with Greyhound and starting service on June 9, 2014, serves Milton, Colchester, Burlington, Middlebury, Brandon, Rutland, Wallingford, Manchester and Bennington on its Burlington to Albany line, and Rutland, Killington, Bridgewater, Woodstock, Queechee and White River Junction along the U.S. Vermont_sentence_499 Route 4 corridor. Vermont_sentence_500

The town of Bennington also has the weekday-operating Albany-Bennington Shuttle, an intercity bus operated by Yankee Trails World Travel. Vermont_sentence_501

Local Vermont_section_49

Other transportation includes: Vermont_sentence_502


Ferry Vermont_section_50

There is a year-round ferry service to and from New York State across Lake Champlain from Burlington, Charlotte, Grand Isle, and Shoreham. Vermont_sentence_503

All but the Shoreham ferry are operated by the LCTC (Lake Champlain Transportation Company). Vermont_sentence_504

Airports Vermont_section_51


Media Vermont_section_52

Newspapers of record Vermont_section_53

Further information: List of newspapers in Vermont Vermont_sentence_505

Vermont statute requires the Vermont Secretary of State to designate newspapers that provide general coverage across the state as the "Newspapers of Record." Vermont_sentence_506

This is the list, as of 2019: Vermont_sentence_507


Broadcast media Vermont_section_54

Main articles: List of radio stations in Vermont and List of television stations in Vermont Vermont_sentence_508

Vermont hosts 93 radio broadcast stations. Vermont_sentence_509

The top categories are talk/information (11), country (9) and classic rock (9). Vermont_sentence_510

The top owner of radio broadcast stations is Vermont Public Radio (11 broadcast frequencies and 13 low-power, local transmitters). Vermont_sentence_511

Other companies had five or fewer stations. Vermont_sentence_512

The state has 15 online radio stations. Vermont_sentence_513

Vermont hosts 10 high-power television broadcast stations, three of which are satellites of a primary station. Vermont_sentence_514

Represented are the following networks and number of high-power transmitters, ABC (1), CBS (1), Fox (1), NBC (2), PBS (4), and RTV (1). Vermont_sentence_515

In addition, it has 17 low-power television broadcast stations, which in several cases are satellites of the high-power stations. Vermont_sentence_516

Utilities Vermont_section_55

Electricity Vermont_section_56

Main article: Energy in Vermont Vermont_sentence_517

2008 peak demand in the state was 1,100 megawatts (MW). Vermont_sentence_518

In May 2009, Vermont created the first state-wide renewable energy feed-in law. Vermont_sentence_519

In 2010, there were about 150 methane digesters in the nation, Vermont led the nation with six online. Vermont_sentence_520

While Vermont paid the lowest rates in New England for power in 2007, it is still ranked among the highest eleven states in the nation; that is, about 16% higher than the national average. Vermont_sentence_521

In 2009, the state paid the highest rates for energy (including heating) in the U.S. and had the worst affordability gap nationwide. Vermont_sentence_522

In 2009, the state received one-third (400 MW) of its power from Hydro-Québec and one-third from Vermont Yankee. Vermont_sentence_523

In total, the state got half its power from Canada and other states. Vermont_sentence_524

It received 75% of the power it generated in the state from Vermont Yankee. Vermont_sentence_525

The state is part of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council for the distribution of electricity. Vermont_sentence_526

The state's largest electric utility, Green Mountain Power Corporation, serves 80% of Vermont households. Vermont_sentence_527

The state has 78 hydropower dams. Vermont_sentence_528

They generate 143 MW, about 12% of the state's total requirement. Vermont_sentence_529

Vermont experts estimate that the state has the capacity to ultimately generate from 134 to 175 megawatts of electricity from hydro power. Vermont_sentence_530

In 2006, the total summer generating capacity of Vermont was 1,117 megawatts. Vermont_sentence_531

In 2005, the inhabitants of the state used an average of 5,883 kilowatt-hours (21,180 MJ) of electricity per capita. Vermont_sentence_532

Another source says that each household consumed 7,100 kilowatt-hours (26,000 MJ) annually in 2008. Vermont_sentence_533

