"Ortsteil" redirects here.
For subdistricts of Berlin, see Boroughs and neighborhoods of Berlin.
For other uses, see Village (disambiguation).
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to describe both hamlets and smaller towns), with a population typically ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand.
Villages are normally permanent, with fixed dwellings; however, transient villages can occur.
Further, the dwellings of a village are fairly close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement.
In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, and also for some non-agricultural societies.
In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village when it built a church.
In many cultures, towns and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them.
The Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in mills and factories; the concentration of people caused many villages to grow into towns and cities.
This also enabled specialization of labor and crafts, and development of many trades.
The trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Historically homes were situated together for sociability and defence, and land surrounding the living quarters was farmed.
In Afghanistan, the village, or deh (Dari/Pashto: ده) is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala (Dari: قلعه, Pashto: کلي), though smaller than the town, or shār (Dari: شهر, Pashto: ښار).
In contrast to the qala, the deh is generally a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
The size of these villages varies considerably.
236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+.
Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following.
Main article: Pakistani village life
The majority of Pakistanis live in rural areas.
According to the 2017 census about 64% of Pakistanis live in rural areas.
Village is called dehaat or gaaon in Urdu.
Pakistani village life is marked by kinship and exchange relations.
Main article: Aul
According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs (7.5 million people) live in 8172 different villages.
To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" often used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan.
People's Republic of China
Main article: Village (China)
Republic of China (Taiwan)
Main article: Village (Taiwan)
The village is called a tsuen or cūn (村) under a rural township (鄉) and a li (里) under an urban township (鎮) or a county-controlled city.
See also Li (unit).
Main article: Villages of Japan
Main article: Villages of South Korea
Main article: Villages of Brunei
A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung (also spelt as kampong).
They may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may also comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban.
Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education which is compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, and a community centre (Malay: balai raya or dewan kemasyarakatan).
Main article: Villages of Indonesia
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa (officially kelurahan).
A "Desa" (a term that derives from a Sanskrit word meaning "country" that is found in the name "Bangladesh"=bangla and desh/desha) is administered according to traditions and customary law (adat), while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles.
Desa are generally located in rural areas while kelurahan are generally urban subdivisions.
A village head is respectively called kepala desa or lurah.
Both are elected by the local community.
The same general concept applies all over Indonesia.
However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups.
For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life.
In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari (a term deriving from another Sanskrit word meaning "city", which can be found in the name like "Srinagar"=sri and nagar/nagari).
In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take turns watching over the village at a command post.
As a general rule, desa and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets (kampung in Indonesian, dusun in the Javanese language, banjar in Bali).
In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people.
Malay and Indonesian villagers practice the culture of helping one another as a community, which is better known as "joint bearing of burdens" (gotong royong).
It is common to see a cemetery near the mosque.
Malaysian kampung were once aplenty in Singapore but there are almost no remaining kampung villages; the very few to have survived until today are mostly on outlying islands surrounding mainland Singapore, such as Pulau Ubin.
Mainland Singapore used to have many kampung villages but modern developments and rapid urbanisation works have seen them bulldozed away; Kampong Lorong Buangkok is the last surviving village on the country's mainland.
The term "kampung", sometimes spelled "kampong", is one of many Malay words to have entered common usage in Malaysia and Singapore.
Locally, the term is frequently used to refer to either one's hometown or a rural village, depending on the intended context.
Main article: Villages of Myanmar
These villages emerged in the mid-20th century and were initially the domain of elite urban dwellers.
Those are common in major cities in the country and their residents have a wide range of income levels.
Such villages may or may not correspond to a barangay (the country's basic unit of government, also glossed as village), or be privately administered.
Barangays correspond more to precolonial villages; the chairman (formerly the village datu) now settles administrative, intrapersonal, and political matters or polices the area though with much less authority and respect than in Indonesia or Malaysia.
Main article: Muban
Village, or "làng", is a basis of Vietnam society.
Vietnam's village is the typical symbol of Asian agricultural production.
Vietnam's village typically contains: a village gate, "lũy tre" (bamboo hedges), "đình làng" (communal house) where "thành hoàng" (tutelary god) is worshiped, a common well, "đồng lúa" (rice field), "chùa" (temple) and houses of all families in the village.
All the people in Vietnam's villages usually have a blood relationship.
Vietnam's villages have an important role in society (Vietnamese saying: "Custom rules the law" -"Phép vua thua lệ làng" [literally: the king's law yields to village customs]).
It is common for Vietnamese villagers to prefer to be buried in their village upon death.
Central and Eastern Europe
Main article: List of villages in Bulgaria
In Bulgaria, the different types of sela vary from a small selo of 5 to 30 families to one of several thousand people.
According to a 2002 census, in that year there were 2,385,000 Bulgarian citizens living in settlements classified as villages.
A 2004 Human Settlement Profile on Bulgaria conducted by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs stated that:
It also stated that
In Bulgaria, it is becoming popular to visit villages for the atmosphere, culture, crafts, hospitality of the people and the surrounding nature.
This is called selski turizam (Bulgarian: селски туризъм), meaning "village tourism".
Multiple types of rural localities exist, but the two most common are derevnya (деревня) and selo (село).
Historically, the formal indication of status was religious: a city (gorod, город) had a cathedral, a selo had a church, while a derevnya had neither.
In the 1960s–1970s, the depopulation of the smaller villages was driven by the central planners' drive in order to get the farm workers out of smaller, "prospect-less" hamlets and into the collective or state farms' main villages or even larger towns and cities, with more amenities.
Most Russian rural residents are involved in agricultural work, and it is very common for villagers to produce their own food.
As prosperous urbanites purchase village houses for their second homes, Russian villages sometimes are transformed into dacha settlements, used mostly for seasonal residence.
The historically Cossack regions of Southern Russia and parts of Ukraine, with their fertile soil and absence of serfdom, had a rather different pattern of settlement from central and northern Russia.
While peasants of central Russia lived in a village around the lord's manor, a Cossack family often lived on its own farm, called khutor.
A number of such khutors plus a central village made up the administrative unit with a center in a stanitsa (Russian: станица, romanized: stanitsa; Ukrainian: станиця, romanized: stanytsya, stanytsia).
Such stanitsas often with a few thousand residents, were usually larger than a typical selo in central Russia.
In Ukraine, a village, known locally as a selo (село), is considered the lowest administrative unit.
Villages may have an individual administration (silrada) or a joint administration, combining two or more villages.
Villages may also be under the jurisdiction of a city council (miskrada) or town council (selyshchna rada) administration.
There is, however, another smaller type of settlement which is designated in Ukrainian as a selysche (селище).
This type of community is generally referred to in English as a "settlement".
In comparison with an urban-type settlement, Ukrainian legislation does not have a concrete definition or a criterion to differentiate such settlements from villages.
They are administered by a silrada (council) located in a nearby adjacent village.
Sometimes, the term "selysche" is also used in a more general way to refer to adjacent settlements near a bigger city including urban-type settlements (selysche miskoho typu) or villages.
However, ambiguity is often avoided in connection with urbanized settlements by referring to them using the three-letter abbreviation smt instead.
Khutirs were very small rural localities consisting of just few housing units and were sort of individual farms.
They became really popular during the Stolypin reform in the early 20th century.
During the collectivization, however, residents of such settlements were usually declared to be kulaks and had all their property confiscated and distributed to others (nationalized) without any compensation.
The stanitsa likewise has not survived as an administrative term.
The stanitsa was a type of a collective community that could include one or more settlements such as villages, khutirs, and others.
Western and Southern Europe
A commune is considered as a village if it is not part of a ville (urban unit).
For the Insee, an urban unit has more than 2000 inhabitants living in buildings less than 200 metres from each others.
An independent association named Les Plus Beaux Villages de France, was created in 1982 to promote assets of small and picturesque French villages of quality heritage.
As of 2008, 152 villages in France have been listed in "The Most Beautiful Villages of France".
In Germany, Ortsteil is a part of a town, a village.
In Italy, villages are spread throughout the country.
No legal definition of village exists in Italian law; nonetheless, a settlement inhabited by less than 2000 people is usually described as "village".
In Spain, a village (pueblo) refers to a small population unit, smaller than a town (villa [an archaic term that survives only official uses, such as the official name of Spain's capital, "la Villa de Madrid"]) and a city (ciudad), typically located in a rural environment.
While commonly it is the smallest administrative unit (municipio), it is possible for a village to be legally composed of smaller population units in its territory.
There is not a clear-cut distinction between villages, towns and cities in Spain, since they had been traditionally categorized according to their religious importance and their relationship with surrounding population units.
Most of them have a church and a "Casa do Povo" (people's house), where the village's summer romarias or religious festivities are usually held.
Summer is also when many villages are host to a range of folk festivals and fairs, taking advantage of the fact that many of the locals who reside abroad tend to come back to their native village for the holidays.
In the flood-prone districts of the Netherlands, particularly in the northern provinces of Friesland and Groningen, villages were traditionally built on low man-made hills called terpen before the introduction of regional dyke-systems.
In modern days, the term dorp (lit.
"village") is usually applied to settlements no larger than 20,000, though there's no official law regarding status of settlements in the Netherlands.
See also: List of the largest villages in England
A village in the UK is a compact settlement of houses, smaller in size than a town, and generally based on agriculture or, in some areas, mining (such as Ouston, County Durham), quarrying or sea fishing.
They are very similar to those in Ireland.
The major factors in the type of settlement are: location of water sources, organisation of agriculture and landholding, and likelihood of flooding.
For example, in areas such as the Lincolnshire Wolds, the villages are often found along the spring line halfway down the hillsides, and originate as spring line settlements, with the original open field systems around the village.
In northern Scotland, most villages are planned to a grid pattern located on or close to major roads, whereas in areas such as the Forest of Arden, woodland clearances produced small hamlets around village greens.
Because of the topography of the Clent Hills the north Worcestershire village of Clent is an example of a village with no centre but instead consists of series of hamlets scattered on and around the Hills.
Some show archaeological evidence of settlement at three or four different layers, each distinct from the previous one.
Clearances may have been to accommodate sheep or game estates, or enclosure, or may have resulted from depopulation, such as after the Black Death or following a move of the inhabitants to more prosperous districts.
Many villages are now predominantly dormitory locations and have suffered the loss of shops, churches and other facilities.
For many British people, the village represents an ideal of Great Britain.
Seen as being far from the bustle of modern life, it is represented as quiet and harmonious, if a little inward-looking.
These (such as Murton, County Durham) grew from hamlets when the sinking of a colliery in the early 20th century resulted in a rapid growth in their population and the colliery owners built new housing, shops, pubs and churches.
Maltby was constructed under the auspices of the Sheepbridge Coal and Iron Company and included ample open spaces and provision for gardens.
However, some civil parishes may contain more than one village.
The typical village had a pub or inn, shops, and a blacksmith.
But many of these facilities are now gone, and many villages are dormitories for commuters.
The population of such settlements ranges from a few hundred people to around five thousand.
A village is distinguished from a town in that:
- A village should not have a regular agricultural market, although today such markets are uncommon even in settlements which clearly are towns.
- A village does not have a town hall nor a mayor.
- If a village is the principal settlement of a civil parish, then any administrative body that administers it at parish level should be called a parish council or parish meeting, and not a town council or city council. However, some civil parishes have no functioning parish, town, or city council nor a functioning parish meeting. In Wales, where the equivalent of an English civil parish is called a Community, the body that administers it is called a Community Council. However, larger councils may elect to call themselves town councils. In Scotland, the equivalent is also a community council, however, despite being statutory bodies they have no executive powers.
- There should be a clear green belt or open fields, as, for example, seen on aerial maps for Ouston surrounding its parish borders. However this may not be applicable to urbanised villages: although these may not be considered to be villages, they are often widely referred to as being so; an example of this is Horsforth in Leeds.
Like France, villages in Lebanon are usually located in remote mountainous areas.
Many of the Lebanese villages are a part of districts, these districts are known as "kadaa" which includes the districts of Baabda (Baabda), Aley (Aley), Matn (Jdeideh), Keserwan (Jounieh), Chouf (Beiteddine), Jbeil (Byblos), Tripoli (Tripoli), Zgharta (Zgharta / Ehden), Bsharri (Bsharri), Batroun (Batroun), Koura (Amioun), Miniyeh-Danniyeh (Minyeh / Sir Ed-Danniyeh), Zahle (Zahle), Rashaya (Rashaya), Western Beqaa (Jebjennine / Saghbine), Sidon (Sidon), Jezzine (Jezzine), Tyre (Tyre), Nabatiyeh (Nabatiyeh), Marjeyoun (Marjeyoun), Hasbaya (Hasbaya), Bint Jbeil (Bint Jbeil), Baalbek (Baalbek), and Hermel (Hermel).
The district of Danniyeh consists of thirty-six small villages, which includes Almrah, Kfirchlan, Kfirhbab, Hakel al Azimah, Siir, Bakhoun, Miryata, Assoun, Sfiiri, Kharnoub, Katteen, Kfirhabou, Zghartegrein, Ein Qibil.
Danniyeh (known also as Addinniyeh, Al Dinniyeh, Al Danniyeh, Arabic: سير الضنية) is a region located in Miniyeh-Danniyeh District in the North Governorate of Lebanon.
The region lies east of Tripoli, extends north as far as Akkar District, south to Bsharri District and Zgharta District and as far east as Baalbek and Hermel.
Dinniyeh has an excellent ecological environment filled with woodlands, orchards and groves.
Several villages are located in this mountainous area, the largest town being Sir Al Dinniyeh.
An example of a typical mountainous Lebanese village in Dannieh would be Hakel al Azimah which is a small village that belongs to the district of Danniyeh, situated between Bakhoun and Assoun's boundaries.
The diversity of the Syrian environments creates significant differences between the Syrian villages in terms of the economic activity and the method of adoption.
Some other villages, such as Marmarita depend heavily on tourist activity.
Mainly, villages were built in very good sites which had the fundamentals of the rural life, like water.
Australasia and Oceania
Pacific Islands Communities on Pacific islands were historically called villages by English speakers who traveled and settled in the area.
Some communities such as several Villages of Guam continue to be called villages despite having large populations that can exceed 40,000 residents.
Tree-fern logs and flax were the main building materials.
As in Australia (see below) the term is now used mainly in respect of shopping or other planned areas.
Small rural communities are usually known as townships.
Larger settlements are known as towns.
Argentina Usually set in remote mountainous areas, some also cater to winter sports or tourism.
Guyana In various areas villages can still be found in Guyana.
While many are now towns, there are several areas on river banks, and communities off central roads that are still locally considered villages.
In contrast to the Old World, the concept of village in today's North America north of Mexico is largely disconnected from its rural and communal origins.
The situation is different in Mexico because of its large bulk of indigenous population living in traditional villages.
Main article: Village (United States)
However, this is a generality; in many states, there are villages that are an order of magnitude larger than the smallest cities in the state.
The distinction is not necessarily based on population, but on the relative powers granted to the different types of municipalities and correspondingly, different obligations to provide specific services to residents.
In some states such as New York and Michigan, a village is usually an incorporated municipality, within a single town or civil township.
In some cases, the village may be with the town or township, in which case the two may have a consolidated government.
There are also villages that span the boundaries of more than one town or township; some villages may straddle county borders.
There is no population limit to villages in New York.
Hempstead, the largest village, has 55,000 residents; making it more populous than some of the state's cities.
However; villages in the state may not exceed five square miles (13 km) in area.
Michigan and Illinois also have no set population limit for villages and there are many villages that are larger than cities in those states.
The village of Arlington Heights, Illinois had 75,101 residents as of the 2010 census.
A village also has no written figure against how small a population can be, with the United States' smallest incorporated village being Dering Harbor, NY, with a population of just over 10.
Villages can incorporate land in multiple townships and even multiple counties.
The largest village is Menomonee Falls, which has over 32,000 residents.
They have no area limitations, but become cities if they grow a population of more than 5,000.
An example of the latter is the Village of Friendship Heights.
In North Carolina, the only difference between cities, towns, and villages is the term itself.
This informal usage may be found even in states that have villages as an incorporated municipality, although such usage might be considered incorrect and confusing.
In states that have New England towns, a "village" is a center of population or trade, including the town center, in an otherwise sparsely developed town or city — for instance, the village of Hyannis in the town of Barnstable, Massachusetts.
Villages in Nigeria vary significantly because of cultural and geographical differences.
After Dan Fodio's Jihad in 1804, political structure of the North became Islamic where emirs were the political, administrative and spiritual leaders of their people.
These emirs appointed a number of people to assist them in running the administration and that included villages.
The Magaji also had his cabinet who assisted him in ruling his village efficiently, among whom was Mai-Unguwa (Ward Head).
With the creation of Native Authority in Nigerian provinces, the autocratic power of village heads along with all other traditional rulers was subdued hence they ruled 'under the guidance of colonial officials'.
Even though the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria has not recognised the functions of traditional rulers, they still command respect in their villages and political office holders liaise with them almost every time to reach people.
In Hausa language, village is called ƙauye and every local government area is made up of several small and large ƙauyuka (villages).
They have mud houses with thatched roofing though, like in most of the villages in the North, zinc roofing is becoming a common sight.
Still in many villages in the North, people do not have access to portable water.
So they fetch water from ponds and streams.
Others are lucky to have wells within a walking distance.
Women rush in the morning to fetch water in their clay pots from wells, boreholes and streams.
However, government is now providing them with water bore holes.
Electricity and GSM network are reaching more and more villages in the North almost every day.
So bad feeder roads may lead to remote villages with electricity and unstable GSM network.
Village dwellers in the Southeastern region lived separately in "clusters of huts belonging to the patrilinage".
As the rainforest region is dominated by Igbo speaking people, the villages are called ime obodo (inside town) in Igbo language.
A typical large village might have a few thousand persons who shared the same market, meeting place and beliefs.
In South Africa the majority of people in rural areas reside in villages.
They vary in size from having a population of less than 500 to around 1000.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Village.