Vienna

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This article is about the capital of Austria. Vienna_sentence_0

For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). Vienna_sentence_1

"Wien" redirects here. Vienna_sentence_2

For other uses, see Wien (disambiguation). Vienna_sentence_3

Vienna_table_infobox_0

Vienna

WienVienna_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryVienna_header_cell_0_1_0 AustriaVienna_cell_0_1_1
StateVienna_header_cell_0_2_0 ViennaVienna_cell_0_2_1
GovernmentVienna_header_cell_0_3_0
BodyVienna_header_cell_0_4_0 State and Municipality DietVienna_cell_0_4_1
Mayor and GovernorVienna_header_cell_0_5_0 Michael Ludwig (SPÖ)Vienna_cell_0_5_1
Vice MayorVienna_header_cell_0_6_0 Christoph Wiederkehr (NEOS)Vienna_cell_0_6_1
AreaVienna_header_cell_0_7_0
Capital city and stateVienna_header_cell_0_8_0 414.78 km (160.15 sq mi)Vienna_cell_0_8_1
LandVienna_header_cell_0_9_0 395.25 km (152.61 sq mi)Vienna_cell_0_9_1
WaterVienna_header_cell_0_10_0 19.39 km (7.49 sq mi)Vienna_cell_0_10_1
ElevationVienna_header_cell_0_11_0 151 (Lobau) – 542 (Hermannskogel) m (495–1,778 ft)Vienna_cell_0_11_1
Population (2018-01-01)Vienna_header_cell_0_12_0
Capital city and stateVienna_header_cell_0_13_0 1,888,776Vienna_cell_0_13_1
RankVienna_header_cell_0_14_0 1st in Austria (6th in EU)Vienna_cell_0_14_1
DensityVienna_header_cell_0_15_0 4,326.1/km (11,205/sq mi)Vienna_cell_0_15_1
MetroVienna_header_cell_0_16_0 2,600,000Vienna_cell_0_16_1
EthnicityVienna_header_cell_0_17_0 Vienna_cell_0_17_1
Demonym(s)Vienna_header_cell_0_18_0 German: Wiener (m), Wienerin (f)

English: VienneseVienna_cell_0_18_1

Time zoneVienna_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC+1 (CET)Vienna_cell_0_19_1
Summer (DST)Vienna_header_cell_0_20_0 UTC+2 (CEST)Vienna_cell_0_20_1
Postal codeVienna_header_cell_0_21_0 Vienna_cell_0_21_1
ISO 3166 codeVienna_header_cell_0_22_0 AT-9Vienna_cell_0_22_1
Vehicle registrationVienna_header_cell_0_23_0 WVienna_cell_0_23_1
HDI (2018)Vienna_header_cell_0_24_0 0.940

very high · 1stVienna_cell_0_24_1

GDPVienna_header_cell_0_25_0 €94 billion (2017)Vienna_cell_0_25_1
GDP per capitaVienna_header_cell_0_26_0 €50,000 (2017)Vienna_cell_0_26_1
Seats in the Federal CouncilVienna_header_cell_0_27_0 11 / 61Vienna_cell_0_27_1
GeoTLDVienna_header_cell_0_28_0 .wienVienna_cell_0_28_1
WebsiteVienna_header_cell_0_29_0 Vienna_cell_0_29_1
UNESCO World Heritage SiteVienna_header_cell_0_30_0
Official nameVienna_header_cell_0_31_0 Historic Centre of ViennaVienna_cell_0_31_1
TypeVienna_header_cell_0_32_0 CulturalVienna_cell_0_32_1
CriteriaVienna_header_cell_0_33_0 ii, iv, viVienna_cell_0_33_1
DesignatedVienna_header_cell_0_34_0 2001 (25th session)Vienna_cell_0_34_1
Reference no.Vienna_header_cell_0_35_0 Vienna_cell_0_35_1
UNESCO RegionVienna_header_cell_0_36_0 Europe and North AmericaVienna_cell_0_36_1
EndangeredVienna_header_cell_0_37_0 2017 (2017)–presentVienna_cell_0_37_1

Vienna (/viˈɛnə/ (listen); German: Wien [viːn (listen)) is the national capital, largest city, and one of nine states of Austria. Vienna_sentence_4

Vienna is Austria's most populous city, with about 1.9 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the metropolitan area, nearly one third of the country's population), and its cultural, economic, and political center. Vienna_sentence_5

It is the 6th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Vienna_sentence_6

Until the beginning of the 20th century, Vienna was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Vienna_sentence_7

Today, it is the second-largest German-speaking city after Berlin. Vienna_sentence_8

Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations, OPEC and the OSCE. Vienna_sentence_9

The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Vienna_sentence_10

These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Vienna_sentence_11

Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. Vienna_sentence_12

In 2001, the city center was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Vienna_sentence_13

In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger. Vienna_sentence_14

Additionally to being known as the "City of Music" due to its musical legacy, as many famous classical musicians such as Beethoven and Mozart who called Vienna home. Vienna_sentence_15

Vienna is also said to be the "City of Dreams", because of it being home to the world's first psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Vienna_sentence_16

Vienna's ancestral roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city. Vienna_sentence_17

It is well known for having played a pivotal role as a leading European music center, from the age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. Vienna_sentence_18

The historic center of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque palaces and gardens, and the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings, monuments and parks. Vienna_sentence_19

Vienna is known for its high quality of life. Vienna_sentence_20

In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first (in a tie with Vancouver and San Francisco) for the world's most livable cities. Vienna_sentence_21

Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. Vienna_sentence_22

In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot and continued as the first in 2019. Vienna_sentence_23

For ten consecutive years (2009–2019), the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world. Vienna_sentence_24

Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within." Vienna_sentence_25

The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna_sentence_26

The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, and sixth globally (out of 256 cities) in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture, infrastructure, and markets. Vienna_sentence_27

Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is often used as a case study by urban planners. Vienna_sentence_28

Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions. Vienna_sentence_29

It attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. Vienna_sentence_30

Etymology Vienna_section_0

See also Other names of Vienna Vienna_sentence_31

The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian name. Vienna_sentence_32

The etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Vienna_sentence_33

Some claim that the name comes from vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German uuenia (wenia in modern writing), the New High German wien and its dialectal variant wean. Vienna_sentence_34

Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona, probably meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, and -bona "village, settlement". Vienna_sentence_35

The Celtic word vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of Vindos, a Celtic deity who survives in Irish Mythology as the warrior and seer Fionn mac Cumhaill. Vienna_sentence_36

A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech, Slovak and Polish names of the city (Vídeň, Viedeň and Wiedeń respectively) and in that of the city's district Wieden. Vienna_sentence_37

The name of the city in Hungarian (Bécs), Serbo-Croatian (Beč; Cyrillic: Беч) and Ottoman Turkish (Beç) has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Vienna_sentence_38

Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the river Danube, on which the city stands. Vienna_sentence_39

History Vienna_section_1

Main articles: History of Vienna and Timeline of Vienna Vienna_sentence_40

Early history Vienna_section_2

Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube. Vienna_sentence_41

In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north. Vienna_sentence_42

Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. Vienna_sentence_43

The Irish monk Saint Colman (or Koloman, Irish Colmán, derived from colm "dove") is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil (Virgil the Geometer) served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Vienna_sentence_44

Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements; evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery (Scots Abbey), once home to many Irish monks. Vienna_sentence_45

In 976, Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a district centered on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria. Vienna_sentence_46

This initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Vienna_sentence_47

Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube, eventually encompassing Vienna and the lands immediately east. Vienna_sentence_48

In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. Vienna_sentence_49

From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. Vienna_sentence_50

In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty. Vienna_sentence_51

It eventually grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) in 1437 and a cultural center for arts and science, music and fine cuisine. Vienna_sentence_52

Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. Vienna_sentence_53

In the 16th and 17th centuries Christian forces twice stopped Ottoman armies outside Vienna, in the 1529 Siege of Vienna and the 1683 Battle of Vienna. Vienna_sentence_54

The Great Plague of Vienna ravaged the city in 1679, killing nearly a third of its population. Vienna_sentence_55

Austro-Hungarian Empire and the early 20th century Vienna_section_3

In 1804, during the Napoleonic Wars, Vienna became the capital of the newly formed Austrian Empire. Vienna_sentence_56

The city continued to play a major role in European and world politics, including hosting the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15. Vienna_sentence_57

After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Vienna remained the capital of what became the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Vienna_sentence_58

The city functioned as a center of classical music, for which the title of the First Viennese School (Haydn/Mozart/Beethoven) is sometimes applied. Vienna_sentence_59

During the latter half of the 19th century, Vienna developed what had previously been the bastions and glacis into the Ringstraße, a new boulevard surrounding the historical town and a major prestige project. Vienna_sentence_60

Former suburbs were incorporated, and the city of Vienna grew dramatically. Vienna_sentence_61

In 1918, after World War I, Vienna became capital of the Republic of German-Austria, and then in 1919 of the First Republic of Austria. Vienna_sentence_62

From the late-19th century to 1938 the city remained a center of high culture and of modernism. Vienna_sentence_63

A world capital of music, Vienna played host to composers such as Brahms, Bruckner, Mahler and Richard Strauss. Vienna_sentence_64

The city's cultural contributions in the first half of the 20th century included, among many, the Vienna Secession movement in art, psychoanalysis, the Second Viennese School (Schoenberg, Berg, Webern), the architecture of Adolf Loos and the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle. Vienna_sentence_65

In 1913 Adolf Hitler, Leon Trotsky, Josip Broz Tito, Sigmund Freud and Joseph Stalin all lived within a few kilometres of each other in central Vienna, some of them becoming regulars at the same coffeehouses. Vienna_sentence_66

Austrians came to regard Vienna as a center of socialist politics, sometimes referred to as "Red Vienna"(“Das rote Wien”). Vienna_sentence_67

In the Austrian Civil War of 1934 Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss sent the Austrian Army to shell civilian housing such as the Karl Marx-Hof occupied by the socialist militia. Vienna_sentence_68

Anschluss and World War II Vienna_section_4

Main article: Anschluss Vienna_sentence_69

In 1938, after a triumphant entry into Austria, the Austrian-born German Chancellor Adolf Hitler spoke to the Austrian Germans from the balcony of the Neue Burg, a part of the Hofburg at the Heldenplatz. Vienna_sentence_70

In the ensuing days the new Nazi authorities oversaw the harassment of Viennese Jews, the looting of their homes, and their on-going deportation and murder. Vienna_sentence_71

Between 1938 (after the Anschluss) and the end of the Second World War in 1945, Vienna lost its status as a capital to Berlin, because Austria ceased to exist and became part of Nazi Germany. Vienna_sentence_72

On 2 April 1945 the Soviet Red Army launched the Vienna Offensive against the Germans holding the city and besieged it. Vienna_sentence_73

British and American air-raids, as well as artillery duels between the Red Army and the SS and Wehrmacht, crippled infrastructure, such as tram services and water- and power-distribution, and destroyed or damaged thousands of public and private buildings. Vienna_sentence_74

Vienna fell eleven days later. Vienna_sentence_75

At the end of the war, Austria again became separated from Germany, and Vienna regained its status as the capital city of the Republic of Austria, but the Soviet hold on the city remained until 1955, when Austria regained full sovereignty. Vienna_sentence_76

Four-power Vienna Vienna_section_5

Further information: Allied-occupied Austria Vienna_sentence_77

After the war, Vienna was part of Soviet-occupied Eastern Austria until September 1945. Vienna_sentence_78

As in Berlin, Vienna in September 1945 was divided into sectors by the four powers: the US, the UK, France, and the Soviet Union and supervised by an Allied Commission. Vienna_sentence_79

The four-power occupation of Vienna differed in one key respect from that of Berlin: the central area of the city, known as the first district, constituted an international zone in which the four powers alternated control on a monthly basis. Vienna_sentence_80

The control was policed by the four powers on a de facto day-to-day basis, the famous "four soldiers in a jeep" method. Vienna_sentence_81

The Berlin Blockade of 1948 raised Western concerns that the Soviets might repeat the blockade in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_82

The matter was raised in the UK House of Commons by MP Anthony Nutting, who asked: "What plans have the Government for dealing with a similar situation in Vienna? Vienna_sentence_83

Vienna is in exactly a similar position to Berlin." Vienna_sentence_84

There was a lack of airfields in the Western sectors, and authorities drafted contingency plans to deal with such a blockade. Vienna_sentence_85

Plans included the laying down of metal landing mats at Schönbrunn. Vienna_sentence_86

The Soviets did not blockade the city. Vienna_sentence_87

The Potsdam Agreement included written rights of land access to the western sectors, whereas no such written guarantees had covered the western sectors of Berlin. Vienna_sentence_88

Also, there was no precipitating event to cause a blockade in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_89

(In Berlin, the Western powers had introduced a new currency in early 1948 to economically freeze out the Soviets.) Vienna_sentence_90

During the 10 years of the four-power occupation, Vienna became a hotbed for international espionage between the Western and Eastern blocs. Vienna_sentence_91

In the wake of the Berlin Blockade, the Cold War in Vienna took on a different dynamic. Vienna_sentence_92

While accepting that Germany and Berlin would be divided, the Soviets had decided against allowing the same state of affairs to arise in Austria and Vienna. Vienna_sentence_93

Here, the Soviet forces controlled districts 2, 4, 10, 20, 21, and 22 and all areas incorporated into Vienna in 1938. Vienna_sentence_94

Barbed wire fences were installed around the perimeter of West Berlin in 1953, but not in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_95

By 1955, the Soviets, by signing the Austrian State Treaty, agreed to relinquish their occupation zones in Eastern Austria as well as their sector in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_96

In exchange they required that Austria declare its permanent neutrality after the allied powers had left the country. Vienna_sentence_97

Thus they ensured that Austria would not be a member of NATO and that NATO forces would therefore not have direct communications between Italy and West Germany. Vienna_sentence_98

The atmosphere of four-power Vienna is the background for Graham Greene's screenplay for the film The Third Man (1949). Vienna_sentence_99

Later he adapted the screenplay as a novel and published it. Vienna_sentence_100

Occupied Vienna is also depicted in the 1991 Philip Kerr novel, A German Requiem. Vienna_sentence_101

Austrian State Treaty and afterwards Vienna_section_6

The four-power control of Vienna lasted until the Austrian State Treaty was signed in May 1955. Vienna_sentence_102

That year, after years of reconstruction and restoration, the State Opera and the Burgtheater, both on the Ringstraße, reopened to the public. Vienna_sentence_103

The Soviet Union signed the State Treaty only after having been provided with a political guarantee by the federal government to declare Austria's neutrality after the withdrawal of the allied troops. Vienna_sentence_104

This law of neutrality, passed in late October 1955 (and not the State Treaty itself), ensured that modern Austria would align with neither NATO nor the Soviet bloc, and is considered one of the reasons for Austria's delayed entry into the European Union in 1995. Vienna_sentence_105

In the 1970s, Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky inaugurated the Vienna International Center, a new area of the city created to host international institutions. Vienna_sentence_106

Vienna has regained much of its former international stature by hosting international organizations, such as the United Nations (United Nations Industrial Development Organization, United Nations Office at Vienna and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Vienna_sentence_107

Demographics Vienna_section_7

Vienna_table_infobox_1

Significant foreign resident groupsVienna_header_cell_1_0_0
NationalityVienna_header_cell_1_1_0 Population as of

1 January 2019Vienna_header_cell_1_1_1

SerbiaVienna_cell_1_2_0 77,714Vienna_cell_1_2_1
GermanyVienna_cell_1_3_0 47,139Vienna_cell_1_3_1
TurkeyVienna_cell_1_4_0 45,818Vienna_cell_1_4_1
PolandVienna_cell_1_5_0 43,157Vienna_cell_1_5_1
RomaniaVienna_cell_1_6_0 33,446Vienna_cell_1_6_1
HungaryVienna_cell_1_7_0 24,066Vienna_cell_1_7_1
SyriaVienna_cell_1_8_0 23,779Vienna_cell_1_8_1
CroatiaVienna_cell_1_9_0 22,530Vienna_cell_1_9_1
Bosnia and HerzegovinaVienna_cell_1_10_0 21,869Vienna_cell_1_10_1
BulgariaVienna_cell_1_11_0 18,354Vienna_cell_1_11_1

Because of the industrialization and migration from other parts of the Empire, the population of Vienna increased sharply during its time as the capital of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). Vienna_sentence_108

In 1910, Vienna had more than two million inhabitants, and was the third largest city in Europe after London and Paris. Vienna_sentence_109

Around the start of the 20th century, Vienna was the city with the second-largest Czech population in the world (after Prague). Vienna_sentence_110

After World War I, many Czechs and Hungarians returned to their ancestral countries, resulting in a decline in the Viennese population. Vienna_sentence_111

After World War II, the Soviets used force to repatriate key workers of Czech, Slovak and Hungarian origins to return to their ethnic homelands to further the Soviet bloc economy. Vienna_sentence_112

Under the Nazi regime, 65,000 Jews were deported and murdered in concentration camps by Nazi forces; approximately 130,000 fled. Vienna_sentence_113

By 2001, 16% of people living in Austria had nationalities other than Austrian, nearly half of whom were from former Yugoslavia; the next most numerous nationalities in Vienna were Turks (39,000; 2.5%), Poles (13,600; 0.9%) and Germans (12,700; 0.8%). Vienna_sentence_114

As of 2012, an official report from Statistics Austria showed that more than 660,000 (38.8%) of the Viennese population have full or partial migrant background, mostly from Ex-Yugoslavia, Turkey, Germany, Poland, Romania and Hungary. Vienna_sentence_115

From 2005 to 2015 the city's population grew by 10.1%. Vienna_sentence_116

According to UN-Habitat, Vienna could be the fastest growing city out of 17 European metropolitan areas until 2025 with an increase of 4.65% of its population, compared to 2010. Vienna_sentence_117

Religion Vienna_section_8

According to the 2001 census, 49.2% of Viennese were Catholic, while 25.7% were of no religion, 7.8% were Muslim, 6.0% were members of an Eastern Orthodox Christian denomination, 4.7% were Protestant (mostly Lutheran), 0.5% were Jewish and 6.3% were either of other religions or did not reply. Vienna_sentence_118

A 2011 report by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis showed the proportions had changed, with 41.3% Catholic, 31.6% no affiliation, 11.6% Muslim, 8.4% Eastern Orthodox, 4.2% Protestant, and 2.9% other. Vienna_sentence_119

Based on information provided to city officials by various religious organizations about their membership, Vienna's Statistical Yearbook 2019 reports in 2018 an estimated 610,269 Roman Catholics, or 32.3% of the population, and 195,000 (10.3%) Muslims, 70,298 (3.7%) Orthodox, 57,502 (3.0%) other Christians, and 9,504 (0.5%) other religions. Vienna_sentence_120

A study conducted by the Vienna Institute of Demography estimated the 2018 proportions to be 34% Catholic, 30% unaffiliated, 15% Muslim, 10% Orthodox, 4% Protestant, and 6% other religions. Vienna_sentence_121

Vienna is the seat of the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna, in which is also vested the exempt Ordinariate for Byzantine-rite Catholics in Austria; its Archbishop is Cardinal Christoph Schönborn. Vienna_sentence_122

Many Catholic churches in central Vienna feature performances of religious or other music, including masses sung to classical music and organ. Vienna_sentence_123

Some of Vienna's most significant historical buildings are Catholic churches, including the St. Vienna_sentence_124 Stephen's Cathedral (Stephansdom), Karlskirche, Peterskirche and the Votivkirche. Vienna_sentence_125

On the banks of the Danube, there is a Buddhist Peace Pagoda, built in 1983 by the monks and nuns of Nipponzan Myohoji. Vienna_sentence_126

Geography Vienna_section_9

Vienna is located in northeastern Austria, at the easternmost extension of the Alps in the Vienna Basin. Vienna_sentence_127

The earliest settlement, at the location of today's inner city, was south of the meandering Danube while the city now spans both sides of the river. Vienna_sentence_128

Elevation ranges from 151 to 542 m (495 to 1,778 ft). Vienna_sentence_129

The city has a total area of 414.65 square kilometers (160.1 sq mi), making it the largest city in Austria by area. Vienna_sentence_130

Climate Vienna_section_10

Vienna has an oceanic climate (Köppen classification Cfb). Vienna_sentence_131

The city has warm summers, with periodical precipitations that can reach its yearly most in July and August (66.6 and 66.5 mm respectively) and average high temperatures from June to September of approximately 21 to 27 °C (70 to 81 °F), with a record maximum exceeding 38 °C (100 °F) and a record low in September of 5.6 °C (42 °F). Vienna_sentence_132

Winters are relatively dry and cold with average temperatures at about freezing point. Vienna_sentence_133

Spring is variable and autumn cool, with possible snowfalls already in November. Vienna_sentence_134

Precipitation is generally moderate throughout the year, averaging around 550 mm (21.7 in) annually, with considerable local variations, the Vienna Woods region in the west being the wettest part (700 to 800 mm (28 to 31 in) annually) and the flat plains in the east being the driest part (500 to 550 mm (20 to 22 in) annually). Vienna_sentence_135

Snow in winter is common, even if not so frequent compared to Western and Southern regions of Austria. Vienna_sentence_136

World heritage in danger Vienna_section_11

Vienna was moved to the UNESCO world heritage in danger list in 2017. Vienna_sentence_137

The main reason was a planned high-rise development. Vienna_sentence_138

The city's social democratic party planned construction of a 6,500 square metres (70,000 sq ft) complex in 2019. Vienna_sentence_139

The plan includes a 66.3 metres (218 ft)-high tower, which was reduced from 75 metres (246 ft) due to opposition. Vienna_sentence_140

UNESCO believed that the project "fails to comply fully with previous committee decisions, notably concerning the height of new constructions, which will impact adversely the outstanding universal value of the site." Vienna_sentence_141

UNESCO set the restriction for the height of the construction in the city center to 43 metres (141 ft). Vienna_sentence_142

The citizens of Vienna also opposed the construction of the complex because they are afraid of losing UNESCO status and also of encouraging future high-rise development. Vienna_sentence_143

The city officials replied that they will convince the WHC to maintain UNESCO world heritage status and said that no further high-rise developments are being planned. Vienna_sentence_144

UNESCO is concerned about the height of high-rise development in Vienna as it can dramatically influence the visual integrity of the city, specifically the baroque palaces. Vienna_sentence_145

Visual impact studies are being done in the Vienna city center to assess the level of visual disturbance to visitors and how the changes influenced the city's visual integrity. Vienna_sentence_146

Districts and enlargement Vienna_section_12

Main article: Districts of Vienna Vienna_sentence_147

Vienna is composed of 23 districts (Bezirke). Vienna_sentence_148

Administrative district offices in Vienna (called Magistratische Bezirksämter) serve functions similar to those in the other Austrian states (called Bezirkshauptmannschaften), the officers being subject to the mayor of Vienna; with the notable exception of the police, which is under federal supervision. Vienna_sentence_149

District residents in Vienna (Austrians as well as EU citizens with permanent residence here) elect a District Assembly (Bezirksvertretung). Vienna_sentence_150

City hall has delegated maintenance budgets, e.g., for schools and parks, so that the districts are able to set priorities autonomously. Vienna_sentence_151

Any decision of a district can be overridden by the city assembly (Gemeinderat) or the responsible city councilor (amtsführender Stadtrat). Vienna_sentence_152

The heart and historical city of Vienna, a large part of today's Innere Stadt, was a fortress surrounded by fields in order to defend itself from potential attackers. Vienna_sentence_153

In 1850, Vienna with the consent of the emperor annexed 34 surrounding villages, called Vorstädte, into the city limits (districts no. Vienna_sentence_154

2 to 8, after 1861 with the separation of Margareten from Wieden no. Vienna_sentence_155

2 to 9). Vienna_sentence_156

Consequently, the walls were razed after 1857, making it possible for the city center to expand. Vienna_sentence_157

In their place, a broad boulevard called the Ringstraße was built, along which imposing public and private buildings, monuments, and parks were created by the start of the 20th century. Vienna_sentence_158

These buildings include the Rathaus (town hall), the Burgtheater, the University, the Parliament, the twin museums of natural history and fine art, and the Staatsoper. Vienna_sentence_159

It is also the location of New Wing of the Hofburg, the former imperial palace, and the Imperial and Royal War Ministry finished in 1913. Vienna_sentence_160

The mainly Gothic Stephansdom is located at the center of the city, on Stephansplatz. Vienna_sentence_161

The Imperial-Royal Government set up the Vienna City Renovation Fund (Wiener Stadterneuerungsfonds) and sold many building lots to private investors, thereby partly financing public construction works. Vienna_sentence_162

From 1850 to 1890, city limits in the West and the South mainly followed another wall called Linienwall at which a road toll called the Liniengeld was charged. Vienna_sentence_163

Outside this wall from 1873 onwards a ring road called Gürtel was built. Vienna_sentence_164

In 1890 it was decided to integrate 33 suburbs (called Vororte) beyond that wall into Vienna by 1 January 1892 and transform them into districts no. Vienna_sentence_165

11 to 19 (district no. Vienna_sentence_166

10 had been constituted in 1874); hence the Linienwall was torn down beginning in 1894. Vienna_sentence_167

In 1900, district no. Vienna_sentence_168

20, Brigittenau, was created by separating the area from the 2nd district. Vienna_sentence_169

From 1850 to 1904, Vienna had expanded only on the right bank of the Danube, following the main branch before the regulation of 1868–1875, i.e., the Old Danube of today. Vienna_sentence_170

In 1904, the 21st district was created by integrating Floridsdorf, Kagran, Stadlau, Hirschstetten, Aspern and other villages on the left bank of the Danube into Vienna, in 1910 Strebersdorf followed. Vienna_sentence_171

On 15 October 1938 the Nazis created Great Vienna with 26 districts by merging 97 towns and villages into Vienna, 80 of which were returned to surrounding Lower Austria in 1954. Vienna_sentence_172

Since then Vienna has had 23 districts. Vienna_sentence_173

Industries are located mostly in the southern and eastern districts. Vienna_sentence_174

The Innere Stadt is situated away from the main flow of the Danube, but is bounded by the Donaukanal ("Danube canal"). Vienna_sentence_175

Vienna's second and twentieth districts are located between the Donaukanal and the Danube. Vienna_sentence_176

Across the Danube, where the Vienna International Center is located (districts 21–22), and in the southern areas (district 23) are the newest parts of the city. Vienna_sentence_177

Politics Vienna_section_13

Political history Vienna_section_14

In the twenty years before the First World War and until 1918, Viennese politics were shaped by the Christian Social Party. Vienna_sentence_178

In particular, long-term mayor Karl Lueger was able to not apply the general voting rights for men introduced by and for the parliament of imperial Austria, the Reichsrat, in 1907, thereby excluding most of the working class from taking part in decisions. Vienna_sentence_179

For Adolf Hitler, who spent some years in Vienna, Lueger was a teacher of how to use antisemitism in politics. Vienna_sentence_180

Vienna is today considered the center of the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ). Vienna_sentence_181

During the period of the First Republic (1918–1934), the Vienna Social Democrats undertook many social reforms. Vienna_sentence_182

At that time, Vienna's municipal policy was admired by Socialists throughout Europe, who therefore referred to the city as "Red Vienna" (Rotes Wien). Vienna_sentence_183

In February 1934 troops of the Austrian federal government under Engelbert Dollfuss, who had closed down the first chamber of the federal parliament, the Nationalrat, in 1933, and paramilitary socialist organizations were engaged in the Austrian Civil War, which led to the ban of the Social Democratic party. Vienna_sentence_184

The SPÖ has held the mayor's office and control of the city council/parliament at every free election since 1919. Vienna_sentence_185

The only break in this SPÖ dominance came between 1934 and 1945, when the Social Democratic Party was illegal, mayors were appointed by the austro-fascist and later by the Nazi authorities. Vienna_sentence_186

The mayor of Vienna is Michael Ludwig of the SPÖ. Vienna_sentence_187

The city has enacted many social democratic policies. Vienna_sentence_188

The Gemeindebauten are social housing assets that are well integrated into the city architecture outside the first or "inner" district. Vienna_sentence_189

The low rents enable comfortable accommodation and good access to the city amenities. Vienna_sentence_190

Many of the projects were built after the Second World War on vacant lots that were destroyed by bombing during the war. Vienna_sentence_191

The city took particular pride in building them to a high standard. Vienna_sentence_192

Government Vienna_section_15

Main article: Gemeinderat and Landtag of Vienna Vienna_sentence_193

Since Vienna obtained federal state (Bundesland) status of its own by the federal constitution of 1920, the city council also functions as the state parliament (Landtag), and the mayor (except 1934–1945) also doubles as the Landeshauptmann (governor/minister-president) of the state of Vienna. Vienna_sentence_194

The Rathaus accommodates the offices of the mayor () and the state government (Landesregierung). Vienna_sentence_195

The city is administered by a multitude of departments (Magistratsabteilungen), politically supervised by amtsführende Stadträte (members of the city government leading offices; according to the Vienna constitution opposition parties have the right to designate members of the city government not leading offices). Vienna_sentence_196

Under the city constitution of 1920, municipal and state business must be kept separate. Vienna_sentence_197

Hence, the city council and state parliament hold separate meetings, with separate presiding officers–the chairman of the city council or the president of the state Landtag–even though the two bodies' memberships are identical. Vienna_sentence_198

When meeting as a city council, the deputies can only deal with the affairs of the city of Vienna; when meeting as a state parliament, they can only deal with the affairs of the state of Vienna. Vienna_sentence_199

In the 1996 City Council election, the SPÖ lost its overall majority in the 100-seat chamber, winning 43 seats and 39.15% of the vote. Vienna_sentence_200

The SPÖ had held an outright majority at every free municipal election since 1919. Vienna_sentence_201

In 1996 the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), which won 29 seats (up from 21 in 1991), beat the ÖVP into third place for the second time running. Vienna_sentence_202

From 1996 to 2001, the SPÖ governed Vienna in a coalition with the ÖVP. Vienna_sentence_203

In 2001 the SPÖ regained the overall majority with 52 seats and 46.91% of the vote; in October 2005 this majority was increased further to 55 seats (49.09%). Vienna_sentence_204

In course of the 2010 city council elections the SPÖ lost their overall majority again and consequently forged a coalition with the Green Party – the first SPÖ/Green coalition in Austria. Vienna_sentence_205

This coalition was maintained following the 2015 election. Vienna_sentence_206

Economy Vienna_section_16

Vienna is one of the wealthiest regions in the European Union: Its gross regional product of EUR 47,200 per capita constituted 25.7% of Austria's GDP in 2013. Vienna_sentence_207

It amounts to 159% of the EU average. Vienna_sentence_208

The city improved its position from 2012 on the ranking of the most economically powerful cities reaching number nine on the listing in 2015. Vienna_sentence_209

With a share of 85.5% in gross value added, the service sector is Vienna's most important economic sector. Vienna_sentence_210

Industry and commerce have a share of 14.5% in gross value added, the primary sector (agriculture) has a share of 0.07% and therefore plays a minor role in the local added value. Vienna_sentence_211

However, the cultivation and production of wines within the city borders have a high socio-cultural value. Vienna_sentence_212

The most important business sectors are trade (14.7% of added value in Vienna), scientific and technological services, real estate and housing activities as well as manufacturing of goods. Vienna_sentence_213

In 2012, Vienna's contribution in Austria's outgoing and incoming foreign direct investments was of about 60%, which demonstrates Vienna's role as an international hub for domestic and foreign companies. Vienna_sentence_214

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, Vienna has expanded its position as gateway to Eastern Europe: 300 international companies have their Eastern European headquarters in Vienna and its environs. Vienna_sentence_215

Among them are Hewlett Packard, Henkel, Baxalta and Siemens. Vienna_sentence_216

Companies in Vienna have extensive contacts and competences in business with Eastern Europe due to the city's historical role as center of the Habsburg Empire. Vienna_sentence_217

The number of international businesses in Vienna is still growing: In 2014 159 and in 2015 175 international firms established offices in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_218

Altogether, approximately 8,300 new companies have been founded in Vienna every year since 2004. Vienna_sentence_219

The majority of these companies are operating in fields of industry-oriented services, wholesale trade as well as information and communications technologies and new media. Vienna_sentence_220

Vienna makes effort to establish itself as a start-up hub. Vienna_sentence_221

Since 2012, the city hosts the annual Pioneers Festival, the largest start-up event in Central Europe with 2,500 international participants taking place at Hofburg Palace. Vienna_sentence_222

Tech Cocktail, an online portal for the start-up scene, has ranked Vienna sixth among the top ten start-up cities worldwide. Vienna_sentence_223

Research and development Vienna_section_17

The city of Vienna attaches major importance to science and research and focuses on creating a positive environment for research and development. Vienna_sentence_224

In 2014, Vienna has accommodated 1,329 research facilities; 40,400 persons are employed in the R&D sector and 35% of Austria's R&D expenses are invested in the city. Vienna_sentence_225

With a research quota of 3.4% Vienna exceeds the Austrian average of 2.77% and has already met the EU target of 3.0% by 2020. Vienna_sentence_226

A major R&D sector in Vienna are life sciences. Vienna_sentence_227

The Vienna Life Science Cluster is Austria's major hub for life science research, education and business. Vienna_sentence_228

Throughout Vienna, five universities and several basic research institutes form the academic core of the hub with more than 12,600 employees and 34,700 students. Vienna_sentence_229

Here, more than 480 medical device, biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies with almost 23,000 employees generate around 12 billion euros in revenue (2017). Vienna_sentence_230

This corresponds to more than 50% of the revenue generated by life science companies in Austria (22.4 billion euros). Vienna_sentence_231

Vienna is home to global players like Boehringer Ingelheim, Octapharma, Ottobock and Takeda. Vienna_sentence_232

However, there is also a growing number of start-up companies in the life sciences and Vienna was ranked first in the 2019 PeoplePerHour Startup Cities Index. Vienna_sentence_233

Companies such as Apeiron Biologics, Hookipa Pharma, Marinomed, mySugr, Themis Bioscience and Valneva operate a presence in Vienna and regularly hit the headlines internationally. Vienna_sentence_234

To facilitate tapping the economic potential of the multiple facettes of the life sciences at Austria's capital, the Austrian Federal Ministry for Digital and Economic Affairs and the local government of City of Vienna have joined forces: Since 2002, the LISAvienna platform is available as a central contact point. Vienna_sentence_235

It provides free business support services at the interface of the Austrian federal promotional bank, Austria Wirtschaftsservice and the Vienna Business Agency and collects data that inform policy making. Vienna_sentence_236

The main academic hot spots in Vienna are the Life Science Center Muthgasse with the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), the Austrian Institute of Technology, the University of Veterinary Medicine, the AKH Vienna with the MedUni Vienna and the Vienna Biocenter. Vienna_sentence_237

Central European University, a graduate institution expelled from Budapest in the midst of a Hungarian government steps to take control of academic and research organizations, welcomes the first class of students to its new Vienna campus in 2019. Vienna_sentence_238

Information technologies Vienna_section_18

The Viennese sector for information and communication technologies is comparable in size with the sector in Helsinki, Milan or Munich and thus among Europe's largest IT locations. Vienna_sentence_239

In 2012 8,962 IT businesses with a workforce of 64,223 were located in the Vienna Region. Vienna_sentence_240

The main products are instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation as well as electronic components. Vienna_sentence_241

More than ⅔ of the enterprises provide IT services. Vienna_sentence_242

Among the biggest IT firms in Vienna are Kapsch, Beko Engineering & Informatics, air traffic control experts Frequentis, Cisco Systems Austria, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft Austria, IBM Austria and Samsung Electronics Austria. Vienna_sentence_243

The US technology corporation Cisco runs its Entrepreneurs in Residence program for Europe in Vienna in cooperation with the . Vienna_sentence_244

The British company UBM has rated Vienna one of the Top 10 Internet Cities worldwide, by analyzing criteria like connection speed, WiFi availability, innovation spirit and open government data. Vienna_sentence_245

In 2011 74.3% of Viennese households were connected with broadband, 79% were in possession of a computer. Vienna_sentence_246

According to the broadband strategy of the city, full broadband coverage will be reached by 2020. Vienna_sentence_247

Tourism and conferences Vienna_section_19

There were 14.96 million overnight stays in Vienna in 2016 (+4.4% compared to 2015). Vienna_sentence_248

In 2014, 6.2 million tourists visited Vienna and amounted to 13,524,266 overnight stays. Vienna_sentence_249

The main markets for tourists are Germany, the United States, Italy and Russia. Vienna_sentence_250

Between 2005 and 2013, Vienna was the world's number one destination for international congresses and conventions. Vienna_sentence_251

In 2014, 202 international conferences were held in Vienna, making it the second most popular congress location worldwide according to the statistics of the International Congress and Convention Association. Vienna_sentence_252

Its largest conference center, the Austria Center Vienna (ACV) has a total capacity for around 20,000 people and is situated next to the United Nations Headquarters in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_253

Other centers are the Messe Wien Exhibition & Congress Center (up to 3,300 people) and the Hofburg Palace (up to 4,900 people). Vienna_sentence_254

Rankings Vienna_section_20

Regarding quality of living, Vienna leads the 2019 Quality of Living Ranking by the international Mercer Consulting Group for the tenth consecutive year. Vienna_sentence_255

In the 2015 liveability report by the Economist Intelligence Unit as well as in the Quality of Life Survey 2015 of London-based Monocle magazine Vienna was equally ranked second most livable city worldwide. Vienna_sentence_256

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme UN-Habitat has ranked Vienna the most prosperous city in the world in its flagship report State of the World Cities 2012/2013. Vienna_sentence_257

According to the 2014 ranking by the Reputation Institute, Vienna has the best reputation in comparison with 100 major global cities. Vienna_sentence_258

The Innovation Cities Global Index 2014 by the Australian innovation agency ranks Vienna sixth behind San Francisco-San Jose, New York City, London, Boston and Paris. Vienna_sentence_259

In 2019 PeoplePerHour put Vienna at the top of their Startup Cities Ranking. Vienna_sentence_260

US climate strategist Boyd Cohen placed Vienna first in his first global smart cities ranking of 2012. Vienna_sentence_261

In the 2014 ranking, Vienna reached third place among European cities behind Copenhagen and Amsterdam. Vienna_sentence_262

The Mori Memorial Institute for Urban Strategies ranked Vienna in the top ten of their Global Power City Index 2016. Vienna_sentence_263

Urban development Vienna_section_21

Central Railway Station Vienna_section_22

Vienna's new Central Railway Station was opened in October 2014. Vienna_sentence_264

Construction began in June 2007 and was due to last until December 2015. Vienna_sentence_265

The station is served by 1,100 trains with 145,000 passengers. Vienna_sentence_266

There is a shopping center with approximately 90 shops and restaurants. Vienna_sentence_267

In the vicinity of the station a new district is emerging with 550,000 m (5,920,000 sq ft) office space and 5,000 apartments until 2020. Vienna_sentence_268

Aspern Vienna_section_23

Seestadt Aspern is one of the largest urban expansion projects of Europe. Vienna_sentence_269

A 5 hectare artificial lake, offices, apartments and a tube station within walking distance are supposed to attract 20,000 new citizens when construction is completed in 2028. Vienna_sentence_270

In addition, the highest wooden skyscraper of the world called “HoHo Wien” will be built within 3 years, starting in 2015. Vienna_sentence_271

Smart City Vienna_section_24

In 2014, the Vienna City Council adopted the Smart City Wien Framework Strategy 2050. Vienna_sentence_272

It is a long-term umbrella strategy that is supposed to establish a conducive, long-term and structural framework in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from 3.1 tonnes per capita to 1 tonne per capita by 2050, have 50% of Vienna's gross energy consumption originate from renewable sources and to reduce motorized individual traffic from the current 28% to 15% by 2030. Vienna_sentence_273

A stated goal is that, by 2050, all vehicles within the municipal boundaries will run without conventional propulsion technologies. Vienna_sentence_274

Additionally, Vienna aims to be one of the five biggest European research and innovation hubs in 2050. Vienna_sentence_275

Culture Vienna_section_25

Music, theater and opera Vienna_section_26

See also: Music of Vienna and Music of Austria Vienna_sentence_276

Musical luminaries including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven, Ferdinand Ries, Franz Schubert, Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler, Robert Stolz, and Arnold Schoenberg have worked there. Vienna_sentence_277

Art and culture had a long tradition in Vienna, including theater, opera, classical music and fine arts. Vienna_sentence_278

The Burgtheater is considered one of the best theaters in the German-speaking world alongside its branch, the Akademietheater. Vienna_sentence_279

The Volkstheater Wien and the Theater in der Josefstadt also enjoy good reputations. Vienna_sentence_280

There is also a multitude of smaller theaters, in many cases devoted to less mainstream forms of the performing arts, such as modern, experimental plays or cabaret. Vienna_sentence_281

Vienna is also home to a number of opera houses, including the Theater an der Wien, the Staatsoper and the Volksoper, the latter being devoted to the typical Viennese operetta. Vienna_sentence_282

Classical concerts are performed at venues such as the Wiener Musikverein, home of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra known across the world for the annual widely broadcast "New Year's Day Concert", as well as the Wiener Konzerthaus, home of the internationally renowned Vienna Symphony. Vienna_sentence_283

Many concert venues offer concerts aimed at tourists, featuring popular highlights of Viennese music, particularly the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johann Strauss I, and Johann Strauss II. Vienna_sentence_284

Up until 2005, the Theater an der Wien has hosted premieres of musicals, although with the year of the Mozart celebrations 2006 it has devoted itself to the opera again and has since become a stagione opera house offering one new production each month, thus quickly becoming one of Europe's most interesting and advanced opera houses. Vienna_sentence_285

Since 2012 Theater an der Wien has taken over the Wiener Kammeroper, a historical small theater in the first district of Vienna seating 300 spectators, turning it into its second venue for smaller sized productions and chamber operas created by the young ensemble of Theater an der Wien (JET). Vienna_sentence_286

Before 2005 the most successful musical was Elisabeth, which was later translated into several languages and performed all over the world. Vienna_sentence_287

The Wiener Taschenoper is dedicated to stage music of the 20th and 21st century. Vienna_sentence_288

The Haus der Musik ("house of music") opened in the year 2000. Vienna_sentence_289

The Wienerlied is a unique song genre from Vienna. Vienna_sentence_290

There are approximately 60,000 – 70,000 Wienerlieder. Vienna_sentence_291

In 1981 the popular British new romantic group Ultravox paid a tribute to Vienna on an album and an artful music video recording called Vienna. Vienna_sentence_292

The inspiration for this work arose from the cinema production called The Third Man with the title Zither music of Anton Karas. Vienna_sentence_293

The Vienna's English Theatre (VET) is an English theater in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_294

It was founded in 1963 and is located in the 8th Vienna's district. Vienna_sentence_295

It is the oldest English-language theater in continental Europe. Vienna_sentence_296

In May 2015, Vienna hosted the Eurovision Song Contest following Austria's victory in the 2014 contest. Vienna_sentence_297

Actors from Vienna Vienna_section_27

Notable entertainers born in Vienna include Hedy Lamarr, Christoph Waltz, John Banner, Christiane Hörbiger, Eric Pohlmann, Boris Kodjoe, Christine Buchegger, Mischa Hausserman, Senta Berger and Christine Ostermayer. Vienna_sentence_298

Musicians from Vienna Vienna_section_28

Notable musicians born in Vienna include Louie Austen, Alban Berg, Falco, Fritz Kreisler, Joseph Lanner, Arnold Schönberg, Franz Schubert, Johann Strauss I, Johann Strauss II, Anton Webern, and Joe Zawinul. Vienna_sentence_299

Famous musicians who came here to work from other parts of Austria and Germany were Johann Joseph Fux, Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Ferdinand Ries, Johann Sedlatzek, Antonio Salieri, Carl Czerny, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Franz Liszt, Franz von Suppé, Anton Bruckner, Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler and Rainhard Fendrich. Vienna_sentence_300

Notable Jewish cultural figures from Vienna Vienna_section_29

Among the most notable Viennese Jews, some of whom left Austria before and during Nazi persecution, are the following figures: Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler (who eventually converted to Christianity), Rudolf Dreikurs, Viktor Frankl, Fritz Lang, Peter Lorre, Fred Zinnemann (both of whose parents were murdered in the Holocaust), Stefan Zweig, Simon Wiesenthal, Theodor Herzl, Judah Alkalai, Erich von Stroheim, Hedy Lamarr, Billy Wilder, Franz Werfel, Arnold Schoenberg, Walter Arlen and Fritz Kreisler. Vienna_sentence_301

Notable writers from Vienna Vienna_section_30

Notable writers from Vienna include Karl Leopold von Möller and Stefan Zweig. Vienna_sentence_302

Writers who lived and worked in Vienna include Franz Kafka, Arthur Schnitzler, Elias Canetti, Ingeborg Bachmann, Robert Musil, Karl Kraus, Ernst von Feuchtersleben, Thomas Bernhard and Elfriede Jelinek. Vienna_sentence_303

Notable politicians from Vienna Vienna_section_31

Notable politicians from Vienna include Karl Leopold von Möller. Vienna_sentence_304

Museums Vienna_section_32

See also: List of museums in Vienna Vienna_sentence_305

The Hofburg is the location of the Imperial Treasury (Schatzkammer), holding the imperial jewels of the Habsburg dynasty. Vienna_sentence_306

The Sisi Museum (a museum devoted to Empress Elisabeth of Austria) allows visitors to view the imperial apartments as well as the silver cabinet. Vienna_sentence_307

Directly opposite the Hofburg are the Kunsthistorisches Museum, which houses many paintings by old masters, ancient and classical artifacts, and the Naturhistorisches Museum. Vienna_sentence_308

A number of museums are located in the Museumsquartier (museum quarter), the former Imperial Stalls which were converted into a museum complex in the 1990s. Vienna_sentence_309

It houses the Museum of Modern Art, commonly known as the MUMOK (Ludwig Foundation), the Leopold Museum (featuring the largest collection of paintings in the world by Egon Schiele, as well as works by the Vienna Secession, Viennese Modernism and Austrian Expressionism), the AzW (museum of architecture), additional halls with feature exhibitions, and the Tanzquartier. Vienna_sentence_310

The Liechtenstein Palace contains much of one of the world's largest private art collections, especially strong in the Baroque. Vienna_sentence_311

The Belvedere, built under Prince Eugene, has a gallery containing paintings by Gustav Klimt (The Kiss), Egon Schiele, and other painters of the early 20th century, also sculptures by Franz Xaver Messerschmidt, and changing exhibitions too. Vienna_sentence_312

There are a multitude of other museums in Vienna, including the Albertina, the Military History Museum, the Technical Museum, the Burial Museum, the Museum of Art Fakes, the KunstHausWien, Museum of Applied Arts, the Sigmund Freud Museum, and the Mozarthaus Vienna. Vienna_sentence_313

The museums on the history of the city, including the former Historical Museum of the City of Vienna on Karlsplatz, the Hermesvilla, the residences and birthplaces of various composers, the Museum of the Romans, and the Vienna Clock Museum, are now gathered together under the group umbrella Vienna Museum. Vienna_sentence_314

In addition there are museums dedicated to Vienna's individual districts. Vienna_sentence_315

They provide a record of individual struggles, achievements and tragedy as the city grew and survived two world wars. Vienna_sentence_316

For readers seeking family histories these are good sources of information. Vienna_sentence_317

Architecture Vienna_section_33

See also: :Category:Buildings and structures in Austria Vienna_sentence_318

A variety of architectural styles can be found in Vienna, such as the Romanesque Ruprechtskirche and the Baroque Karlskirche. Vienna_sentence_319

Styles range from classicist buildings to modern architecture. Vienna_sentence_320

Art Nouveau left many architectural traces in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_321

The Secession building, Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station, and the Kirche am Steinhof by Otto Wagner rank among the best known examples of Art Nouveau in the world. Vienna_sentence_322

Wagner's prominent student Jože Plečnik from Slovenia also left important traces in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_323

His works include the Langer House (1900) and the Zacherlhaus (1903–1905). Vienna_sentence_324

Plečnik's 1910–1913 Church of the Holy Spirit (Heilig-Geist-Kirche []) in Vienna is remarkable for its innovative use of poured-in-place concrete as both structure and exterior surface, and also for its abstracted classical form language. Vienna_sentence_325

Most radical is the church's crypt, with its slender concrete columns and angular, cubist capitals and bases. Vienna_sentence_326

Concurrent to the Art Nouveau movement was the Wiener Moderne, during which some architects shunned the use of extraneous adornment. Vienna_sentence_327

A key architect of this period was Adolf Loos, whose works include the Looshaus (1909), the Kärntner Bar or American Bar (1908) and the Steiner House (1910). Vienna_sentence_328

The Hundertwasserhaus by Friedensreich Hundertwasser, designed to counter the clinical look of modern architecture, is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions. Vienna_sentence_329

Another example of unique architecture is the Wotrubakirche by sculptor Fritz Wotruba. Vienna_sentence_330

In the 1990s, a number of quarters were adapted and extensive building projects were implemented in the areas around Donaustadt (north of the Danube) and Wienerberg (in southern Vienna). Vienna_sentence_331

The 220-meter high DC Tower 1 located on the Northern bank of the Danube, completed in 2013, is the tallest skyscraper in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_332

In recent years, Vienna has seen numerous architecture projects completed which combine modern architectural elements with old buildings, such as the remodeling and revitalization of the old Gasometer in 2001. Vienna_sentence_333

Most buildings in Vienna are relatively low; in early 2006 there were around 100 buildings higher than 40 metres (130 feet). Vienna_sentence_334

The number of high-rise buildings is kept low by building legislation aimed at preserving green areas and districts designated as world cultural heritage. Vienna_sentence_335

Strong rules apply to the planning, authorization and construction of high-rise buildings. Vienna_sentence_336

Consequently, much of the inner city is a high-rise free zone. Vienna_sentence_337

Vienna balls Vienna_section_34

Vienna is the last great capital of the 19th-century ball. Vienna_sentence_338

There are over 450 balls per year, some featuring as many as nine live orchestras. Vienna_sentence_339

Balls are held in the many palaces in Vienna, with the principal venue being the Hofburg Palace in Heldenplatz. Vienna_sentence_340

While the Opera Ball is the best known internationally of all the Austrian balls, other balls such as the Kaffeesiederball (Cafe Owners Ball), the Jägerball (Hunter's Ball) and the Life Ball (AIDS charity event) are almost as well known within Austria and even better appreciated for their cordial atmosphere. Vienna_sentence_341

Viennese of at least middle class may visit a number of balls in their lifetime. Vienna_sentence_342

Dancers and opera singers from the Vienna State Opera often perform at the openings of the larger balls. Vienna_sentence_343

A Vienna ball is an all-night cultural attraction. Vienna_sentence_344

Major Vienna balls generally begin at 9 pm and last until 5 am, although many guests carry on the celebrations into the next day. Vienna_sentence_345

The Viennese balls are being exported with the support of the City of Vienna in around 30 cities worldwide such as New York, Barcelona, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Rome, Prague, Bucharest, Berlin and Moscow. Vienna_sentence_346

Language Vienna_section_35

Vienna is part of the Austro-Bavarian language area, in particular Central Bavarian (Mittelbairisch). Vienna_sentence_347

In recent years, linguistics experts have seen a decline in the use of the Viennese variant. Vienna_sentence_348

Manfred Glauninger, sociolinguist at the Institute for Austrian Dialect and Name Lexica, has observed three issues. Vienna_sentence_349

First, many parents feel there's a stigma attached to the Viennese dialect so they speak Standard German to their children. Vienna_sentence_350

Second, many children have recently immigrated to Austria and are learning German as a second language in school. Vienna_sentence_351

Third, young people are influenced by mass media which is most always delivered in Standard German. Vienna_sentence_352

Education Vienna_section_36

Vienna is Austria's main center of education and home to many universities, professional colleges and gymnasiums (high schools). Vienna_sentence_353

Universities Vienna_section_37

Vienna_unordered_list_0

International schools Vienna_section_38

Vienna_unordered_list_1

Leisure activities Vienna_section_39

Parks and gardens Vienna_section_40

Vienna possesses many parks, including the Stadtpark, the Burggarten, the Volksgarten (part of the Hofburg), the Schlosspark at Schloss Belvedere (home to the Vienna Botanic Gardens), the Donaupark, the Schönbrunner Schlosspark, the Prater, the Augarten, the Rathauspark, the Lainzer Tiergarten, the Dehnepark, the Resselpark, the Votivpark, the Kurpark Oberlaa, the Auer-Welsbach-Park and the Türkenschanzpark. Vienna_sentence_354

Green areas include Laaer-Berg (including the Bohemian Prater) and the foothills of the Wienerwald, which reaches into the outer areas of the city. Vienna_sentence_355

Small parks, known by the Viennese as Beserlparks, are everywhere in the inner city areas. Vienna_sentence_356

Many of Vienna's parks include monuments, such as the Stadtpark with its statue of Johann Strauss II, and the gardens of the baroque palace, where the State Treaty was signed. Vienna_sentence_357

Vienna's principal park is the Prater which is home to the Riesenrad, a Ferris wheel, and Kugelmugel, a micronation the shape of a sphere. Vienna_sentence_358

The imperial Schönbrunn's grounds contain an 18th-century park which includes the world's oldest zoo, founded in 1752. Vienna_sentence_359

The Donauinsel, part of Vienna's flood defenses, is a 21.1 km (13.1 mi) long artificial island between the Danube and Neue Donau dedicated to leisure activities. Vienna_sentence_360

Sport Vienna_section_41

Austria's capital is home to numerous football teams. Vienna_sentence_361

The best known are the local football clubs include FK Austria Wien (21 Austrian Bundesliga titles and record 27-time cup winners), SK Rapid Wien (record 32 Austrian Bundesliga titles), and the oldest team, First Vienna FC. Vienna_sentence_362

Other important sports clubs include the Raiffeisen Vikings Vienna (American Football), who won the Eurobowl title between 2004 and 2007 4 times in a row and had a perfect season in 2013, the Aon hotVolleys Vienna, one of Europe's premier Volleyball organizations, the Vienna Wanderers (baseball) who won the 2012 and 2013 Championship of the Austrian Baseball League, and the Vienna Capitals (Ice Hockey). Vienna_sentence_363

Vienna was also where the European Handball Federation (EHF) was founded. Vienna_sentence_364

There are also three rugby clubs; Vienna Celtic, the oldest rugby club in Austria, RC Donau, and Stade Viennois Vienna_sentence_365

Vienna hosts many different sporting events including the Vienna City Marathon, which attracts more than 10,000 participants every year and normally takes place in May. Vienna_sentence_366

In 2005 the Ice Hockey World Championships took place in Austria and the final was played in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_367

Vienna's Ernst Happel Stadium was the venue of four Champions League and European Champion Clubs' Cup finals (1964, 1987, 1990 and 1995) and on 29 June it hosted the final of Euro 2008 which saw a Spanish 1–0 victory over Germany. Vienna_sentence_368

Tennis tournament Vienna Open also takes place in the city since 1974. Vienna_sentence_369

The matches are played in the Wiener Stadthalle. Vienna_sentence_370

The Neue Donau, which was formed after the Donauinsel was created, is free of river traffic and has been referred to as an "autobahn for swimmers" due to its use by the public for commuting. Vienna_sentence_371

Vienna will host the official 2021 3x3 Basketball World Cup. Vienna_sentence_372

Culinary specialities Vienna_section_42

Food Vienna_section_43

See also: Austrian cuisine Vienna_sentence_373

Vienna is well known for Wiener Schnitzel, a cutlet of veal (Kalbsschnitzel) or pork (Schweinsschnitzel) that is pounded flat, coated in flour, egg and breadcrumbs, and fried in clarified butter. Vienna_sentence_374

It is available in almost every restaurant that serves Viennese cuisine and can be eaten hot or cold. Vienna_sentence_375

The traditional 'Wiener Schnitzel' though is a cutlet of veal. Vienna_sentence_376

Other examples of Viennese cuisine include Tafelspitz (very lean boiled beef), which is traditionally served with Geröstete Erdäpfel (boiled potatoes mashed with a fork and subsequently fried) and horseradish sauce, Apfelkren (a mixture of horseradish, cream and apple) and Schnittlauchsauce (a chives sauce made with mayonnaise and stale bread). Vienna_sentence_377

Vienna has a long tradition of producing cakes and desserts. Vienna_sentence_378

These include Apfelstrudel (hot apple strudel), Milchrahmstrudel (milk-cream strudel), Palatschinken (sweet pancakes), and Knödel (dumplings) often filled with fruit such as apricots (Marillenknödel). Vienna_sentence_379

Sachertorte, a delicately moist chocolate cake with apricot jam created by the Sacher Hotel, is world-famous. Vienna_sentence_380

In winter, small street stands sell traditional Maroni (hot chestnuts) and potato fritters. Vienna_sentence_381

Sausages are popular and available from street vendors (Würstelstand) throughout the day and into the night. Vienna_sentence_382

The sausage known as Wiener (German for Viennese) in the U.S. and in Germany, is called a Frankfurter in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_383

Other popular sausages are Burenwurst (a coarse beef and pork sausage, generally boiled), Käsekrainer (spicy pork with small chunks of cheese), and Bratwurst (a white pork sausage). Vienna_sentence_384

Most can be ordered "mit Brot" (with bread) or as a "hot dog" (stuffed inside a long roll). Vienna_sentence_385

Mustard is the traditional condiment and usually offered in two varieties: "süß" (sweet) or "scharf" (spicy). Vienna_sentence_386

Kebab, pizza and noodles are, increasingly, the snack foods most widely available from small stands. Vienna_sentence_387

The Naschmarkt is a permanent market for fruit, vegetables, spices, fish, meat, etc., from around the world. Vienna_sentence_388

The city has many coffee and breakfast stores. Vienna_sentence_389

Drinks Vienna_section_44

Vienna, along with Paris, Santiago, Cape Town, Prague, Canberra, Bratislava and Warsaw, is one of the few remaining world capital cities with its own vineyards. Vienna_sentence_390

The wine is served in small Viennese pubs known as Heuriger, which are especially numerous in the wine growing areas of Döbling (Grinzing, Neustift am Walde, Nußdorf, Salmannsdorf, Sievering), Floridsdorf (Stammersdorf, Strebersdorf), Liesing (Mauer) and Favoriten (Oberlaa). Vienna_sentence_391

The wine is often drunk as a Spritzer ("G'spritzter") with sparkling water. Vienna_sentence_392

The Grüner Veltliner, a dry white wine, is the most widely cultivated wine in Austria. Vienna_sentence_393

Beer is next in importance to wine. Vienna_sentence_394

Vienna has a single large brewery, Ottakringer, and more than ten microbreweries. Vienna_sentence_395

A "Beisl" is a typical small Austrian pub, of which Vienna has many. Vienna_sentence_396

Also, local soft drinks such as Almdudler are popular around the country as an alternative to alcoholic beverages, placing it on the top spots along American counterparts such as Coca-Cola in terms of market share. Vienna_sentence_397

Another popular drink is the so-called "Spezi", a mix between Coca-Cola and the original formula of Orange Fanta or the more locally renowned Frucade. Vienna_sentence_398

Viennese cafés Vienna_section_45

Viennese cafés have an extremely long and distinguished history that dates back centuries, and the caffeine addictions of some famous historical patrons of the oldest are something of a local legend. Vienna_sentence_399

These coffee houses are unique to Vienna and many cities have unsuccessfully sought to copy them. Vienna_sentence_400

Some people consider cafés as their extended living room where nobody will be bothered if they spend hours reading a newspaper while enjoying their coffee. Vienna_sentence_401

Traditionally, the coffee comes with a glass of water. Vienna_sentence_402

Viennese cafés claim to have invented the process of filtering coffee from booty captured after the second Turkish siege in 1683. Vienna_sentence_403

Viennese cafés claim that when the invading Turks left Vienna, they abandoned hundreds of sacks of coffee beans. Vienna_sentence_404

The Polish King John III Sobieski, the commander of the anti-Turkish coalition of Poles, Germans, and Austrians, gave Franz George Kolschitzky (Polish – Franciszek Jerzy Kulczycki) some of this coffee as a reward for providing information that allowed him to defeat the Turks. Vienna_sentence_405

Kolschitzky then opened Vienna's first coffee shop. Vienna_sentence_406

Julius Meinl set up a modern roasting plant in the same premises where the coffee sacks were found, in 1891. Vienna_sentence_407

Tourist attractions Vienna_section_46

Further information: Tourist attractions in Vienna Vienna_sentence_408

Major tourist attractions include the imperial palaces of the Hofburg and Schönbrunn (also home to the world's oldest zoo, Tiergarten Schönbrunn) and the Riesenrad in the Prater. Vienna_sentence_409

Cultural highlights include the Burgtheater, the Wiener Staatsoper, the Lipizzaner horses at the spanische Hofreitschule, and the Vienna Boys' Choir, as well as excursions to Vienna's Heurigen district Döbling. Vienna_sentence_410

There are also more than 100 art museums, which together attract over eight million visitors per year. Vienna_sentence_411

The most popular ones are Albertina, Belvedere, Leopold Museum in the Museumsquartier, KunstHausWien, Bank Austria Kunstforum, the twin Kunsthistorisches Museum and Naturhistorisches Museum, and the Technisches Museum Wien, each of which receives over a quarter of a million visitors per year. Vienna_sentence_412

There are many popular sites associated with composers who lived in Vienna including Beethoven's various residences and grave at Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery) which is the largest cemetery in Vienna and the burial site of many famous people. Vienna_sentence_413

Mozart has a memorial grave at the Habsburg gardens and at St. Vienna_sentence_414 Marx cemetery (where his grave was lost). Vienna_sentence_415

Vienna's many churches also draw large crowds, famous of which are St. Vienna_sentence_416 Stephen's Cathedral, the Deutschordenskirche, the Jesuitenkirche, the Karlskirche, the Peterskirche, Maria am Gestade, the Minoritenkirche, the Ruprechtskirche, the Schottenkirche, St. Vienna_sentence_417 Ulrich and the Votivkirche. Vienna_sentence_418

Modern attractions include the Hundertwasserhaus, the United Nations headquarters and the view from the Donauturm. Vienna_sentence_419

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Transportation Vienna_section_47

Main article: Transportation in Vienna Vienna_sentence_420

Vienna has an extensive transportation network with a unified fare system that integrates municipal, regional and railway systems under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Ost-Region (VOR). Vienna_sentence_421

Public transport is provided by buses, trams and five underground metro lines (U-Bahn), most operated by the Wiener Linien. Vienna_sentence_422

There are also more than 50 S-train stations within the city limits. Vienna_sentence_423

Suburban trains are operated by the ÖBB. Vienna_sentence_424

The city forms the hub of the Austrian railway system, with services to all parts of the country and abroad. Vienna_sentence_425

The railway system connects Vienna's main station Vienna Hauptbahnhof with other European cities, like Berlin, Bratislava, Budapest, Brussels, Cologne, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Ljubljana, Munich, Prague, Venice, Warsaw, Zagreb and Zürich. Vienna_sentence_426

Vienna has multiple road connections including expressways and motorways. Vienna_sentence_427

Vienna is served by Vienna International Airport, located 18 km (11 mi) southeast of the city center next to the town of Schwechat. Vienna_sentence_428

The airport handled approximately 31.7 million passengers in 2019. Vienna_sentence_429

Following lengthy negotiations with surrounding communities, the airport will be expanded to increase its capacity by adding a third runway. Vienna_sentence_430

The airport is undergoing a major expansion, including a new terminal building that opened in 2012 to prepare for an increase in passengers. Vienna_sentence_431

Viennese Vienna_section_48

Main article: List of people from Vienna Vienna_sentence_432

International relations Vienna_section_49

International organizations in Vienna Vienna_section_50

Vienna is the seat of a number of United Nations offices and various international institutions and companies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). Vienna_sentence_433

Vienna is the world's third "UN city", next to New York, Geneva, and Nairobi. Vienna_sentence_434

Additionally, Vienna is the seat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law's secretariat (UNCITRAL). Vienna_sentence_435

In conjunction, the University of Vienna annually hosts the prestigious Willem C. Vis Moot, an international commercial arbitration competition for students of law from around the world. Vienna_sentence_436

Diplomatic meetings have been held in Vienna in the latter half of the 20th century, resulting in documents bearing the name Vienna Convention or Vienna Document. Vienna_sentence_437

Among the more important documents negotiated in Vienna are the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, as well as the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Vienna_sentence_438

Vienna also hosted the negotiations leading to the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on Iran's nuclear program as well as the Vienna peace talks for Syria. Vienna_sentence_439

Vienna also headquartered the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF). Vienna_sentence_440

Charitable organizations in Vienna Vienna_section_51

Alongside international and intergovernmental organizations, there are dozens of charitable organizations based in Vienna. Vienna_sentence_441

One such organization is the network of SOS Children's Villages, founded by Hermann Gmeiner in 1949. Vienna_sentence_442

Today, SOS Children's Villages are active in 132 countries and territories worldwide. Vienna_sentence_443

Others include HASCO. Vienna_sentence_444

Another popular international event is the annual Life Ball, which supports people with HIV or AIDS. Vienna_sentence_445

Guests such as Bill Clinton and Whoopi Goldberg were recent attendees. Vienna_sentence_446

International city cooperations Vienna_section_52

The general policy of the City of Vienna is not to sign any twin or sister city agreements with other cities. Vienna_sentence_447

Instead Vienna has only cooperation agreements in which specific cooperation areas are defined. Vienna_sentence_448

District to district partnerships Vienna_section_53

In addition, individual Viennese districts have international partnerships all over the world. Vienna_sentence_449

A detailed list is published on the website of the City of Vienna. Vienna_sentence_450

See also Vienna_section_54

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna.