Victoria line

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For the fortifications in Malta, see Victoria Lines. Victoria line_sentence_0

The Victoria line is a London Underground line that runs between Brixton in south London and Walthamstow Central in the north-east, via the West End. Victoria line_sentence_1

It is coloured light blue on the Tube map and is one of the only two lines on the network to run completely underground, the other being the Waterloo & City line. Victoria line_sentence_2

The line was constructed in the 1960s and was the first entirely new Underground line in London for 50 years. Victoria line_sentence_3

It was designed to reduce congestion on other lines, particularly the Piccadilly line and the Charing Cross branch of the Northern line. Victoria line_sentence_4

The first section, from Walthamstow Central to Highbury & Islington, opened in September 1968 and an extension to Warren Street followed in December. Victoria line_sentence_5

The line was completed to Victoria station in March 1969 and was opened by Queen Elizabeth II who rode a train from Green Park to Victoria. Victoria line_sentence_6

The southern extension to Brixton opened in 1971, and Pimlico station was added in 1972. Victoria line_sentence_7

The Victoria line is operated using automatic train operation, but all trains still carry drivers. Victoria line_sentence_8

The 2009 Tube Stock replaced the original 1967 Tube Stock trains. Victoria line_sentence_9

The line serves 16 stations and all but Pimlico provide interchanges with other Transport for London or National Rail services. Victoria line_sentence_10

The line, the most intensively used on the Underground, is used by over 200 million passengers each year. Victoria line_sentence_11

History Victoria line_section_0

Planning Victoria line_section_1

The first proposal for a railway in this area appeared in the County of London Plan, published in 1943. Victoria line_sentence_12

In 1948, a working party set up by the British Transport Commission (BTC) proposed a tube railway from Victoria to Walthamstow, largely based on a 1946 plan for a Croydon-to-Finsbury Park line. Victoria line_sentence_13

Its main purpose was to relieve congestion in the central area, which had been a problem since the 1930s. Victoria line_sentence_14

Other benefits were linking the key railway stations at Victoria, Euston, King's Cross and St. Victoria line_sentence_15 Pancras and improving connections between north-east London and the city. Victoria line_sentence_16

In early 1949, the BTC committee looked at the feasibility of building a deep-level tube to fulfil these requirements. Victoria line_sentence_17

For the first time cost–benefit analysis was used to ensure the line would be built within budget and be profitable. Victoria line_sentence_18

The Private bill was introduced in Parliament in 1955. Victoria line_sentence_19

It described a line from Victoria to Walthamstow (Wood Street) next to the British Rail station. Victoria line_sentence_20

Another proposal not in the Bill, supported an extension from Victoria to Fulham Broadway on the District line terminating at Edmonton instead of Walthamstow. Victoria line_sentence_21

Proposals were made to extend the line north to South Woodford or Woodford to provide interchange with the Central line. Victoria line_sentence_22

In 1961 it was decided to terminate the line at Walthamstow (Hoe Street) station, which was renamed Walthamstow Central on 6 May 1968 in anticipation of the line's opening. Victoria line_sentence_23

The line was planned to have cross-platform interchanges at Oxford Circus, Euston and Finsbury Park (with the Bakerloo, Northern (Bank) and Piccadilly lines respectively) and at Walthamstow Central to provide a quick and easy connection between the new line and existing services. Victoria line_sentence_24

The name "Victoria line" dates from 1955; other suggestions were "Walvic line" (Walthamstow–Victoria), "Viking line" (Victoria–King's Cross), "Mayfair line" and "West End line". Victoria line_sentence_25

During the planning stages it was known as Route C and named the Victoria line (after the station) by David McKenna, whose suggestion was seconded by Sir John Elliot. Victoria line_sentence_26

The board decided that the Victoria line sounded "just right". Victoria line_sentence_27

Walthamstow – Victoria Victoria line_section_2

Initial construction began in January 1960, when two test tunnels were started from Tottenham to Manor House under Seven Sisters Road. Victoria line_sentence_28

The tunnels were excavated using an experimental "drum digger" rotary shield, powered by hydraulic rams, that could cut more than 60 feet (18 m) per day. Victoria line_sentence_29

The work was completed in July 1961, with the expectation it would be used for the completed Victoria line. Victoria line_sentence_30

After the line gained parliamentary approval on 20 August 1962 with a budget of £56 million, construction began the following month. Victoria line_sentence_31

The economic boom of the mid-to-late 1950s had faded leading to a rise in unemployment in London, and the government had hoped that building the Victoria line would stop this. Victoria line_sentence_32

Work began adapting Oxford Circus station to link to the new line; a cross-platform interchange was provided with the Bakerloo line and a subway link with the Central line. Victoria line_sentence_33

A steel umbrella was erected over the junction in August 1963 so that a new ticket hall could be built without disrupting existing traffic. Victoria line_sentence_34

Rolling stock on the line was fitted with Automatic Train Operation (ATO), which allowed self-driving of the train based on automatic electrical signals along the track. Victoria line_sentence_35

In March 1964, a £2.25 million contract was awarded to Metro-Cammell for the Victoria line fleet. Victoria line_sentence_36

That October, the Northern City Line closed between Drayton Park and Finsbury Park so that the latter station could be redesigned for a cross-platform interchange between the Victoria and Piccadilly lines. Victoria line_sentence_37

All major contracts had been awarded by 1965, and construction was on track to be completed in 1968. Victoria line_sentence_38

New stations were constructed at Walthamstow Central, Blackhorse Road, Tottenham Hale and Seven Sisters. Victoria line_sentence_39

The station at Blackhorse Road was built on the opposite side of the mainline station (serving the Kentish Town to Barking line) and was not an interchange. Victoria line_sentence_40

The line opened from Walthamstow Central to Highbury & Islington on 1 September 1968. Victoria line_sentence_41

There was no opening ceremony; instead the normal timetable started. Victoria line_sentence_42

The first train left Walthamstow Central for Highbury & Islington at 7:32 a.m. Victoria line_sentence_43

The line proved to be popular; more than 1,000 tickets were purchased at Highbury & Islington within its first hour of opening. Victoria line_sentence_44

The next section to Warren Street, opened on 1 December 1968, again without ceremony. Victoria line_sentence_45

The line was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 7 March 1969 when it had been completed to Victoria. Victoria line_sentence_46

At 11:00 a.m., the Queen made the first trip, on a 5d (2.08p) ticket, from Green Park to Victoria, where she unveiled a plaque. Victoria line_sentence_47

In so doing, she was the first reigning monarch to ride on the Underground. Victoria line_sentence_48

The line was open to the general public by 3:00 p.m. Victoria line_sentence_49

Trains from Walthamstow to Victoria took around 24 minutes. Victoria line_sentence_50

Victoria – Brixton Victoria line_section_3

The 3.5-mile (5.6 km) extension from Victoria to Brixton with stations at Vauxhall and Stockwell was approved in March 1966. Victoria line_sentence_51

Preparatory work had started at Bessborough Gardens near Vauxhall Bridge Road in May 1967. Victoria line_sentence_52

The contract was awarded on 4 August 1967. Victoria line_sentence_53

A proposal to build Pimlico tube station received Government approval on 28 June 1968. Victoria line_sentence_54

In July, the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh visited tunnel workings under Vauxhall Park. Victoria line_sentence_55

The Brixton extension was bored using the older Greathead shield. Victoria line_sentence_56

Although slower, use of the tunnelling shield allowed easier digging through the gravel strata south of the Thames. Victoria line_sentence_57

It was opened on 23 July 1971 by Princess Alexandra, who made a journey from Brixton to Vauxhall. Victoria line_sentence_58

On opening, it was the first new section of Underground to open south of the Thames since the extension of the City and South London Railway from Clapham Common to Morden in 1926. Victoria line_sentence_59

The final piece of the Victoria line, Pimlico station, opened on 14 September 1972. Victoria line_sentence_60

London Transport considered extensions to Streatham, Dulwich and Crystal Palace to provide a connection to southeast London and Kent but no construction work was undertaken. Victoria line_sentence_61

Post-opening Victoria line_section_4

The Kentish Town – Barking line did not close as expected and both stations at Blackhorse Road remained open. Victoria line_sentence_62

The mainline was connected to the Victoria line on 14 December 1981, when surface-line platforms and a connecting overbridge were built on the same side as the tube station. Victoria line_sentence_63

The original station was then closed and demolished. Victoria line_sentence_64

The London Underground (Victoria) Act 1991 allowed for the construction of a 43-metre (140 ft) underground pedestrian link at Victoria station between the Victoria line platforms and the sub-surface Circle line platforms above. Victoria line_sentence_65

The London Underground (Victoria Station Upgrade) Order 2009 came into force in September that year, authorising the construction of a second 1,930-square-metre (21,000 sq ft) ticket hall at Victoria. Victoria line_sentence_66

On 23 January 2014, during upgrade work at Victoria, construction workers accidentally penetrated the signalling room of the Victoria line and flooded it with quick-drying concrete, leading to the suspension of services south of Warren Street. Victoria line_sentence_67

Services resumed the following day after using sugar to slow the setting of the concrete and make it easier to shovel out. Victoria line_sentence_68

A 24-hour Night Tube service on Friday and Saturday nights, due to start in September 2015 on the entire line was delayed because of strike action. Victoria line_sentence_69

The service started in August 2016, with trains running at 10-minute intervals on the whole line. Victoria line_sentence_70

Design Victoria line_section_5

Every Victoria line station apart from Pimlico and Blackhorse Road was built as an interchange and several stations were rearranged to allow for cross-platform interchange with the line. Victoria line_sentence_71

In some stations the Victoria line platforms were built on either side of the existing arrangement; in others, the Victoria line uses the older platforms and the existing line was diverted onto a new alignment. Victoria line_sentence_72

All platforms on the line are 132.6 metres (435 ft) long. Victoria line_sentence_73

The line has hump-backed stations to allow trains to store gravitational potential energy as they slow down and release it when they leave a station, providing an energy saving of 5% and allowing trains run 9% faster. Victoria line_sentence_74

The stations were originally tiled in blue and grey, each decorated with tiled motifs in seating recesses for identification. Victoria line_sentence_75

Some motifs were puns e.g. the image for Brixton was a ton of bricks. Victoria line_sentence_76

During construction of the first stage of the Jubilee line in 1979, the motifs on Green Park station were replaced by others matching the design for the Jubilee line platforms. Victoria line_sentence_77

In late 2010 and 2011, platform humps were installed on all Victoria line stations except Pimlico to provide step-free access to trains. Victoria line_sentence_78

The project was in accordance with the Rail Vehicle Accessibility (Non Interoperable Rail System) Regulations 2010 and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. Victoria line_sentence_79

The Victoria line humps resemble the Harrington Hump, a type of ramp being installed on some mainline stations, but are of a masonry construction. Victoria line_sentence_80

Service and rolling stock Victoria line_section_6

About 200 million passengers a year use the Victoria line. Victoria line_sentence_81

It is the sixth-most heavily used line on the network in absolute figures, but in terms of the average number of journeys per mile it is by far the most intensively used. Victoria line_sentence_82

From May 2017, trains run every 100 seconds during peak periods, providing 36 trains per hour. Victoria line_sentence_83

All trains run from Brixton to Seven Sisters and some continue to Walthamstow Central. Victoria line_sentence_84

When the line opened, services were operated by a fleet of ​39 ⁄2 eight-car trains of 1967 Tube Stock trains. Victoria line_sentence_85

In the early planning stages, an articulated type of rolling stock was considered, but not progressed because of difficulties transferring the stock to Acton Works for heavy overhauls. Victoria line_sentence_86

After Acton Works closed this no longer applies. Victoria line_sentence_87

The 2009 tube stock has a wider profile and slightly longer carriages which precludes it from running on other deep-level tube lines. Victoria line_sentence_88

The 1967 stock was supplemented by 1972 Mark I Tube Stock, transferred from the Northern line and converted to be compatible with the 1967 stock. Victoria line_sentence_89

Replacement of the 1967 rolling stock began in July 2009. Victoria line_sentence_90

The 2009 Tube Stock fleet of 47 eight-car trains, was built by Bombardier Transportation. Victoria line_sentence_91

Testing the first prototypes began in 2008. Victoria line_sentence_92

The trains began to be introduced in 2009 and most were in operation by the following year. Victoria line_sentence_93

The last of the 1967 stock trains ran on 30 June 2011, after which the entire service was provided by 2009 stock. Victoria line_sentence_94

On opening, the line was equipped with a fixed-block Automatic Train Operation system (ATO). Victoria line_sentence_95

The train operator closed the train doors and pressed a pair of "start" buttons and, if the way ahead was clear, the ATO drives the train at a safe speed to the next station. Victoria line_sentence_96

At any point, the driver could switch to manual control if the ATO failed. Victoria line_sentence_97

The system, which operated until 2012, made the Victoria line the world's first full-scale automatic railway. Victoria line_sentence_98

The Victoria line runs faster trains than other Underground lines because it has fewer stops, ATO running and modern design. Victoria line_sentence_99

Train speeds can reach up to 50 miles per hour (80 km/h). Victoria line_sentence_100

A popular way for locals in north London to visit the West End is to take the Northern line to Bank, change platforms at Euston, and continue on faster Victoria line trains. Victoria line_sentence_101

The original signalling has been replaced with a more modern ATO system from Westinghouse Rail Systems incorporating 'Distance to Go Radio' and more than 400 track circuits. Victoria line_sentence_102

The track operator, London Underground Limited, claimed it is the world's first ATO-on-ATO upgrade. Victoria line_sentence_103

The new system allowed a revised timetable to be introduced in February 2013, allowing up to 33 trains per hour instead of 27. Victoria line_sentence_104

In combination with new, faster trains, the line's capacity increased by 21%, equivalent to an extra 10,000 passengers per hour. Victoria line_sentence_105

Facilities Victoria line_section_7

Step-free access Victoria line_section_8

When the line was built, budget restrictions meant that station infrastructure standards were lower than on older lines and on later extension projects. Victoria line_sentence_106

Examples include narrower than usual platforms and undecorated ceilings at Walthamstow Central, Blackhorse Road and Tottenham Hale, affecting lighting levels. Victoria line_sentence_107

The line was built with fewer escalators than other lines as a cost saving exercise. Victoria line_sentence_108

The lack of a third escalator linking station entrances to platforms at some stations can cause severe congestion at peak times. Victoria line_sentence_109

Stations have closed temporarily for safety reasons when escalators have been unserviceable. Victoria line_sentence_110

Step-free routes are available between the Victoria line and other lines at most interchanges. Victoria line_sentence_111

Tottenham Hale, King's Cross St. Pancras, Green Park, Victoria, Vauxhall and Brixton have step-free access from street to train. Victoria line_sentence_112

Platform humps have been installed at all stations (except Pimlico) to provide level access to trains, improving access for customers with mobility impairments, luggage or pushchairs. Victoria line_sentence_113

Ventilation Victoria line_section_9

About 50 ventilation shafts were constructed during the construction phase. Victoria line_sentence_114

Midpoint tunnel ventilation shafts remain between stations. Victoria line_sentence_115

Special "local arrangements" are in place should it be necessary to evacuate passengers from trains via Netherton Road emergency escape shaft. Victoria line_sentence_116

Planning permission for a shaft at Ferry Lane, next to Tottenham Hale station, was granted on 11 January 1968, during the first phase of construction. Victoria line_sentence_117

By mid-2009, trial boreholes for a cooling system at Green Park station had been created and more were scheduled to be created by the end of 2009. Victoria line_sentence_118

In 2010, Engineering & Technology reported that 200 litres (44 imp gal) of water per second for the cooling system was being pumped through heat-exchangers at Victoria station from the River Tyburn and into the River Thames. Victoria line_sentence_119

Between 2009 and 2014, thirteen ventilation shafts were refurbished. Victoria line_sentence_120

In the first phase were Drayton Park, Gillingham Street, Moreton Terrace, Pulross Road, Somerleyton Road and Tynemouth Road. Victoria line_sentence_121

For the second phase were Cobourg Street, Dover Street, Gibson Square, Great Titchfield Street, Isledon Road, Kings Cross, Palace Street and Rita Road. Victoria line_sentence_122

By 2009, changes at Cobourg Street were in the planning stage and demolition at Moreton Terrace, Somerleyton Road and Drayton Park shafts had taken place. Victoria line_sentence_123

Planning permission for Netherton Road shaft was granted on 8 September 1967. Victoria line_sentence_124

On 31 March, the demolition and rebuilding of Netherton Road shaft was allowed as permitted development. Victoria line_sentence_125

Depot Victoria line_section_10

The depot at Northumberland Park, the service and storage area for trains, is the only part of the Victoria line above ground. Victoria line_sentence_126

Trains access the depot via a branch line in a tunnel to the north of Seven Sisters. Victoria line_sentence_127

The depot opened with the first stage of the line in September 1968. Victoria line_sentence_128

It is next to Northumberland Park railway station, on Tottenham Marshes in the London Borough of Haringey, over a mile from the Victoria line. Victoria line_sentence_129

When built, it was 900 feet (270 m) long and had working space for 22 eight-car trains. Victoria line_sentence_130

As part of Transport for London's tube upgrade scheme, the depot has been expanded and upgraded to accommodate all the 2009 Tube Stock trains. Victoria line_sentence_131

Future Victoria line_section_11

Tottenham Hotspur F.C. and its supporters have campaigned for a surface station next to Northumberland Park Station, adjacent to the depot to improve the stadium's transport links, which are essential for the club to redevelop its ground and increase capacity. Victoria line_sentence_132

The plans require co-operation with the local council and Network Rail to minimise disruption. Victoria line_sentence_133

It was announced by Haringey Council in its 2012 A Plan for Tottenham report that there was "potential for a Victoria Line extension to Northumberland Park". Victoria line_sentence_134

Crossrail 2, also known as the Chelsea-Hackney line, is a planned line across central London between Victoria and King's Cross St. Pancras tube station to increase capacity in Central London by 270,000 passengers per day. Victoria line_sentence_135

It is intended to relieve congestion on the Victoria line, a key line connecting several important London termini. Victoria line_sentence_136

Proposals have been made to extend the line one stop southwards from Brixton to Herne Hill, a significant interchange in south London providing access to Kent, Blackfriars, London Bridge and Sutton. Victoria line_sentence_137

The latter station would be on a large reversing loop with a single platform removing a critical capacity restriction eliminating the need for trains to reverse at Brixton and provide a more obvious route for passengers who look for the nearest tube station before any other transport options. Victoria line_sentence_138

Stations Victoria line_section_12

Victoria line_table_general_0

StationVictoria line_header_cell_0_0_0 ImageVictoria line_header_cell_0_0_1 OpenedVictoria line_header_cell_0_0_2 Victoria line service beganVictoria line_header_cell_0_0_3 InterchangesVictoria line_header_cell_0_0_4 PositionVictoria line_header_cell_0_0_5
Walthamstow Central London_OvergroundVictoria line_cell_0_1_0 Victoria line_cell_0_1_1 26 April 1870Victoria line_cell_0_1_2 1 September 1968Victoria line_cell_0_1_3 London OvergroundVictoria line_cell_0_1_4 Victoria line_cell_0_1_5
Blackhorse Road London_OvergroundVictoria line_cell_0_2_0 Victoria line_cell_0_2_1 19 July 1894Victoria line_cell_0_2_2 London OvergroundVictoria line_cell_0_2_3 Victoria line_cell_0_2_4
Tottenham Hale National_RailVictoria line_cell_0_3_0 Victoria line_cell_0_3_1 15 September 1840Victoria line_cell_0_3_2 Mainline trainsVictoria line_cell_0_3_3 Victoria line_cell_0_3_4
Seven Sisters London_Overground National_RailVictoria line_cell_0_4_0 Victoria line_cell_0_4_1 22 July 1872Victoria line_cell_0_4_2 London Overground, mainline trainsVictoria line_cell_0_4_3 Victoria line_cell_0_4_4
Finsbury Park National_RailVictoria line_cell_0_5_0 Victoria line_cell_0_5_1 1 July 1861Victoria line_cell_0_5_2 Piccadilly line (CPI), mainline trainsVictoria line_cell_0_5_3 Victoria line_cell_0_5_4
Highbury & Islington London_Overground National_RailVictoria line_cell_0_6_0 Victoria line_cell_0_6_1 26 September 1850Victoria line_cell_0_6_2 Great Northern trains to Welwyn Garden City and Moorgate (CPI), London OvergroundVictoria line_cell_0_6_3 Victoria line_cell_0_6_4
King's Cross St. Pancras National_RailVictoria line_cell_0_7_0 Victoria line_cell_0_7_1 10 January 1863Victoria line_cell_0_7_2 1 December 1968Victoria line_cell_0_7_3 Northern (Bank branch), Piccadilly, Circle, Metropolitan, and Hammersmith and City lines; mainline trainsVictoria line_cell_0_7_4 Victoria line_cell_0_7_5
Euston London_Overground National_RailVictoria line_cell_0_8_0 Victoria line_cell_0_8_1 12 May 1907Victoria line_cell_0_8_2 Northern line (CPI with Bank branch), London Overground, mainline trainsVictoria line_cell_0_8_3 Victoria line_cell_0_8_4
Warren StreetVictoria line_cell_0_9_0 Victoria line_cell_0_9_1 22 June 1907Victoria line_cell_0_9_2 Northern line (Charing Cross branch)Victoria line_cell_0_9_3 Victoria line_cell_0_9_4
Oxford CircusVictoria line_cell_0_10_0 Victoria line_cell_0_10_1 30 July 1900Victoria line_cell_0_10_2 7 March 1969Victoria line_cell_0_10_3 Bakerloo (CPI) and Central linesVictoria line_cell_0_10_4 Victoria line_cell_0_10_5
Green ParkVictoria line_cell_0_11_0 Victoria line_cell_0_11_1 15 December 1906Victoria line_cell_0_11_2 Piccadilly and Jubilee linesVictoria line_cell_0_11_3 Victoria line_cell_0_11_4
Victoria National_Rail (List_of_airports Trains to Gatwick)Victoria line_cell_0_12_0 Victoria line_cell_0_12_1 1 October 1860Victoria line_cell_0_12_2 Circle and District lines, mainline trainsVictoria line_cell_0_12_3 Victoria line_cell_0_12_4
PimlicoVictoria line_cell_0_13_0 Victoria line_cell_0_13_1 14 September 1972Victoria line_cell_0_13_2 N/AVictoria line_cell_0_13_4 Victoria line_cell_0_13_5
Vauxhall National_RailVictoria line_cell_0_14_0 Victoria line_cell_0_14_1 11 July 1848Victoria line_cell_0_14_2 23 July 1971Victoria line_cell_0_14_3 Mainline trains, London River Services (St George Wharf Pier)Victoria line_cell_0_14_4 Victoria line_cell_0_14_5
StockwellVictoria line_cell_0_15_0 Victoria line_cell_0_15_1 4 November 1890Victoria line_cell_0_15_2 Northern line (CPI)Victoria line_cell_0_15_3 Victoria line_cell_0_15_4
Brixton National_RailVictoria line_cell_0_16_0 Victoria line_cell_0_16_1 23 July 1971Victoria line_cell_0_16_2 Mainline trains (within 100 metres' walking distance)Victoria line_cell_0_16_3 Victoria line_cell_0_16_4

See also Victoria line_section_13

Victoria line_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: line.