Until the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant was shut down in 2014, Vermont had the highest rate of nuclear-generated power in the nation, 73.7%. Vermont_sentence_534

Vermont is one of two states with no coal-fired power plants. Vermont_sentence_535

All Vermont utilities get their power from lines run by ISO New England. Vermont_sentence_536

Each utility pays a share of transmitting power over these lines. Vermont_sentence_537

Vermont's share is about 4.5%. Vermont_sentence_538

Communication Vermont_section_57

A 2013 survey found that of 18,790 miles (30,240 km) of roads surveyed, all but 3,118 mi had cellular coverage by at least one carrier. Vermont_sentence_539

The roads surveyed are concentrated in the more heavily populated areas. Vermont_sentence_540

A June 2013 survey found that of nearly 249,976 addresses surveyed, 84.7% had fixed (as opposed to mobile) broadband available. Vermont_sentence_541

It was projected that all but 29 addresses would have fixed broadband available by the end of 2013. Vermont_sentence_542

Law and government Vermont_section_58

Main article: Government of Vermont Vermont_sentence_543

Vermont is federally represented in the United States Congress by two senators and one representative. Vermont_sentence_544

The state is governed by a constitution which divides governmental duties into legislative, executive and judicial branches: the Vermont General Assembly, the governor of Vermont and the Vermont Supreme Court. Vermont_sentence_545

The governorship and the General Assembly serve two-year terms including the governor and 30 senators. Vermont_sentence_546

There are no term limits for any office. Vermont_sentence_547

The state capital is in Montpelier. Vermont_sentence_548

There are three types of incorporated municipalities in Vermont: towns, cities, and villages. Vermont_sentence_549

Like most of New England, there is slight provision for autonomous county government. Vermont_sentence_550

Counties and county seats are merely convenient repositories for various government services such as state courts, with several elected officers such as a state's Attorney and sheriff. Vermont_sentence_551

All county services are directly funded by the state of Vermont. Vermont_sentence_552

The next effective governmental level below state government are municipalities. Vermont_sentence_553

Most of these are towns. Vermont_sentence_554

Finances and taxation Vermont_section_59

Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced-budget requirement, yet it has had a balanced budget every year since 1991. Vermont_sentence_555

In 2007 Moody's gave its top bond credit rating (Aaa) to the state. Vermont_sentence_556

The state uses enterprise funds for operations that are similar to private business enterprises. Vermont_sentence_557

The Vermont Lottery Commission, the Liquor Control Fund, and the Unemployment Compensation Trust Fund, are the largest of the State's enterprise funds. Vermont_sentence_558

In 2007, Vermont was the 14th highest out of 50 states and the District of Columbia for state and local taxation, with a per capita load of $3,681. Vermont_sentence_559

The national average was $3,447. Vermont_sentence_560

However, CNNMoney ranked Vermont highest in the nation based on the percentage of per capita income. Vermont_sentence_561

The rankings showed Vermont had a per capita tax load of $5,387, 14.1% of the per capita income of $38,306. Vermont_sentence_562

Vermont collects a state personal income tax in a progressive structure of five different income brackets, with marginal tax rates ranging from 3.6% to 9.5%. Vermont_sentence_563

In 2008, the top 1% of Vermont residents provided 30% of the income tax revenue; around 2,000 people had sufficient income to be taxed at the highest marginal rate of 9.5%. Vermont_sentence_564

Vermont's general state sales tax rate is 6%, which is imposed on sales of tangible personal property, amusement charges, fabrication charges, some public utility charges and some service contracts. Vermont_sentence_565

Some towns and cities impose an additional 1% Local Option Tax. Vermont_sentence_566

There are 46 exemptions from the sales tax, including exemptions for food, medical items, manufacturing machinery, equipment and fuel, residential fuel and electricity, clothing, and shoes. Vermont_sentence_567

A use tax is imposed on the buyer at the same rate as the sales tax. Vermont_sentence_568

The buyer pays the use tax when the seller fails to collect the sales tax or the items are purchased from a source where no tax is collected. Vermont_sentence_569

The use tax applies to items taxable under the sales tax. Vermont_sentence_570

Vermont does not collect inheritance taxes, but does impose a state estate tax; a Vermont estate tax return must be filed if the estate must file a federal estate tax return (the requirement for which depends on federal law). Vermont_sentence_571

Vermont does not collect a state gift tax. Vermont_sentence_572

Property taxes are levied by municipalities for the support of education and municipal services. Vermont_sentence_573

Vermont does not assess tax on personal property. Vermont_sentence_574

Property taxes are based on appraisal of the fair market value of real property. Vermont_sentence_575

Rates vary from 0.97% on homesteaded property in Ferdinand, Essex County, to 2.72% on nonresidents' property in Barre City. Vermont_sentence_576

Statewide, towns average 1.77% to 1.82% tax rate. Vermont_sentence_577

In 2007, Vermont counties were among the highest in the country for property taxes. Vermont_sentence_578

Chittenden ($3,809 median), Windham ($3,412), Addison ($3,352), and Windsor ($3,327) ranked in the top 100, out of 1,817 counties in the nation with populations greater than 20,000. Vermont_sentence_579

Twelve of the state's 14 counties stood in the top 20%. Vermont_sentence_580

Median annual property taxes as a percentage of median homeowners income, 5.4%, was rated as the third highest in the nation in 2011. Vermont_sentence_581

To equitably support education, some towns are required by Act 60 to send some of their collected taxes to be redistributed to school districts lacking adequate support. Vermont_sentence_582

Politics Vermont_section_60

Main article: Politics of Vermont Vermont_sentence_583

See also: Political party strength in Vermont and United States Congressional Delegations from Vermont Vermont_sentence_584

Vermont is one of four states that were once independent nations (Texas, California, and Hawaii are the others). Vermont_sentence_585

Notably, Vermont is the only state to have voted for a presidential candidate from the Anti-Masonic Party, and Vermont was one of only two states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt in all four of his presidential campaigns (the other was Maine). Vermont_sentence_586

Vermont's history of independent political thought has led to movements for the establishment of the Second Vermont Republic and other plans advocating secession. Vermont_sentence_587

Vermont is the only state in the United States that requires voters to be sworn in, having established the voter's oath or affirmation in 1777. Vermont_sentence_588

State politics Vermont_section_61

Republicans dominated local Vermont politics from the party's founding in 1854 until the mid-1970s. Vermont_sentence_589

Before the 1960s, rural interests dominated the legislature. Vermont_sentence_590

As a result, cities, particularly the older sections of Burlington and Winooski, were neglected and fell into decay, and people began to move out to newer suburbs. Vermont_sentence_591

Vermont was for many years a stronghold of the Republican Party. Vermont_sentence_592

Ethno-political culture of the last century has seen a dramatic shift in voter turnout in the Green Mountain State. Vermont_sentence_593

Since 1992, Vermont has voted for the Democrat in every Presidential election. Vermont_sentence_594

Before 1992, Vermont voted for the Republican in every single Presidential election with the exception of 1964. Vermont_sentence_595

A series of one man, one vote decisions made by the United States Supreme Court in the 1960s required states to redraw their legislative districts to accurately reflect population. Vermont_sentence_596

As a result, urban areas in Vermont gained political power. Vermont_sentence_597

The legislature was redistricted under one-person, one-vote in the 1960s. Vermont_sentence_598

It passed the Land Use and Development Law (Act 250) in 1970 to discourage suburban sprawl and to limit major growth to already developed areas. Vermont_sentence_599

The law, the first of its kind in the nation, created nine District Environmental Commissions appointed by the Governor, who judged land development and subdivision plans that would have a significant impact on the state's environment and many small communities. Vermont_sentence_600

As a result of Act 250, Vermont was the last state to get a Wal-Mart (there are now six Wal-Marts in the state, as of November 2017, but only three—in Williston, St. Albans, and Derby—were newly built from the ground up). Vermont_sentence_601

Because of the successful attempts to dilute what is perceived as the original intent of Act 250, and other development pressures, Vermont has been designated one of America's most "endangered historic places" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Vermont_sentence_602

In 1995, the state banned the spreading of manure from December 15 to April 1, to prevent runoff and protect the water. Vermont_sentence_603

Therefore farms must have environmentally approved facilities to store manure during this time frame. Vermont_sentence_604

While the state voted largely Democratic, Republican Governor Douglas won all counties but Windham in the 2006 election. Vermont_sentence_605

A controversy dating from 1999 has been over the adoption of civil unions, an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the rights and privileges of marriage at the state, but not federal, level. Vermont_sentence_606

In Baker v. Vermont (1999), the Vermont Supreme Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont, the state must either allow same-sex marriage or provide a separate but equal status for them. Vermont_sentence_607

The state legislature chose the second option by creating the institution of civil union; the bill was passed by the legislature and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean. Vermont_sentence_608

In April 2009, the state legislature overrode governor Jim Douglas's veto to allow same-sex marriage, becoming the first state in the nation to legalize same-sex marriage through legislation. Vermont_sentence_609

In September 2009, Vermont became the fourth state in which same-sex couples could marry. Vermont_sentence_610

The previous three were Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa. Vermont_sentence_611

In 2007, the state's House of Representatives rejected a measure which would have legalized assisted suicide for the terminally ill, by a vote of 82–63. Vermont_sentence_612

With the governor's signature on May 20, 2013, Vermont became the fourth state to pass a "death with dignity" law—the first to be passed through legislation rather than by ballot initiative. Vermont_sentence_613

Minor parties and independents flourish. Vermont_sentence_614

Rules which eliminate smaller parties from the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont. Vermont_sentence_615

As a result, voters often have extensive choices for general elections. Vermont_sentence_616

Among others, this more open policy enabled independents like Bernie Sanders to win election as mayor of Burlington, as a U.S. Vermont_sentence_617

Congressman, and as a U.S. Vermont_sentence_618

Senator. Vermont_sentence_619

A political issue has been Act 60, which balances taxation for education funding. Vermont_sentence_620

This has resulted in the town of Killington trying to secede from Vermont and join New Hampshire due to what the locals say is an unfair tax burden. Vermont_sentence_621

The Vermont constitution and the courts supports the right of a person to walk (fish and hunt) on any unposted, unfenced land. Vermont_sentence_622

That is, trespass must be proven by the owner; it is not automatically assumed. Vermont_sentence_623

Vermont has some of the least restrictive gun control laws in the country. Vermont_sentence_624

A permit or license is not required for purchasing or carrying firearms. Vermont_sentence_625

Concealed carry and open carry of a firearm is legal over the age of 16, with those below 16 requiring parental permission. Vermont_sentence_626

Vermont has a pro-sanctuary city law. Vermont_sentence_627

The state is an alcoholic beverage control state. Vermont_sentence_628

In 2007, through the Vermont Department of Liquor Control, it took in over $14 million from the sale and distribution of liquor. Vermont_sentence_629

In 2013, Vermont became the 17th state to decriminalize marijuana. Vermont_sentence_630

The statute makes possession of less than an ounce of the drug punishable by a small fine rather than arrest and possible jail time. Vermont_sentence_631

In 2014, Vermont became the first state to call for a constitutional convention to overturn the Supreme Court's decision in Citizens United v. FEC. Vermont_sentence_632

In 2014, Vermont became the first state to mandate labeling of genetically modified organisms in the retail food supply. Vermont_sentence_633

In January 2018, Governor Phil Scott opted to sign H.511, the Vermont marijuana legalization bill, which allows adults 21 and older to possess up to one ounce of marijuana and grow up to two mature plants starting July 1, 2018. Vermont_sentence_634

Federal politics Vermont_section_62

See also: United States presidential elections in Vermont Vermont_sentence_635

Historically, Vermont was considered one of the most reliably Republican states in the country in terms of national elections. Vermont_sentence_636

From 1856 to 1988, Vermont voted Democratic only once, in Lyndon B. Johnson's landslide victory of 1964 against Barry M. Goldwater. Vermont_sentence_637

It was also one of only two states—Maine is the other—where Franklin D. Roosevelt was completely shut out in all four of his presidential bids. Vermont_sentence_638

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Republican presidential candidates frequently won the state with over 70% of the vote. Vermont_sentence_639

In the 1980s and 1990s, many people moved in from out of state. Vermont_sentence_640

Much of this immigration included the arrival of more liberal political influences of the urban areas of New York and the rest of New England in Vermont. Vermont_sentence_641

The brand of Republicanism in Vermont has historically been a moderate one, and combined with the newcomers from out of state, this made Vermont friendlier to Democrats as the national GOP moved to the right. Vermont_sentence_642

As evidence of this, in 1990 Bernie Sanders, a self-described democratic socialist, was elected to Vermont's lone seat in the House as an independent. Vermont_sentence_643

Sanders became the state's junior Senator in 2007. Vermont_sentence_644

However, for his entire career in the House and Senate, Sanders has caucused with the Democrats and is counted as a Democrat for the purposes of committee assignments and voting for party leadership. Vermont_sentence_645

After narrowly supporting George H. W. Bush in 1988, it gave Democrat Bill Clinton a 16-point margin in 1992—the first time the state had gone Democratic since 1964. Vermont_sentence_646

Vermont has voted Democratic in every presidential election since. Vermont_sentence_647

Since 2004, Vermont has been one of the Democrats' most loyal states. Vermont_sentence_648

It gave John Kerry his fourth-largest margin of victory in the presidential campaign against George W. Bush; he won the state's popular vote by 20 percentage points, taking almost 59% of the vote. Vermont_sentence_649

(Kerry, from neighboring Massachusetts, also became the first Northern Democrat ever to carry Vermont; Johnson was from Texas, Clinton from Arkansas and Al Gore, triumphant in the Green Mountain State in 2000, from Tennessee.) Vermont_sentence_650

Essex County in the state's northeastern section was the only county to vote for Bush. Vermont_sentence_651

Vermont is the only state that did not receive a visit from George W. Bush during his tenure as President of the United States. Vermont_sentence_652

Indeed, George W. Bush and Donald Trump are the only Republicans to win the White House without carrying Vermont. Vermont_sentence_653

In 2008, Vermont gave Barack Obama his third-largest margin of victory (37 percentage points) and third-largest vote share in the nation by his winning the state 68% to 31%. Vermont_sentence_654

Only Obama's birth state of Hawaii and Washington, D.C. were stronger Democratic victories. Vermont_sentence_655

The same held true in 2012, when Obama carried Vermont 67% of the vote to 31% for Romney, and in 2016, when Hillary Clinton won with 57% of the vote to 30% for Donald Trump. Vermont_sentence_656

Vermont's two Senators are Democrat Patrick Leahy, the longest-serving member of the Senate, and independent Bernie Sanders. Vermont_sentence_657

The state is represented by an at-large member of the House, Democrat Peter Welch, who succeeded Sanders in 2007. Vermont_sentence_658

Public health Vermont_section_63

In 2010, Vermont was the sixth highest ranked state for Well-Being in a study by Gallup and Healthways. Vermont_sentence_659

In 2010, the state stood third in physical well-being of children. Vermont_sentence_660

In 2010, Vermont was ranked the highest in the country for health outcomes. Vermont_sentence_661

In 2000, the state implemented the Vermont Child Health Improvement Program to improve preventive services and management of chronic conditions. Vermont_sentence_662

In 2011, the state ranked third in the nation in child health system performance. Vermont_sentence_663

In 2011, the March of Dimes gave Vermont an "A," ranking it number one in the country on its Prematurity Report Card. Vermont_sentence_664

In 2008, Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the healthiest place to live for the seventh time in eight years. Vermont_sentence_665

Criteria included low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage, the lowest AIDS rate in the country, and 18 other factors. Vermont_sentence_666

The state scored well in cessation of smoking, obesity, fewer occupational fatalities, prevalence of health insurance, and low infant mortality. Vermont_sentence_667

A problem area was a high prevalence of binge drinking. Vermont_sentence_668

While ranking sixth from best for adults in obesity in 2009, the state still had 22% obese with a rate of 27% for children 10–17. Vermont_sentence_669

The ranking for children was ninth best in the nation. Vermont_sentence_670

In 1993, the obesity rate for adults was 12%. Vermont_sentence_671

Vermonters spend $141 million annually in medical costs related to obesity. Vermont_sentence_672

The combined figures for overweight and obese adults rose from 40.7% in 1990 to 58.4% in 2010. Vermont_sentence_673

This is better than most other states. Vermont_sentence_674

In 2011, Vermont led the nation in the rate of young people who had consumed alcohol in the past month; one-third of people aged 11 through 20. Vermont_sentence_675

One-fifth of that group had binged during that time. Vermont_sentence_676

The state was second for the use of marijuana by young people; 30% of adults 18 to 25 in the past month. Vermont_sentence_677

In 2009, Vermont was ranked second in the nation for safety. Vermont_sentence_678

Crime statistics on violence were used for the criteria. Vermont_sentence_679

In 2007, Vermont was ranked among the best five states in the country for preventing "premature death" in people under 75 years of age. Vermont_sentence_680

The rate of survival was twice that of the five lowest performing states. Vermont_sentence_681

Parts of the state have been declared federal disaster areas on 28 occasions from 1963 to 2008. Vermont_sentence_682

In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency cited Chittenden and Bennington as counties with 70 parts per billion of smog which is undesirable. Vermont_sentence_683

In 2008, about 100,000 Vermonters got their health care through the federal government, Medicare, Tri-Care, and the Veteran's Administration. Vermont_sentence_684

An additional 10,000 Vermonters work for employers who provide insurance under federal law under ERISA. Vermont_sentence_685

About 20% of Vermonters receive health care outside of Vermont; 20% of the care provided within the state is to non-Vermonters. Vermont_sentence_686

In 2008, the state had an estimated 7.6% with no medical insurance, down from 9.8% in 2005. Vermont_sentence_687

In 2008, the Vermont Health Access Program for low-income, uninsured adults cost from $7 to $49 per month. Vermont_sentence_688

A "Catamount Health" premium assistance program was available for Vermonters who do not qualify for other programs. Vermont_sentence_689

Total monthly premiums ranged from $60 to $393 for an individual. Vermont_sentence_690

There was a $250 deductible. Vermont_sentence_691

Insured paid $10 toward each generic prescription. Vermont_sentence_692

16.9% of residents 18 to 35 were uninsured, the highest group. Vermont_sentence_693

Health care spending increased from $2.3 billion in 2000 to $4.8 billion in 2009. Vermont_sentence_694

In 2009, adult day care services cost more in Vermont than any other state—$150 daily. Vermont_sentence_695

The state started air drops of rabies bait for raccoons in 1997. Vermont_sentence_696

Known rabies cases in raccoons peaked in 2007 at 165. Vermont_sentence_697

The program is in cooperation with neighboring states and Canada. Vermont_sentence_698

Education Vermont_section_64

Main article: Education in Vermont Vermont_sentence_699

Vermont was named the nation's smartest state in 2005 and 2006. Vermont_sentence_700

In 2006, there was a gap between state testing standards and national, which is biased in favor of the state standards by 30%, on average. Vermont_sentence_701

This puts Vermont 11th-best in the nation. Vermont_sentence_702

Most states have a higher bias. Vermont_sentence_703

However, when allowance for race is considered, a 2007 U.S. Government list of test scores shows Vermont white fourth graders performed 25th in the nation for reading (229) and 26th for math (247). Vermont_sentence_704

White eighth graders scored 18th for math (292) and 12th for reading (273). Vermont_sentence_705

The first three scores were not considered statistically different from average. Vermont_sentence_706

White eighth graders scored significantly above average in reading. Vermont_sentence_707

Statistics for black students were not reliable because of their small representation in the testing. Vermont_sentence_708

In 2017, spending $1.6 billion on education for 76,000 public school children, represents more than $21,000 per student. Vermont_sentence_709

Education Week ranked the state second in high school graduation rates for 2007. Vermont_sentence_710

In 2011, 91% of the population had graduated from high school compared with 85% nationally. Vermont_sentence_711

Almost 34% have at least an undergraduate degree compared with 28% nationally. Vermont_sentence_712

In 2013, the ratio of pupils to teachers was the lowest in the country. Vermont_sentence_713

Higher education Vermont_section_65

Main article: List of colleges and universities in Vermont Vermont_sentence_714

Experimentation at the University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh, and later the influence of Vermont-born philosopher and educator John Dewey brought about the concepts of electives and learning by doing. Vermont_sentence_715

Vermont has five colleges within the Vermont State Colleges system, University of Vermont (UVM), and thirteen other private, degree-granting colleges, including Bennington College, Champlain College, Goddard College, Marlboro College, Middlebury College, Saint Michael's College, the Vermont Law School, and Norwich University. Vermont_sentence_716

In 2016, the University of Vermont charged the second highest tuition in the nation for four years, $61,000 for in-state students, to $147,000 for out-of-state students. Vermont_sentence_717

This compares with an average of 34,800 nationally for in-state students. Vermont_sentence_718

Culture Vermont_section_66

Vermont festivals include the Vermont Maple Festival, Festival on the Green, The Vermont Dairy Festival in Enosburg Falls, the Apple Festival (held each Columbus Day Weekend), the Marlboro Music Festival, and the Vermont Brewers Festival. Vermont_sentence_719

The Vermont Symphony Orchestra is supported by the state and performs throughout the area. Vermont_sentence_720

Since 1973 the Sage City Symphony, formed by composer Louis Calabro, has performed in the Bennington area. Vermont_sentence_721

In 1988 a number of Vermont-based composers including Gwyneth Walker formed the Vermont Composers Consortium, which was recognized by the governor proclaiming 2011 as The Year of the Composer. Vermont_sentence_722

Burlington, Vermont's largest city, hosts the annual Vermont International Film Festival, which presents ten days in October of independent films. Vermont_sentence_723

The Brattleboro-based Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual summer Shakespeare festival. Vermont_sentence_724

Brattleboro also hosts the summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates Vermont's dairy culture. Vermont_sentence_725

The annual Green Mountain Film Festival is held in Montpelier. Vermont_sentence_726

In the Northeast Kingdom, the Bread and Puppet Theatre holds weekly shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater. Vermont_sentence_727

One of Vermont's best known musical acts is the rock band Phish, whose members met while attending school in Vermont and spent much of their early years playing at venues across the state. Vermont_sentence_728

The Vermont-based House of LeMay performs several shows a year, hosts the annual "Winter is a Drag Ball," and performs for fundraisers. Vermont_sentence_729

Examples of folk art found in Vermont include the Vermontasaurus in Post Mills, a community in Thetford. Vermont_sentence_730

The rate of volunteerism in Vermont was eighth in the nation with 37% in 2007. Vermont_sentence_731

The state stood first in New England. Vermont_sentence_732

In 2011 Vermont residents were ranked as the healthiest in the country. Vermont_sentence_733

Also in 2011, Vermont was ranked as the fourth most peaceful state in the United States. Vermont_sentence_734

In 2011 Vermont residents were ranked as the sixth most fit/leanest in the country. Vermont_sentence_735

Vermonters were the second most active citizens of state with 55.9% meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's physical activity requirements. Vermont_sentence_736

Vermont was ranked as the 12th happiest state in the country. Vermont_sentence_737

There are a number of museums in the state. Vermont_sentence_738

Sports Vermont_section_67

Winter sports Vermont_section_68

Winter sports are popular in New England, and Vermont's winter sports attractions are a big part of Vermont tourism. Vermont_sentence_739

Some well known attractions include Burke Mountain ski area, Jay Peak Resort, Killington Ski Resort, Stowe Mountain Resort, the Quechee Club Ski Area, and Smugglers' Notch Resort. Vermont_sentence_740

Vermont natives in the snowboarding profession include Kevin Pearce, Ross Powers, Hannah Teter, and Kelly Clark. Vermont_sentence_741

Others learned snowboarding in the state, such as Louie Vito and Ellery Hollingsworth. Vermont_sentence_742

Vermont Olympic gold medalists include Barbara Cochran, Hannah Kearney, Kelly Clark, Ross Powers, and Hannah Teter. Vermont_sentence_743

Baseball Vermont_section_69

The largest professional franchise is the Vermont Lake Monsters, a single-A minor league baseball affiliate of the Oakland Athletics, based in Burlington. Vermont_sentence_744

They were named the Vermont Expos before 2006. Vermont_sentence_745

Up until the 2011 season, they were the affiliate of the Washington Nationals (formerly the Montreal Expos). Vermont_sentence_746

Basketball Vermont_section_70

Currently the highest-ranked teams in basketball representing Vermont are the NCAA's Vermont Catamounts—male and female. Vermont_sentence_747

The Vermont Frost Heaves, the 2007 and 2008 American Basketball Association national champions, were a franchise of the Premier Basketball League, and were based in Barre and Burlington from the fall of 2006 through the winter of 2011. Vermont_sentence_748

Football Vermont_section_71

The Vermont Bucks, an indoor football team, were based in Burlington and began play in 2017 as the founding team in the Can-Am Indoor Football League. Vermont_sentence_749

For 2018, the Bucks joined the American Arena League, but folded prior to playing in the new league. Vermont_sentence_750

Hockey Vermont_section_72

Vermont is home to the University of Vermont Men's and Women's hockey teams. Vermont_sentence_751

Vermont's only professional hockey team was the Vermont Wild who played in the Federal Hockey League during the 2011–12 season, but the team folded before the season ended. Vermont_sentence_752

Soccer Vermont_section_73

The Vermont Voltage were a USL Premier Development League soccer club that played in St. Vermont_sentence_753 Albans. Vermont_sentence_754

Annually since 2002, high school statewide all stars compete against New Hampshire in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs. Vermont_sentence_755

Motorsport Vermont_section_74

Vermont also has a few auto racing venues. Vermont_sentence_756

The most popular of them is Thunder Road International Speedbowl in Barre, Vermont. Vermont_sentence_757

It is well known for its tight racing and has become well known in short track stock car racing. Vermont_sentence_758

Other racing circuits include the USC sanctioned Bear Ridge Speedway, and the NASCAR sanctioned Devil's Bowl Speedway. Vermont_sentence_759

Some NASCAR Cup drivers have come to Vermont circuits to compete against local weekly drivers such as Tony Stewart, Clint Bowyer, Kyle Busch, Kenny Wallace, Ken Schrader, and Christopher Bell. Vermont_sentence_760

Kevin Lepage from Shelburne, Vermont is one of a few professional drivers from Vermont. Vermont_sentence_761

Racing series in Vermont include NASCAR Whelen All-American Series, American Canadian Tour, and Vermont's own Tiger Sportsman Series. Vermont_sentence_762

Residents Vermont_section_75

Main article: List of people from Vermont Vermont_sentence_763

The following were either born in Vermont or resided there for a substantial period during their lives and whose names are widely known. Vermont_sentence_764


In fiction Vermont_section_76


  • Vermont was also the home of Dick Loudon, Bob Newhart's character on the 1980s sitcom Newhart. All action supposedly took place in Vermont.Vermont_item_9_89
  • Vermont was the home of Pollyanna and her Aunt Polly in the novel Pollyanna, later made into the 1960 Disney film starring Hayley Mills and Jane Wyman.Vermont_item_9_90
  • In H. P. Lovecraft's The Whisperer in Darkness, Vermont is the home of folklorist Henry Akeley (and the uninhabited hills of Vermont serve as one of the earth bases of the extraterrestrial Mi-Go).Vermont_item_9_91
  • Donna Tartt's novel The Secret History is a story set mostly in a fictitious town of Hampden, Vermont, and college of the same name, where several students conspire to murder a classmate.Vermont_item_9_92
  • Sinclair Lewis' 1935 anti-fascist novel It Can't Happen Here is largely set in Vermont, as local newspaper editor Doremus Jessup opposes a newly elected dictatorial government.Vermont_item_9_93


Vermont sights Vermont_section_77


  • Vermont_item_11_95
  • Vermont_item_11_96
  • Vermont_item_11_97
  • Vermont_item_11_98

See also Vermont_section_78


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: