Violence against LGBT people

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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people sometimes experience violence directed toward their sexuality or gender identity. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_0

This violence may be enacted by the state, as in laws prescribing punishment for homosexual acts, or by individuals. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_1

It may be psychological or physical and motivated by homophobia, lesbophobia, biphobia, and transphobia. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_2

Influencing factors may be cultural, religious, or political mores and biases. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_3

Currently, homosexual acts are legal in almost all Western countries, and in many of these countries violence against LGBT people is classified as a hate crime. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_4

Outside the West, many countries are deemed potentially dangerous to their LGBT population due to both discriminatory legislation and threats of violence. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_5

These include countries where the dominant religion is Islam, most African countries except South Africa, most Asian countries other than Israel, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and the Philippines, and some former-Communist countries such as Russia, Poland (LGBT-free zone), Serbia, Albania, Kosovo, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_6

Such violence is often associated with religious condemnation of homosexuality or conservative social attitudes that portray homosexuality as an illness or a character flaw. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_7

In Europe, the European Union's Employment Equality Framework Directive and Charter of Fundamental Rights offer some protection against sexuality-based discrimination. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_8

Historically, state-sanctioned persecution of homosexuals was mostly limited to male homosexuality, termed "sodomy". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_9

During the medieval and early modern period, the penalty for sodomy was usually death. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_10

During the modern period (from the 19th century to the mid-20th century) in the Western world, the penalty was usually a fine or imprisonment. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_11

There was a drop in locations where homosexual acts remained illegal from 2009 when there were 80 countries worldwide (notably throughout the Middle East, Central Asia and in most of Africa, but also in some of the Caribbean and Oceania) with five carrying the death penalty to 2016 when 72 countries criminalized consensual sexual acts between adults of the same sex. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_12

Brazil, a country with LGBT rights protections and legal same-sex marriage, is reported to have the world's highest LGBT murder rate, with more than 380 murders in 2017 alone, an increase of 30% compared to 2016. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_13

This is usually not considered a hate crime in Brazil but a misinterpretation of skewed data resulting from relatively higher crime rates in the country in general when compared to world averages, rather than the LGBT population being a specific target. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_14

In some countries, 85% of LGBT students experience homophobic and transphobic violence in school, and 45% of transgender students drop out of school. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_15

State-sanctioned violence Violence against LGBT people_section_0

Historic Violence against LGBT people_section_1

The Middle East Violence against LGBT people_section_2

An early law against sexual intercourse between men is recorded in Leviticus by the Hebrew people, prescribing the death penalty. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_16

A violent law regarding homosexual intercourse is prescribed in the Middle Assyrian Law Codes (1075 BCE), stating: "If a man lay with his neighbor, when they have prosecuted him (and) convicted him, they shall lie with him (and) turn him into a eunuch". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_17

In the account given in Tacitus' Germania, the death penalty was reserved for two kinds of capital offenses: military treason or desertion was punished by hanging, and so was moral infamy (cowardice and homosexuality: ignavos et imbelles at corpore infames); Gordon translates corpore infames as "unnatural prostitutes"; Tacitus refers to male homosexuality, see David F. Greenberg, The construction of homosexuality, p. 242 f. Scholarship compares the later Germanic concept of Old Norse argr, Langobardic arga, which combines the meanings "effeminate, cowardly, homosexual", see Jaan Puhvel, 'Who were the Hittite hurkilas pesnes?' Violence against LGBT people_sentence_18

in: A. Etter (eds.), O-o-pe-ro-si (FS Risch), Walter de Gruyter, 1986, p. 154. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_19

Europe Violence against LGBT people_section_3

Laws and codes prohibiting homosexual practice were in force in Europe from the fourth to the twentieth centuries, and Muslim countries have had similar laws from the beginnings of Islam in the seventh century up to and including the present day. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_20

Abbasid Baghdad, under the Caliph Al-Hadi (785–786), punished homosexuality with death. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_21

Republican Rome Violence against LGBT people_section_4

In Republican Rome, the poorly attested Lex Scantinia penalized an adult male for committing a sex crime (stuprum) against an underage male citizen (ingenuus). Violence against LGBT people_sentence_22

It is unclear whether the penalty was death or a fine. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_23

The law may also have been used to prosecute adult male citizens who willingly took a pathic role in same-sex acts, but prosecutions are rarely recorded and the provisions of the law are vague; as John Boswell has noted, "if there was a law against homosexual relations, no one in Cicero's day knew anything about it." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_24

When the Roman Empire came under Christian rule, all male homosexual activity was increasingly repressed, often on pain of death. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_25

In 342 CE, the Christian emperors Constantius and Constans declared same-sex marriage to be illegal. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_26

Shortly after, in the year 390 CE, emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius declared homosexual sex to be illegal and those who were guilty of it were condemned to be publicly burned alive. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_27

Emperor Justinian I (527–565 CE) made homosexuals a scapegoat for problems such as "famines, earthquakes, and pestilences." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_28

France and Florence Violence against LGBT people_section_5

During the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of France and the City of Florence also instated the death penalty. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_29

In Florence, a young boy named Giovanni di Giovanni (1350–1365?) Violence against LGBT people_sentence_30

was castrated and burned between the thighs with a red-hot iron by court order under this law. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_31

These punishments continued into the Renaissance, and spread to the Swiss canton of Zürich. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_32

Knight Richard von Hohenberg (died 1482) was burned at the stake together with his lover, his young squire, during this time. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_33

In France, French writer Jacques Chausson (1618–1661) was also burned alive for attempting to seduce the son of a nobleman. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_34

Malta Violence against LGBT people_section_6

In seventeenth century Malta, English voyager and author William Lithgow, writing in his diary in March 1616, says a Spanish soldier and a Maltese teenage boy were publicly burnt to ashes for confessing to have practiced sodomy together. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_35

To escape this fate, about a hundred bardassoes, boy prostitutes, sailed for Sicily the following day. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_36

Great Britain Violence against LGBT people_section_7

In England, the Buggery Act of 1533 made sodomy and bestiality punishable by death. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_37

This act was superseded in 1828, but sodomy remained punishable by death under the new act until 1861, although the last executions were in 1835. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_38

The Holocaust Violence against LGBT people_section_8

In Nazi Germany and Occupied Europe, homosexuals were among the groups targeted by the Holocaust (See Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany). Violence against LGBT people_sentence_39

(In 1936, the homosexual Federico García Lorca was executed by right-wing rebels who established Franco's dictatorship in Spain, Hitler's ally.) Violence against LGBT people_sentence_40

Contemporary Violence against LGBT people_section_9

Main article: LGBT rights by country or territory Violence against LGBT people_sentence_41

As of August 2020, 69 countries criminalize consensual sexual acts between adults of the same sex. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_42

They are punishable by death in nine countries: Violence against LGBT people_sentence_43

Violence against LGBT people_unordered_list_0

  • BruneiViolence against LGBT people_item_0_0
  • Iran (fourth conviction)Violence against LGBT people_item_0_1
  • MauritaniaViolence against LGBT people_item_0_2
  • QatarViolence against LGBT people_item_0_3
  • Saudi Arabia: Although the maximum punishment for homosexuality is execution, the government tends to use other punishments (fines, prison sentence, and whipping), unless it feels that homosexuals have challenged state authority by engaging in LGBT social movements.Violence against LGBT people_item_0_4
  • YemenViolence against LGBT people_item_0_5
  • Parts of Nigeria and SomaliaViolence against LGBT people_item_0_6

Countries where homosexual acts are criminalized but not punished by death, by region, include: Violence against LGBT people_sentence_44

Africa Violence against LGBT people_sentence_45

Violence against LGBT people_description_list_1

Asia Violence against LGBT people_sentence_46

Violence against LGBT people_description_list_2

America Violence against LGBT people_sentence_47

Violence against LGBT people_description_list_3

Pacific Islands Violence against LGBT people_sentence_48

Violence against LGBT people_description_list_4

Afghanistan, where such acts remain punishable with fines and a prison sentence, dropped the death penalty after the fall of the Taliban in 2001, who had mandated it from 1996. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_49

India criminalized homosexuality until June 2, 2009, when the High Court of Delhi declared section 377 of the Indian Penal Code invalid. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_50

Jamaica has some of the toughest sodomy laws in the world, with homosexual activity carrying a 10-year jail sentence. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_51

International human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International condemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_52

Since 1994, the United Nations Human Rights Committee has also ruled that such laws violated the right to privacy guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_53

See also: Mahmoud Asgari and Ayaz Marhoni Violence against LGBT people_sentence_54

Criminal assault Violence against LGBT people_section_10

Main articles: Gay bashing and Trans bashing Violence against LGBT people_sentence_55

Further information: List of people killed for being transgender and Social cleansing Violence against LGBT people_sentence_56

Even in countries where homosexuality is legal (most countries outside of Africa and the Middle East), there are reports of homosexual people being targeted with bullying or physical assault or even homicide. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_57

Further information: Homophobic violence in Brazil Violence against LGBT people_sentence_58

According to the Grupo Gay da Bahia, Brazil's oldest gay rights NGO, the rate of murders of homosexuals in Brazil is particularly high, with a reported 3,196 cases over the 30-year period of 1980 to 2009 (or about 0.7 cases per 100,000 population per annum). Violence against LGBT people_sentence_59

At least 387 LGBT Brazilians were murdered in 2017. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_60

Brazilian gay group Grupo Gay da Bahia (GGB) reported 190 documented alleged homophobic murders in Brazil in 2008, accounting for about 0.5% of intentional homicides in Brazil (homicide rate 22 per 100,000 population as of 2008). Violence against LGBT people_sentence_61

64% of the victims were gay men, 32% were trans women or transvestites, and 4% were lesbians. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_62

By comparison, the FBI reported five homophobic murders in the United States during 2008, corresponding to 0.03% of intentional homicides (homicide rate 5.4 per 100,000 population as of 2008). Violence against LGBT people_sentence_63

The numbers produced by the Grupo Gay da Bahia (GGB) have occasionally been contested on the grounds that they include all murders of LGBT people reported in the media — that is, not only those motivated by bias against homosexuals. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_64

Reinaldo de Azevedo, columnist of the right-wing Veja magazine, Brazil's most read weekly publication, called the GGB's methodology "unscientific" based on the above objection: that they make no distinction between murders motivated by bias and those that were not. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_65

On the high level of murders of transsexuals, he suggested transsexuals' allegedly high involvement with the drug trade may expose them to higher levels of violence as compared to non-transgender homosexuals and heterosexuals. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_66

In many parts of the world, including much of the European Union and United States, acts of violence are legally classified as hate crimes, which entail harsher sentences if convicted. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_67

In some countries, this form of legislation extends to verbal abuse as well as physical violence. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_68

Violent hate crimes against LGBT people tend to be especially brutal, even compared to other hate crimes: "an intense rage is present in nearly all homicide cases involving gay male victims". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_69

It is rare for a victim to just be shot; he is more likely to be stabbed multiple times, mutilated, and strangled. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_70

"They frequently involved torture, cutting, mutilation... showing the absolute intent to rub out the human being because of his (sexual) preference". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_71

In a particularly brutal case in the United States, on March 14, 2007, in Wahneta, Florida, 25-year-old Ryan Keith Skipper was found dead from 20 stab wounds and a slit throat. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_72

His body had been dumped on a dark, rural road less than 2 miles from his home. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_73

His two alleged attackers, William David Brown, Jr., 20, and Joseph Eli Bearden, 21, were indicted for robbery and first-degree murder. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_74

Highlighting their malice and contempt for the victim, the accused killers allegedly drove around in Skipper's blood-soaked car and bragged of killing him. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_75

According to a sheriff's department affidavit, one of the men stated that Skipper was targeted because "he was a faggot." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_76

In Canada in 2008, police-reported data found that approximately 10% of all hate crimes in the country were motivated by sexual orientation. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_77

Of these, 56% were of a violent nature. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_78

In comparison, 38% of all racially motivated offenses were of a violent nature. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_79

In the same year in the United States, according to Federal Bureau of Investigation data, though 4,704 crimes were committed due to racial bias and 1,617 were committed due to sexual orientation, only one murder and one forcible rape were committed due to racial bias, whereas five murders and six rapes were committed based on sexual orientation. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_80

In Northern Ireland in 2008, 160 homophobic incidents and 7 transphobic incidents were reported. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_81

Of those incidents, 68.4% were violent crimes; significantly higher than for any other bias category. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_82

By contrast, 37.4% of racially motivated crimes were of a violent nature. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_83

People's ignorance of and prejudice against LGBT people can contribute to the spreading of misinformation about them and subsequently to violence. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_84

In 2018, a transgender woman was killed by a mob in Hyderabad, India, following false rumors that transgender women were sex trafficking children. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_85

Three other transgender women were injured in the attack. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_86

Recent research on university-level students indicated the importance of queer visibility and its impact in creating a positive experience for LGBTIQ+ members of a campus community, this can reduce the impact and effect of incidents on youth attending university. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_87

When there is a poor climate - students are much less likely to report incidents or seek help. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_88

Violence at universities Violence against LGBT people_section_11

In the United States during the past few years, colleges and universities have taken major steps to prevent sexual harassment from taking place on campus, but students have reported violence due to their sexual orientation. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_89

Sexual harassment can include "non-contact forms" such as making jokes or comments and "contact forms" like forcing students to commit sexual acts. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_90

Even though little information exists with LGBT violence taking place at higher learning institutions, different communities are taking a stand against the violence. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_91

Many LGBT rape survivors said they experienced their first assault before the age of 25, and that many arrive on campus with this experience. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_92

Almost half of bi-sexual women experience their first assault between the ages of 18-24, and most of these take place unreported on college campuses. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_93

Though the Federal Bureau of Investigation changed what the "federal" definition of what rape means (for reporting purposes) in 2012, local state governments still determine how campus violence cases are treated. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_94

Catherine Hill and Elana Silva said in Drawing the Line: Sexual Harassment on Campus,"Students who admit to harassing other students generally don't see themselves as rejected suitors, rather misunderstood comedians." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_95

Most students who commit sexual violence towards other students do it to boost their own ego, believing that their actions are humorous. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_96

More than 46% of sexual harassment towards LGBT people still goes unreported. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_97

National resources have been created to deal with the issue of sexual violence and various organizations such as The American Association of University Women and the National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence are established to provide information and resources for those who have been sexually harassed. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_98

Legislation against homophobic hate crimes Violence against LGBT people_section_12

Members of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe began describing hate crimes based on sexual orientation (as opposed to generic anti-discrimination legislation) to be counted as aggravating circumstance in the commission of a crime in 2003. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_99

The United States does not have federal legislation marking sexual orientation as criteria for hate crimes, but several states, including the District of Columbia, enforce harsher penalties for crimes where real or perceived sexual orientation may have been a motivator. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_100

Among these 12 countries as well, only the United States has criminal law that specifically mentions gender identity, and even then only in 11 states and the District of Columbia. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_101

In November 2010, the United Nations General Assembly voted 79-70 to remove "sexual orientation" from the Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, a list of unjustified reasons for executions, replacing it with "discriminatory reasons on any basis". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_102

The resolution specifically mentions a large number of groups, including race, religion, linguistic differences, refugees, street children and indigenous peoples. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_103

Legal and police response to these types of hate crimes is hard to gauge, however. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_104

Lack of reporting by authorities on the statistics of these crimes and under-reporting by the victims themselves are factors for this difficulty. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_105

Often a victim will not report a crime as it will shed unwelcome light on their orientation and invite more victimization. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_106

Alleged judicative bias Violence against LGBT people_section_13

Further information: Gay panic defense and Provocation (legal) Violence against LGBT people_sentence_107

Legal defenses like the gay panic defense allow for more lenient punishments for people accused of beating, torturing, or killing homosexuals because of their orientation. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_108

These arguments posit that the attacker was so enraged by their victim's advances as to cause temporary insanity, leaving them unable to stop themselves or tell right from wrong. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_109

In these cases, if the loss of faculties is proven, or sympathized to the jury, an initially severe sentence may be significantly reduced. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_110

In several common law countries, the mitigatory defense of provocation has been used in violent attacks against LGBT persons, which has led several Australian states and territories to modify their legislation, in order to prevent or reduce the using of this legal defense in cases of violent responses to non-violent homosexual advances. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_111

There have been several highly publicized cases where people convicted of violence against LGBT people have received shorter sentences. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_112

One such case is that of Kenneth Brewer. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_113

On 30 September 1997, he met Stephen Bright at a local gay bar. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_114

He bought the younger man drinks and they later went back to Brewer's apartment. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_115

While there, Brewer made a sexual advance toward Bright, and Bright beat him to death. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_116

Bright was initially charged with second-degree murder, but he was eventually convicted of third-degree assault and was sentenced to one year in prison. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_117

Cases like Bright's are not isolated. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_118

In 2001, Aaron Webster was beaten to death by a group of youths armed with baseball bats and a pool cue while hanging around an area of Stanley Park frequented by gay men. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_119

Ryan Cran was convicted of manslaughter in the case in 2004 and released on parole in 2009 after serving only 4 years of his six-year sentence. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_120

Two youths were tried under Canada's Youth Criminal Justice Act and sentenced to three years after pleading guilty. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_121

A fourth assailant was acquitted. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_122

Judges are not immune to letting their own prejudices affect their judgment either. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_123

In 1988, Texas Judge Jack Hampton gave a man 30 years for killing two gay men, instead of the life sentence requested by the prosecutor. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_124

After handing down his judgment, he said: "I don't much care for queers cruising the streets picking up teenage boys ...[I] put prostitutes and gays at about the same level ... and I'd be hard put to give somebody life for killing a prostitute." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_125

In 1987, a Florida judge trying a case concerning the beating to death of a gay man asked the prosecutor, "That's a crime now, to beat up a homosexual?" Violence against LGBT people_sentence_126

The prosecutor responded, "Yes, sir. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_127

And it's also a crime to kill them." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_128

"Times have really changed," the judge replied. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_129

The judge, Daniel Futch, maintained that he was joking, but was removed from the case. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_130

Attacks on gay pride parades Violence against LGBT people_section_14

LGBT Pride Parades in East European, Asian and South American countries often attract violence because of their public nature. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_131

Though many countries where such events take place attempt to provide police protection to participants, some would prefer that the parades not happen, and police either ignore or encourage violent protesters. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_132

The country of Moldova has shown particular contempt to marchers, shutting down official requests to hold parades and allowing protesters to intimidate and harm any who try to march anyway. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_133

In 2007, after being denied a request to hold a parade, a small group of LGBT people tried to hold a small gathering. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_134

They were surrounded by a group twice their size who shouted derogatory things at them and pelted them with eggs. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_135

The gathering proceeded even so, and they tried to lay flowers at the Monument to the Victims of Repression. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_136

They were denied the opportunity, however, by a large group of police claiming they needed permission from city hall. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_137

The following year, a parade was again attempted. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_138

A bus carried approximately 60 participants to the capital, but before they could disembark, an angry crowd surrounded the bus. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_139

They shouted things like "let's get them out and beat them up", and "beat them to death, don't let them escape" at the frightened passengers. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_140

The mob told the activists that if they wanted to leave the bus unharmed, they would have to destroy all of their pride materials. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_141

The passengers complied and the march was called off. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_142

All the while, police stood passively about 100 meters away, taking no action even though passengers claimed at least nine emergency calls were made to police while on the bus. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_143

Russia's officials are similarly averse to Pride Parades. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_144

Mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov has repeatedly banned marches, calling them "satanic". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_145

Pride participants instead tried to peacefully assemble and deliver a petition to city hall regarding the right of assembly and freedom of expression. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_146

They were met by skinheads and other protesters, and police who had closed off the square and immediately arrested activists as they entered. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_147

As some were being arrested, other participants were attacked by protesters. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_148

Police did nothing. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_149

Around eleven women and two men were arrested and left in the heat, denied medical attention, and verbally abused by police officers. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_150

The officers told the women, "No one needs lesbians, no one will ever get you out of here." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_151

When participants were released from custody hours later, they were pelted by eggs and shouted at by protesters who had been waiting. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_152

Hungary, on the other hand, has tried to afford the best protection they can to marchers, but cannot stem the flow of violence. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_153

In 2008, hundreds of people participated in the Budapest Dignity March. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_154

Police, on alert due to attacks on two LGBT-affiliated businesses earlier in the week, erected high metal barriers on either side of the street the march was to take place on. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_155

Hundreds of angry protesters threw petrol bombs and rocks at police in retaliation. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_156

A police van was set on fire and two police officers were injured in the attacks. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_157

During the parade itself, protesters threw Molotov cocktails, eggs and firecrackers at marchers. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_158

At least eight participants were injured. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_159

Forty-five people were detained in connection with the attacks, and observers called the spectacle "the worst violence during the dozen years the Gay Pride Parade has taken place in Budapest". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_160

In Israel, three marchers in a gay pride parade in Jerusalem on June 30, 2005 were stabbed by Yishai Shlisel, a Haredi Jew. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_161

Shlisel claimed he had acted "in the name of God". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_162

He was charged with attempted murder.Ten years later, On 30 July 2015, six marchers were injured, again by Yishai Shlisel when he stabbed them. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_163

It was three weeks after he was released from jail. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_164

One of the victims, 16-year-old Shira Banki, died of her wounds at the Hadassah Medical Center three days later, on 2 August 2015. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_165

Shortly after, Prime Minister Netanyahu offered his condolences, adding "We will deal with the murderer to the fullest extent of the law." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_166

In 2019, the gay pride parade in Detroit was infiltrated by armed neo-nazis who reportedly claimed they wanted to spark "Charlottesville 2.0" referring to the United the Right demonstration in 2017 which resulted in the murder of Heather Heyer, and many others injured. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_167

On 20 July 2019, the first Białystok equality march was held in Białystok, a Law and Justice party stronghold, surrounded by Białystok county which is a declared LGBT-free zone. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_168

Two weeks before the march Archbishop Tadeusz Wojda delivered a proclamation to all churches in Podlaskie Voivodeship and Białystok stating that pride marches were "blasphemy against God". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_169

Wojda also asserted that the march was "foreign" and thanked those who "defend Christian values". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_170

Approximately a thousand pride marchers were opposed by thousands of members of far-right groups, ultra football fans, and others. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_171

Firecrackers were tossed at the marchers, homophobic slogans were chanted, and the marchers were pelted with rocks and bottles. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_172

Dozens of marchers were injured. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_173

Amnesty International criticized the police response, saying they had failed to protect marchers and "failed to respond to instances of violence". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_174

According to the New York Times, similar to the manner in which the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville shocked Americans, the violence in Białystok raised public concern in Poland over anti-LGBT propaganda. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_175

Advocacy in song lyrics Violence against LGBT people_section_15

As a result of the strong anti-homosexual culture in Jamaica, many reggae and dancehall artists, such as Buju Banton, Elephant Man, Sizzla, have published song lyrics advocating violence against homosexuals. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_176

Similarly, hip-hop music occasionally includes aggressively homophobic lyrics, but has since appeared to reform. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_177

Banton wrote a song when he was 15 years old that became a hit when he released it years later in 1992 called "Boom Bye Bye". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_178

The song is about murdering homosexuals and "advocated the shooting of gay men, pouring acid on them and burning them alive." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_179

A song by Elephant Man proclaims: "When you hear a lesbian getting raped/It's not our fault ... Two women in bed/That's two sodomites who should be dead." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_180

Canadian activists have sought to deport reggae artists from the country due to homophobic content in some of their songs, which they say promote anti-gay violence. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_181

In the UK, Scotland Yard has investigated reggae lyrics and Sizzla was barred from entering the United Kingdom in 2004 over accusations his music promotes murder. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_182

Gay rights advocates have started the group Stop Murder Music to combat what they say is the promotion of hate and violence by artists. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_183

The group organized protests, causing some venues to refuse to allow the targeted artists to perform, and the loss of sponsors. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_184

In 2007, the group asked reggae artists to promise "not to produce music or make public statements inciting hatred against gay people. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_185

Neither can they authorise the re-release of previous homophobic songs." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_186

Several artists signed that agreement, including Buju Banton, Beenie Man, Sizzla and Capleton, but some later denied signing it. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_187

During the 1980s, skinheads in North America who promoted emerging neo-Nazi pop culture and racist rock songs increasingly went to punk rock concerts with anti-gay music advocating violence. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_188

Motivations Violence against LGBT people_section_16

Macho culture and social homophobia Violence against LGBT people_section_17

Religion Violence against LGBT people_section_18

See also: Religion and homosexuality and Religion and sexuality Violence against LGBT people_sentence_189

Religious texts Violence against LGBT people_section_19

Christianity Violence against LGBT people_section_20

See also: Christianity and homosexuality Violence against LGBT people_sentence_190

In today's society, many Christian denominations welcome people attracted to the same sex, but teach that same sex relationships and homosexual sex are sinful. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_191

These denominations include the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox church, the Methodist Church, and many other mainline denominations, such as the Reformed Church in America and the American Baptist Church, as well as Conservative Evangelical organizations and churches, such as the Evangelical Alliance, and the Southern Baptist Convention. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_192

Likewise, Pentecostal churches such as the Assemblies of God, as well as Restorationist churches, like Jehovah's Witnesses and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also take the position that homosexual activity is immoral. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_193

Some Christian groups advocate conversion therapy and promote ex-gay groups. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_194

One such group, Exodus International, argued that conversion therapy may be a useful tool for decreasing same-sex desires, and, while former affiliates of Exodus continue with such views, Exodus has since repudiated the organization's mission and apologised for the pain and hurt and promoting "sexual orientation change efforts and reparative theories about sexual orientation that stigmatized parents." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_195

The medical and scientific consensus in the United States is that conversion therapy is likely harmful and should be avoided because it may exploit guilt and anxiety, thereby damaging self-esteem and leading to depression and even suicide. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_196

There is a broad concern in the mental health community that the advancement of conversion therapy itself causes social harm by disseminating inaccurate views about sexual orientation and the ability of gay, lesbian and bisexual people to lead happy, healthy lives. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_197

This promotion of the idea that homosexuality is immoral and can be corrected may make would-be attackers of homosexuals feel justified in that they are "doing God's work" by ridding the world of LGBT people. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_198

The Catholic Church teaches that a homosexual orientation is not sinful and that LGBT people are to be treated with compassion and respect, as all others are. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_199

It also teaches that sex is meant to be had between opposite sex spouses. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_200

A 1992 letter from Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI, condemned gay bashing. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_201

It said that LGBT people "have the same rights as all persons including the right of not being treated in a manner which offends their personal dignity." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_202

It adds that Violence against LGBT people_sentence_203

However, in the same letter Ratzinger suggested that an increase in anti-gay violence is unsurprising if laws are introduced to protect homosexual behavior: Violence against LGBT people_sentence_204

Pope Benedict XVI, then the leader of the Roman Catholic Church stated that "protecting" humanity from homosexuality was just as important as saving the world from climate change and that all relationships beyond traditional heterosexual ones are a "destruction of God's work." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_205

Pope Francis has been seen as more welcoming to LGBT people, saying to a gay man that "God made you like this. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_206

God loves you like this. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_207

The Pope loves you like this and you should love yourself and not worry about what people say." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_208

Islam Violence against LGBT people_section_21

See also: Islam and homosexuality Violence against LGBT people_sentence_209

The Quran cites the story of the "people of Lot" (also known as the people of Sodom and Gomorrah), destroyed by the wrath of Allah because they engaged in lustful carnal acts between men. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_210

Scholars of Islam, such as Shaykh al-Islām Imam Malik, and Imam Shafi amongst others, ruled that Islam disallowed homosexuality and ordained capital punishment for a person guilty of it. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_211

The legal punishment for sodomy has varied among juristic schools: some prescribe capital punishment; while other prescribe a milder discretionary punishment. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_212

Homosexual activity is a crime and forbidden in most Muslim-majority countries. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_213

In some relatively secular Muslim-majority countries such as Indonesia, Jordan and Turkey, this is not the case. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_214

The Quran, much like the Bible and Torah, has a vague condemnation of homosexuality and how it should be dealt with, leaving it open to interpretation. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_215

For this reason, Islamic jurists have turned to the collections of the hadith (sayings of Muhammad) and Sunnah (accounts of his life). Violence against LGBT people_sentence_216

These, on the other hand, are perfectly clear and particularly harsh. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_217

Ibn al-Jawzi records Muhammad as cursing sodomites in several hadith, and recommending the death penalty for both the active and passive partners in same-sex acts. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_218

Sunan al-Tirmidhi again reports Muhammad as having prescribed the death penalty for both the active and the passive partner: "Whoever you find committing the sin of the people of Lot, kill them, both the one who does it and the one to whom it is done." Violence against LGBT people_sentence_219

The overall moral or theological principle is that a person who performs such actions challenges the harmony of God's creation, and is therefore a revolt against God. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_220

These views vary depending upon sect. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_221

It is noteworthy to point out that Quranists (those who do not integrate the aforementioned Hadiths into their belief system) do not advocate capital punishment. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_222

Some imams still preach their views, stating that homosexuals and "women who act like men" should be executed under the Islamic law. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_223

Abu Usamah at Green Lane Mosque in Birmingham defended his words to followers by saying "If I were to call homosexuals perverted, dirty, filthy dogs who should be executed, that's my freedom of speech, isn't it?" Violence against LGBT people_sentence_224

Other contemporary Islamic views are that the "crime of homosexuality is one of the greatest of crimes, the worst of sins and the most abhorrent of deeds". Violence against LGBT people_sentence_225

Homosexuality is considered the 11th major sin in Islam, in the days of the companions of Muhammad, a slave boy was once forgiven for killing his master who sodomized him. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_226

The 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting was at the time the deadliest mass shooting by an individual and remains the deadliest incident of violence against LGBT people in U.S. history. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_227

On June 12, 2016, Omar Mateen killed 49 people and wounded more than 50 at Pulse gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_228

The act has been described by investigators as an Islamic terrorist attack and a hate crime. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_229

Judaism Violence against LGBT people_section_22

See also: Judaism and homosexuality Violence against LGBT people_sentence_230

In Judaism, the death penalty against homosexuality has not been used in practice for more than 2000 years, though many movements still view homosexual acts as sinful. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_231

Orthodox Judaism generally prohibits homosexual conduct. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_232

While there is disagreement about which acts come under core prohibitions, all of Orthodox Judaism puts certain core homosexual acts, including sodomy in the category of yehareg ve'al ya'avor—"die rather than transgress"—the small category of Biblically-prohibited acts (also including murder, idolatry, adultery, and incest) which an Orthodox Jew is obligated under the laws of self-sacrifice under Jewish Law to die rather than do. Violence against LGBT people_sentence_233

See also Violence against LGBT people_section_23

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: against LGBT people.