"｜" redirects here.
For the use of a similar-looking character in vertical Japanese writing, see Chōonpu.
" ‖ " redirects here.
For the use of a similar-looking character in African languages, see lateral clicks.
Not to be confused with dental click.
It is occasionally considered an allograph of broken bar (see below).
The vertical bar is used as a mathematical symbol in numerous ways:
Main article: Pipeline (Unix)
In this way, a series of commands can be "piped" together, giving users the ability to quickly perform complex multi-stage processing from the command line or as part of a Unix shell script ("bash file").
In most Unix shells (command interpreters), this is represented by the vertical bar character.
where the output from the grep process is piped to the more process.
The same "pipe" feature is also found in later versions of DOS and Microsoft Windows.
This usage has led to the character itself being called "pipe".
Specifically, in C and other languages following C syntax conventions, such as C++, Perl, Java and C#, a | b denotes a bitwise or; whereas a double vertical bar a || b denotes a (short-circuited) logical or.
!, which, outside string literals, is equivalent to the | character.
For example: the Unix command grep -E 'fu|bar' matches lines containing 'fu' or 'bar'.
Although not as common as commas or tabs, the vertical bar can be used as a delimiter in a .
It is frequently used because vertical bars are typically uncommon in the data itself.
This is useful when the regular expression contains instances of the more common forward slash (/) delimiter; using a vertical bar eliminates the need to escape all instances of the forward slash.
However, this makes the bar unusable as the regular expression "alternative" operator.
In calculi of communicating processes (like pi-calculus), the vertical bar is used to indicate that processes execute in parallel.
The pipe in APL is the modulo or residue function between two operands and the absolute value function next to one operand.
Main article: List comprehensions
Compare set-builder notation.
In LaTeX text mode, the vertical bar produces an em dash (—).
The \textbar command can be used to produce a vertical bar.
Phonetics and orthography
A double vertical bar is used to write the alveolar lateral click (ǁ).
'little stick'), indicating the preceding consonant is an ejective.
Longer single and double vertical bars are used to mark prosodic boundaries in the IPA.
The danda has its own Unicode code point, U+0964.
These margin notes always begin with the conjunction "Or".
In later printings of the King James Version, the double vertical bar is irregularly used to mark any comment in the margins.
Main article: Sheet music
In music, when writing chord sheets, single vertical bars associated with a colon (|: A / / / :|) represents the beginning and end of a section (ie.
Intro, Interlude, Verse, Chorus) of music.
Single bars can also represent the beginning and end of measures (|: A / / / | D / / / | E / / / :|).
A double vertical bar associated with a colon can represent the repeat of a given section (||: A / / / :|| - play twice).
Solid vertical bar vs broken bar
This may have been to distinguish the character from the lower-case 'L' and the upper-case 'I' on these limited-resolution devices, and to make a vertical line of them look more like a horizontal line of dashes.
It was also (briefly) part of the ASCII standard.
An initial draft for a 7-bit character set that was published by the X3.2 subcommittee for Coded Character Sets and Data Format on June 8, 1961, was the first to include the vertical bar in a standard set.
The bar was intended to be used as the representation for the logical OR symbol.
A subsequent draft on May 12, 1966, places the vertical bar in column 7 alongside regional entry codepoints, and formed the basis for the original draft proposal used by the International Standards Organisation.
This draft received opposition from an IBM user group known as SHARE, with its chairman, H. W. Nelson, writing a letter to the American Standards Association titled "The Proposed revised American Standard Code for Information Interchange does NOT meet the needs of computer programmers!
"; in this letter, he argues that no characters within the international subset designated at columns 2-5 of the character set would be able to adequately represent logical OR and logical NOT in languages such as IBM's PL/I universally on all platforms.
As a compromise, a requirement was introduced where the exclamation mark (!)
and circumflex (^) would display as logical OR (|) and logical NOT (¬) respectively in use cases such as programming, while outside of these use cases they would represent their original typographic symbols:
The original vertical bar encoded at 0x7C in the original May 12, 1966 draft was then broken as ¦, so it could not be confused with the unbroken logical OR.
In the 1967 revision of ASCII, along with the equivalent ISO 464 code published the same year, the code point was defined to be a broken vertical bar, and the exclamation mark character was allowed to be rendered as a solid vertical bar.
However, the 1977 revision (ANSI X.3-1977) undid the changes made in the 1967 revision, enforcing that the circumflex could no longer be stylised as a logical NOT symbol, the exclamation mark likewise no longer allowing stylisation as a vertical bar, and defining the code point originally set to the broken bar as a solid vertical bar instead; the same changes were also reverted in ISO 646-1973 published four years prior.
Some variants of EBCDIC included both versions of the character as different code points.
This was preserved in Unicode as a separate character at U+00A6 BROKEN BAR (the term "parted rule" is used sometimes in Unicode documentation).
Some fonts draw the characters the same (both are solid vertical bars, or both are broken vertical bars).
The broken bar does not appear to have any clearly identified uses distinct from those of the vertical bar.
In non-computing use — for example in mathematics, physics and general typography — the broken bar is not an acceptable substitute for the vertical bar.
Many keyboards with US or US-International layout display the broken bar on a keycap even though the solid vertical bar character is produced in modern operating systems.
This includes many German QWERTZ keyboards.
This is a legacy of keyboards manufactured during the 1980s and 1990s for IBM PC compatible computers featuring the broken bar, as such computers used IBM's 8-bit Code page 437 character set based on ASCII, which continued to display the glyph for the broken bar at codepoint 7C on displays from MDA (1981) to VGA (1987) despite the changes made to ASCII in 1977.
It can be inserted into HTML as ¦
Unicode code points
These glyphs are encoded in Unicode as follows:
Code pages and other historical encodings
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertical bar.