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This article is about the standard violin. Violin_sentence_0

For other uses, see Violin (disambiguation). Violin_sentence_1


String instrumentViolin_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesViolin_header_cell_0_1_0 fiddleViolin_cell_0_1_1
Hornbostel–Sachs classificationViolin_header_cell_0_2_0 321.322-71

(Composite chordophone sounded by a bow)Violin_cell_0_2_1

DevelopedViolin_header_cell_0_3_0 Early 16th centuryViolin_cell_0_3_1
Playing rangeViolin_header_cell_0_4_0
Related instrumentsViolin_header_cell_0_5_0

The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden chordophone (string instrument) in the violin family. Violin_sentence_2

Most violins have a hollow wooden body. Violin_sentence_3

It is the smallest and thus highest-pitched instrument (soprano) in the family in regular use. Violin_sentence_4

The violin typically has four strings, usually tuned in perfect fifths with notes G3, D4, A4, E5, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings. Violin_sentence_5

It can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato) and, in specialized cases, by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow (col legno). Violin_sentence_6

Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres. Violin_sentence_7

They are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles (from chamber music to orchestras) and as solo instruments. Violin_sentence_8

Violins are also important in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz. Violin_sentence_9

Electric violins with solid bodies and piezoelectric pickups are used in some forms of rock music and jazz fusion, with the pickups plugged into instrument amplifiers and speakers to produce sound. Violin_sentence_10

The violin has come to be incorporated in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music. Violin_sentence_11

The name fiddle is often used regardless of the type of music played on it. Violin_sentence_12

The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries to give the instrument a more powerful sound and projection. Violin_sentence_13

In Europe, it served as the basis for the development of other stringed instruments used in Western classical music, such as the viola. Violin_sentence_14

Violinists and collectors particularly prize the fine historical instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri, Guadagnini and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona (Italy) and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. Violin_sentence_15

According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this belief is disputed. Violin_sentence_16

Great numbers of instruments have come from the hands of less famous makers, as well as still greater numbers of mass-produced commercial "trade violins" coming from cottage industries in places such as Saxony, Bohemia, and Mirecourt. Violin_sentence_17

Many of these trade instruments were formerly sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass merchandisers. Violin_sentence_18

The components of a violin are usually made from different types of wood. Violin_sentence_19

Violins can be strung with gut, Perlon or other synthetic, or steel strings. Violin_sentence_20

A person who makes or repairs violins is called a luthier or violinmaker. Violin_sentence_21

One who makes or repairs bows is called an archetier or bowmaker. Violin_sentence_22

Etymology Violin_section_0

The word "violin" was first used in English in the 1570s. Violin_sentence_23

The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, [a] diminutive of viola". Violin_sentence_24

The term "viola" comes from the expression for "tenor violin" in 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, [which came from] Medieval Latin vitula" as a term which means "stringed instrument," perhaps [coming] from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy..., or from related Latin verb vitulari, "to exult, be joyful." Violin_sentence_25

The related term "Viola da gamba" means "bass viol" (1724) is from Italian, literally "a viola for the leg" (i.e. to hold between the legs)." Violin_sentence_26

A violin is the "modern form of the smaller, medieval viola da braccio." Violin_sentence_27

("arm viola") Violin_sentence_28

The violin is often called a fiddle, either when used in a folk music context, or even in Classical music scenes, as an informal nickname for the instrument. Violin_sentence_29

The word "fiddle" was first used in English in the late 14th century. Violin_sentence_30

The word "fiddle" comes from "fedele, fydyll, fidel, earlier fithele, from Old English fiðele "fiddle," which is related to Old Norse fiðla, Middle Dutch vedele, Dutch vedel, Old High German fidula, German Fiedel, "a fiddle;" all of uncertain origin." Violin_sentence_31

As to the origin of the word "fiddle", the "...usual suggestion, based on resemblance in sound and sense, is that it is from Medieval Latin vitula." Violin_sentence_32

History Violin_section_1

Main article: History of the violin Violin_sentence_33

The earliest stringed instruments were mostly plucked (for example, the Greek lyre). Violin_sentence_34

Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms closely resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz. Violin_sentence_35

Similar and variant types were probably disseminated along east–west trading routes from Asia into the Middle East, and the Byzantine Empire. Violin_sentence_36

The direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab (ربابة), which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and later the European rebec. Violin_sentence_37

The first makers of violins probably borrowed from various developments of the Byzantine lyra. Violin_sentence_38

These included the vielle (also known as the fidel or viuola) and the lira da braccio. Violin_sentence_39

The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th-century northern Italy. Violin_sentence_40

The earliest pictures of violins, albeit with three strings, are seen in northern Italy around 1530, at around the same time as the words "violino" and "vyollon" are seen in Italian and French documents. Violin_sentence_41

One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, is from the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556. Violin_sentence_42

By this time, the violin had already begun to spread throughout Europe. Violin_sentence_43

The violin proved very popular, both among street musicians and the nobility; the French king Charles IX ordered Andrea Amati to construct 24 violins for him in 1560. Violin_sentence_44

One of these "noble" instruments, the Charles IX, is the oldest surviving violin. Violin_sentence_45

The finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò (c.1574) owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and later, from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for its very powerful and beautiful tone, similar to that of a Guarneri. Violin_sentence_46

"The Messiah" or "Le Messie" (also known as the "Salabue") made by Antonio Stradivari in 1716 remains pristine. Violin_sentence_47

It is now located in the Ashmolean Museum of Oxford. Violin_sentence_48

The most famous violin makers (luthiers) between the 16th century and the 18th century include: Violin_sentence_49


  • The school of Brescia, beginning in the late 14th century with liras, violettas, violas and active in the field of the violin in the first half of the 16th centuryViolin_item_0_0
    • The Dalla Corna family, active 1510–1560 in Brescia and VeniceViolin_item_0_1
    • The Micheli family, active 1530–1615 in BresciaViolin_item_0_2
    • The Inverardi family active 1550–1580 in BresciaViolin_item_0_3
    • The Gasparo da Salò family, active 1530–1615 in Brescia and SalòViolin_item_0_4
    • Giovanni Paolo Maggini, student of Gasparo da Salò, active 1600–1630 in BresciaViolin_item_0_5
    • The Rogeri family, active 1661–1721 in BresciaViolin_item_0_6
  • The school of Cremona, beginning in the second half of the 16th century with violas and violone and in the field of violin in the second half of the 16th centuryViolin_item_0_7
    • The Amati family, active 1550–1740 in CremonaViolin_item_0_8
    • The Guarneri family, active 1626–1744 in Cremona and VeniceViolin_item_0_9
    • The Stradivari family, active 1644–1737 in CremonaViolin_item_0_10
    • The Rugeri family, active 1650–1740 in CremonaViolin_item_0_11
    • Carlo Bergonzi (luthier) (1683-1747) in CremonaViolin_item_0_12
  • The school of Venice, with the presence of several makers of bowed instruments from the early 16th century out of more than 140 makers of string instruments registered between 1490–1630.Violin_item_0_13

Significant changes occurred in the construction of the violin in the 18th century, particularly in the length and angle of the neck, as well as a heavier bass bar. Violin_sentence_50

The majority of old instruments have undergone these modifications, and hence are in a significantly different state than when they left the hands of their makers, doubtless with differences in sound and response. Violin_sentence_51

But these instruments in their present condition set the standard for perfection in violin craftsmanship and sound, and violin makers all over the world try to come as close to this ideal as possible. Violin_sentence_52

To this day, instruments from the so-called Golden Age of violin making, especially those made by Stradivari, Guarneri del Gesù and Montagnana are the most sought-after instruments by both collectors and performers. Violin_sentence_53

The current record amount paid for a Stradivari violin is £9.8 million (US$15.9 million at that time), when the instrument known as the Lady Blunt was sold by Tarisio Auctions in an online auction on June 20, 2011. Violin_sentence_54

Construction and mechanics Violin_section_2

Main article: Violin construction and mechanics Violin_sentence_55

A violin generally consists of a spruce top (the soundboard, also known as the top plate, table, or belly), maple ribs and back, two endblocks, a neck, a bridge, a soundpost, four strings, and various fittings, optionally including a chinrest, which may attach directly over, or to the left of, the tailpiece. Violin_sentence_56

A distinctive feature of a violin body is its hourglass-like shape and the arching of its top and back. Violin_sentence_57

The hourglass shape comprises two upper bouts, two lower bouts, and two concave C-bouts at the waist, providing clearance for the bow. Violin_sentence_58

The "voice" or sound of a violin depends on its shape, the wood it is made from, the graduation (the thickness profile) of both the top and back, the varnish that coats its outside surface and the skill of the luthier in doing all of these steps. Violin_sentence_59

The varnish and especially the wood continue to improve with age, making the fixed supply of old well-made violins built by famous luthiers much sought-after. Violin_sentence_60

The majority of glued joints in the instrument use animal hide glue rather than common white glue for a number of reasons. Violin_sentence_61

Hide glue is capable of making a thinner joint than most other glues, it is reversible (brittle enough to crack with carefully applied force, and removable with very warm water) when disassembly is needed, and since fresh hide glue sticks to old hide glue, more original wood can be preserved when repairing a joint. Violin_sentence_62

(More modern glues must be cleaned off entirely for the new joint to be sound, which generally involves scraping off some wood along with the old glue.) Violin_sentence_63

Weaker, diluted glue is usually used to fasten the top to the ribs, and the nut to the fingerboard, since common repairs involve removing these parts. Violin_sentence_64

The purfling running around the edge of the spruce top provides some protection against cracks originating at the edge. Violin_sentence_65

It also allows the top to flex more independently of the rib structure. Violin_sentence_66

Painted-on purfling on the top is usually a sign of an inferior instrument. Violin_sentence_67

The back and ribs are typically made of maple, most often with a matching striped figure, referred to as flame, fiddleback, or tiger stripe. Violin_sentence_68

The neck is usually maple with a flamed figure compatible with that of the ribs and back. Violin_sentence_69

It carries the fingerboard, typically made of ebony, but often some other wood stained or painted black on cheaper instruments. Violin_sentence_70

Ebony is the preferred material because of its hardness, beauty, and superior resistance to wear. Violin_sentence_71

Fingerboards are dressed to a particular transverse curve, and have a small lengthwise "scoop," or concavity, slightly more pronounced on the lower strings, especially when meant for gut or synthetic strings. Violin_sentence_72

Some old violins (and some made to appear old) have a grafted scroll, evidenced by a glue joint between the pegbox and neck. Violin_sentence_73

Many authentic old instruments have had their necks reset to a slightly increased angle, and lengthened by about a centimeter. Violin_sentence_74

The neck graft allows the original scroll to be kept with a Baroque violin when bringing its neck into conformance with modern standards. Violin_sentence_75

The bridge is a precisely cut piece of maple that forms the lower anchor point of the vibrating length of the strings and transmits the vibration of the strings to the body of the instrument. Violin_sentence_76

Its top curve holds the strings at the proper height from the fingerboard in an arc, allowing each to be sounded separately by the bow. Violin_sentence_77

The sound post, or soul post, fits precisely inside the instrument between the back and top, at a carefully chosen spot near the treble foot of the bridge, which it helps support. Violin_sentence_78

It also influences the modes of vibration of the top and the back of the instrument. Violin_sentence_79

The tailpiece anchors the strings to the lower bout of the violin by means of the tailgut, which loops around an ebony button called the tailpin (sometimes confusingly called the endpin, like the cello's spike), which fits into a tapered hole in the bottom block. Violin_sentence_80

Very often the E string will have a fine tuning lever worked by a small screw turned by the fingers. Violin_sentence_81

Fine tuners may also be applied to the other strings, especially on a student instrument, and are sometimes built into the tailpiece. Violin_sentence_82

The fine tuners enable the performer to make small changes in the pitch of a string. Violin_sentence_83

At the scroll end, the strings wind around the wooden tuning pegs in the pegbox. Violin_sentence_84

The tuning pegs are tapered and fit into holes in the peg box. Violin_sentence_85

The tuning pegs are held in place by the friction of wood on wood. Violin_sentence_86

Strings may be made of metal or less commonly gut or gut wrapped in metal. Violin_sentence_87

Strings usually have a colored silk wrapping at both ends, for identification of the string (e.g., G string, D string, A string or E string) and to provide friction against the pegs. Violin_sentence_88

The tapered pegs allow friction to be increased or decreased by the player applying appropriate pressure along the axis of the peg while turning it. Violin_sentence_89

Strings Violin_section_3

Main article: Strings section of violin construction Violin_sentence_90

Strings were first made of sheep gut (commonly known as catgut, which despite the name, did not come from cats), or simply gut, which was stretched, dried, and twisted. Violin_sentence_91

In the early years of the 20th century, strings were made of either gut or steel. Violin_sentence_92

Modern strings may be gut, solid steel, stranded steel, or various synthetic materials such as perlon, wound with various metals, and sometimes plated with silver. Violin_sentence_93

Most E strings are unwound, either plain or plated steel. Violin_sentence_94

Gut strings are not as common as they once were, but many performers use them to achieve a specific sound especially in historically informed performance of Baroque music. Violin_sentence_95

Strings have a limited lifetime. Violin_sentence_96

Eventually, when oil, dirt, corrosion, and rosin accumulate, the mass of the string can become uneven along its length. Violin_sentence_97

Apart from obvious things, such as the winding of a string coming undone from wear, players generally change a string when it no longer plays "true" (with good intonation on the harmonics), losing the desired tone, brilliance and intonation. Violin_sentence_98

String longevity depends on string quality and playing intensity. Violin_sentence_99

Pitch range Violin_section_4

A violin is tuned in fifths, in the notes G3, D4, A4, E5. Violin_sentence_100

The lowest note of a violin, tuned normally, is G3, or G below middle C (C4). Violin_sentence_101

(On rare occasions, the lowest string may be tuned down by as much as a fourth, to D3.) Violin_sentence_102

The highest note is less well defined: E7, the E two octaves above the open string (which is tuned to E5) may be considered a practical limit for orchestral violin parts, but it is often possible to play higher, depending on the length of the fingerboard and the skill of the violinist. Violin_sentence_103

Yet higher notes (up to C8) can be sounded by stopping the string, reaching the limit of the fingerboard, and/or by using artificial harmonics. Violin_sentence_104

Acoustics Violin_section_5

Main article: Sound production (string instruments) Violin_sentence_105

The arched shape, the thickness of the wood, and its physical qualities govern the sound of a violin. Violin_sentence_106

Patterns of the node made by sand or glitter sprinkled on the plates with the plate vibrated at certain frequencies, called Chladni patterns, are occasionally used by luthiers to verify their work before assembling the instrument. Violin_sentence_107

Sizes Violin_section_6

Apart from the standard, full (​⁄4) size, violins are also made in so-called fractional sizes of ​⁄8, ​⁄4, ​⁄2, ​⁄4, ​⁄8, ​⁄10, ​⁄16, ​⁄32 and even ​⁄64. Violin_sentence_108

These smaller instruments are commonly used by young players, whose fingers are not long enough to reach the correct positions on full-sized instruments. Violin_sentence_109

While related in some sense to the dimensions of the instruments, the fractional sizes are not intended to be literal descriptions of relative proportions. Violin_sentence_110

For example, a ​⁄4-sized instrument is not three-quarters the length of a full size instrument. Violin_sentence_111

The body length (not including the neck) of a full-size, or ​⁄4, violin is 356 mm (14.0 in), smaller in some 17th-century models. Violin_sentence_112

A ​⁄4 violin's body length is 335 mm (13.2 in), and a ​⁄2 size is 310 mm (12.2 in). Violin_sentence_113

With the violin's closest family member, the viola, size is specified as body length in inches or centimeters rather than fractional sizes. Violin_sentence_114

A full-size viola averages 40 cm (16 in). Violin_sentence_115

However, each individual adult will determine which size of viola to use. Violin_sentence_116

Occasionally, an adult with a small frame may use a so-called ​⁄8 size violin instead of a full-size instrument. Violin_sentence_117

Sometimes called a lady's violin, these instruments are slightly shorter than a full size violin, but tend to be high-quality instruments capable of producing a sound that is comparable to that of fine full size violins. Violin_sentence_118

5 string violin sizes may differ from the normal 4 string. Violin_sentence_119

Mezzo violin Violin_section_7

The instrument which corresponds to the violin in the violin octet is the mezzo violin, tuned the same as a violin but with a slightly longer body. Violin_sentence_120

The strings of the mezzo violin are the same length as those of the standard violin. Violin_sentence_121

This instrument is not in common use. Violin_sentence_122

Tuning Violin_section_8

Violins are tuned by turning the pegs in the pegbox under the scroll, or by adjusting the fine tuner screws at the tailpiece. Violin_sentence_123

All violins have pegs; fine tuners (also called fine adjusters) are optional. Violin_sentence_124

Most fine tuners consist of a metal screw that moves a lever attached to the string end. Violin_sentence_125

They permit very small pitch adjustments much more easily than the pegs. Violin_sentence_126

By turning one clockwise, the pitch becomes sharper (as the string is under more tension) and turning one counterclockwise, the pitch becomes flatter (as the string is under less tension). Violin_sentence_127

Fine tuners on all four of the strings are very helpful when using those that have a steel core, and some players use them with synthetic strings as well. Violin_sentence_128

Since modern E strings are steel, a fine tuner is nearly always fitted for that string. Violin_sentence_129

Fine tuners are not used with gut strings, which are more elastic than steel or synthetic-core strings and do not respond adequately to the very small movements of fine tuners. Violin_sentence_130

To tune a violin, the A string is first tuned to a standard pitch (usually A=440 Hz). Violin_sentence_131

(When accompanying or playing with a fixed-pitch instrument such as a piano or accordion, the violin tunes to it. Violin_sentence_132

The oboe is generally the instrument used to tune orchestras where violins are present, since its sound is penetrating and can be heard over the other woodwinds) The other strings are then tuned against each other in intervals of perfect fifths by bowing them in pairs. Violin_sentence_133

A minutely higher tuning is sometimes employed for solo playing to give the instrument a brighter sound; conversely, Baroque music is sometimes played using lower tunings to make the violin's sound more gentle. Violin_sentence_134

After tuning, the instrument's bridge may be examined to ensure that it is standing straight and centered between the inner nicks of the f-holes; a crooked bridge may significantly affect the sound of an otherwise well-made violin. Violin_sentence_135

After extensive playing, the holes into which the tuning pegs are inserted can become worn, which can lead the peg to slip under tension. Violin_sentence_136

This can lead to the pitch of the string dropping, or if the peg becomes completely loose, to the string completely losing tension. Violin_sentence_137

A violin in which the tuning pegs are slipping needs to be repaired by a luthier or violin repairperson. Violin_sentence_138

Peg dope or peg compound, used regularly, can delay the onset of such wear, while allowing the pegs to turn smoothly. Violin_sentence_139

The tuning G–D–A–E is used for most violin music, both in Classical music, jazz and folk music. Violin_sentence_140

Other tunings are occasionally employed; the G string, for example, can be tuned up to A. Violin_sentence_141

The use of nonstandard tunings in classical music is known as scordatura; in some folk styles, it is called cross tuning. Violin_sentence_142

One famous example of scordatura in classical music is Camille Saint-Saëns' Danse Macabre, where the solo violin's E string is tuned down to E♭ to impart an eerie dissonance to the composition. Violin_sentence_143

Other examples are the third movement of Contrasts, by Béla Bartók, where the E string is tuned down to E♭ and the G tuned to a G♯, and the Mystery Sonatas by Biber, in which each movement has different scordatura tuning. Violin_sentence_144

In Indian classical music and Indian light music, the violin is likely to be tuned to D♯–A♯–D♯–A♯ in the South Indian style. Violin_sentence_145

As there is no concept of absolute pitch in Indian classical music, any convenient tuning maintaining these relative pitch intervals between the strings can be used. Violin_sentence_146

Another prevalent tuning with these intervals is B♭–F–B♭–F, which corresponds to Sa–Pa–Sa–Pa in the Indian carnatic classical music style. Violin_sentence_147

In the North Indian Hindustani style, the tuning is usually Pa-Sa-Pa-Sa instead of Sa–Pa–Sa–Pa. Violin_sentence_148

This could correspond to F–B♭–F–B♭, for instance. Violin_sentence_149

In Iranian classical music and Iranian light music, the violin ls different tunings in any Dastgah, the violin is likely to be tuned (E–A–E–A) in Dastgah-h Esfahan or in Dastgāh-e Šur is (E–A–D–E) and (E–A–E–E), in Dastgāh-e Māhur is (E–A–D–A). Violin_sentence_150

In Arabic classical music, the A and E strings are lowered by a whole step i.e. G–D–G–D. Violin_sentence_151

This is to ease playing Arabic maqams, especially those containing quarter tones. Violin_sentence_152

While most violins have four strings, there are violins with additional strings. Violin_sentence_153

Some have as many as seven strings. Violin_sentence_154

Seven strings is generally thought to be the maximum number of strings that can be put on a bowed string instrument, because with more than seven strings, it would be impossible to play a particular inner string individually with the bow. Violin_sentence_155

Instruments with seven strings are very rare. Violin_sentence_156

The extra strings on such violins typically are lower in pitch than the G-string; these strings are usually tuned to C, F, and B♭. Violin_sentence_157

If the instrument's playing length, or string length from nut to bridge, is equal to that of an ordinary full-scale violin; i.e., a bit less than 13 inches (33 cm), then it may be properly termed a violin. Violin_sentence_158

Some such instruments are somewhat longer and should be regarded as violas. Violin_sentence_159

Violins with five strings or more are typically used in jazz or folk music. Violin_sentence_160

Some custom-made instruments have extra strings which are not bowed, but which sound sympathetically, due to the vibrations of the bowed strings. Violin_sentence_161

Bows Violin_section_9

Main articles: Bow (music) and Violin construction (bow) Violin_sentence_162

A violin is usually played using a bow consisting of a stick with a ribbon of horsehair strung between the tip and frog (or nut, or heel) at opposite ends. Violin_sentence_163

A typical violin bow may be 75 cm (30 in) overall, and weigh about 60 g (2.1 oz). Violin_sentence_164

Viola bows may be about 5 mm (0.20 in) shorter and 10 g (0.35 oz) heavier. Violin_sentence_165

At the frog end, a screw adjuster tightens or loosens the hair. Violin_sentence_166

Just forward of the frog, a leather thumb cushion, called the grip, and winding protect the stick and provide a strong grip for the player's hand. Violin_sentence_167

Traditional windings are of wire (often silver or plated silver), silk, or baleen ("whalebone", now substituted by alternating strips of tan and black plastic.) Violin_sentence_168

Some fiberglass student bows employ a plastic sleeve as grip and winding. Violin_sentence_169

Bow hair traditionally comes from the tail of a grey male horse (which has predominantly white hair). Violin_sentence_170

Some cheaper bows use synthetic fiber. Violin_sentence_171

Solid rosin is rubbed onto the hair, to render it slightly sticky; when the bow is drawn across a string, the friction between them makes the string vibrate. Violin_sentence_172

Traditional materials for the more costly bow sticks include snakewood, and brazilwood (which is also known as Pernambuco wood). Violin_sentence_173

Some recent bow design innovations use carbon fiber (CodaBows) for the stick, at all levels of craftsmanship. Violin_sentence_174

Inexpensive bows for students are made of less costly timbers, or from fiberglass (Glasser). Violin_sentence_175

Playing Violin_section_10

Main article: Playing the violin Violin_sentence_176

Posture Violin_section_11

The violin is played either seated or standing up. Violin_sentence_177

Solo players (whether playing alone, with a piano or with an orchestra) play mostly standing up (unless prevented by a physical disability such as in the case of Itzhak Perlman), while in the orchestra and in chamber music it is usually played seated. Violin_sentence_178

In the 2000s and 2010s, some orchestras performing Baroque music (such as the Freiburg Baroque Orchestra) have had all of their violins and violas, solo and ensemble, perform standing up. Violin_sentence_179

The standard way of holding the violin is with the left side of the jaw resting on the chinrest of the violin, and supported by the left shoulder, often assisted by a shoulder rest (or a sponge and an elastic band for younger players who struggle with shoulder rests). Violin_sentence_180

The jaw and the shoulder must hold the violin firmly enough to allow it to remain stable when the left hand goes from a high position (a high pitched note far up on the fingerboard) to a low one (nearer to the pegbox). Violin_sentence_181

In the Indian posture, the stability of the violin is guaranteed by its scroll resting on the side of the foot. Violin_sentence_182

While teachers point out the vital importance of good posture both for the sake of the quality of the playing and to reduce the chance of repetitive strain injury, advice as to what good posture is and how to achieve it differs in details. Violin_sentence_183

However, all insist on the importance of a natural relaxed position without tension or rigidity. Violin_sentence_184

Things which are almost universally recommended is keeping the left wrist straight (or very nearly so) to allow the fingers of the left hand to move freely and to reduce the chance of injury and keeping either shoulder in a natural relaxed position and avoiding raising either of them in an exaggerated manner. Violin_sentence_185

This, like any other unwarranted tension, would limit freedom of motion, and increase the risk of injury. Violin_sentence_186

Hunching can hamper good playing because it throws the body off balance and makes the shoulders rise. Violin_sentence_187

Another sign that comes from unhealthy tension is pain in the left hand, which indicates too much pressure when holding the violin. Violin_sentence_188

Left hand and pitch production Violin_section_12

The left hand determines the sounding length of the string, and thus the pitch of the string, by "stopping" it (pressing it) against the fingerboard with the fingertips, producing different pitches. Violin_sentence_189

As the violin has no frets to stop the strings, as is usual with the guitar, the player must know exactly where to place the fingers on the strings to play with good intonation (tuning). Violin_sentence_190

Beginning violinists play open strings and the lowest position, nearest to the nut. Violin_sentence_191

Students often start with relatively easy keys, such as A Major and G major. Violin_sentence_192

Students are taught scales and simple melodies. Violin_sentence_193

Through practice of scales and arpeggios and ear training, the violinist's left hand eventually "finds" the notes intuitively by muscle memory. Violin_sentence_194

Beginners sometimes rely on tapes placed on the fingerboard for proper left hand finger placement, but usually abandon the tapes quickly as they advance. Violin_sentence_195

Another commonly used marking technique uses dots of white-out on the fingerboard, which wear off in a few weeks of regular practice. Violin_sentence_196

This practice, unfortunately, is used sometimes in lieu of adequate ear-training, guiding the placement of fingers by eye and not by ear. Violin_sentence_197

Especially in the early stages of learning to play, the so-called "ringing tones" are useful. Violin_sentence_198

There are nine such notes in first position, where a stopped note sounds a unison or octave with another (open) string, causing it to resonate sympathetically. Violin_sentence_199

Students often use these ringing tones to check the intonation of the stopped note by seeing if it is harmonious with the open string. Violin_sentence_200

For example, when playing the stopped pitch "A" on the G string, the violinist could play the open D string at the same time, to check the intonation of the stopped "A". Violin_sentence_201

If the "A" is in tune, the "A" and the open D string should produce a harmonious perfect fourth. Violin_sentence_202

Violins are tuned in perfect fifths, like all the orchestral strings (violin, viola, cello) except the double bass, which is tuned in perfect fourths. Violin_sentence_203

Each subsequent note is stopped at a pitch the player perceives as the most harmonious, "when unaccompanied, [a violinist] does not play consistently in either the tempered or the natural [just] scale, but tends on the whole to conform with the Pythagorean scale." Violin_sentence_204

When violinists are playing in a string quartet or a string orchestra, the strings typically "sweeten" their tuning to suit the key they are playing in. Violin_sentence_205

When playing with an instrument tuned to equal temperament, such as a piano, skilled violinists adjust their tuning to match the equal temperament of the piano to avoid discordant notes. Violin_sentence_206

The fingers are conventionally numbered 1 (index) through 4 (little finger) in music notation, such as sheet music and etude books. Violin_sentence_207

Especially in instructional editions of violin music, numbers over the notes may indicate which finger to use, with 0 or O indicating an open string. Violin_sentence_208

The chart to the right shows the arrangement of notes reachable in first position. Violin_sentence_209

Not shown on this chart is the way the spacing between note positions becomes closer as the fingers move up (in pitch) from the nut. Violin_sentence_210

The bars at the sides of the chart represent the usual possibilities for beginners' tape placements, at 1st, high 2nd, 3rd, and 4th fingers. Violin_sentence_211

Positions Violin_section_13

The placement of the left hand on the fingerboard is characterized by "positions". Violin_sentence_212

First position, where most beginners start (although some methods start in third position), is the most commonly used position in string music. Violin_sentence_213

Music composed for beginning youth orchestras is often mostly in first position. Violin_sentence_214

The lowest note available in this position in standard tuning is an open G; the highest note in first position is played with the fourth finger on the E-string, sounding a B. Violin_sentence_215

Moving the hand up the neck, so the first finger takes the place of the second finger, brings the player into second position. Violin_sentence_216

Letting the first finger take the first-position place of the third finger brings the player to third position, and so on. Violin_sentence_217

A change of positions, with its associated movement of the hand, is referred to as a shift, and effective shifting maintaining accurate intonation and a smooth legato (connected) sound is a key element of technique at all levels. Violin_sentence_218

Often a "guide finger" is used; the last finger to play a note in the old position continuously lightly touches the string during the course of the shift to end up on its correct place in the new position. Violin_sentence_219

In elementary shifting exercises the "guide finger" is often voiced while it glides up and down the string, so the player can establish by ear whether they are landing in the correct place, however outside of these exercises it should rarely be audible (unless the performer is consciously applying a portamento effect for expressive reasons). Violin_sentence_220

In the course of a shift in low positions, the thumb of the left hand moves up or down the neck of the instrument so as to remain in the same position relative to the fingers (though the movement of the thumb may occur slightly before, or slightly after, the movement of the fingers). Violin_sentence_221

In such positions, the thumb is often thought of as an 'anchor' whose location defines what position the player is in. Violin_sentence_222

In very high positions, the thumb is unable to move with the fingers as the body of the instrument gets in the way. Violin_sentence_223

Instead, the thumb works around the neck of the instrument to sit at the point at which the neck meets the right bout of the body, and remains there while the fingers move between the high positions. Violin_sentence_224

A note played outside of the normal compass of a position, without any shift, is referred to as an extension. Violin_sentence_225

For instance, in third position on the A string, the hand naturally sits with the first finger on D♮ and the fourth on either G♮ or G♯. Violin_sentence_226

Stretching the first finger back down to a C♯, or the fourth finger up to an A♮, forms an extension. Violin_sentence_227

Extensions are commonly used where one or two notes are slightly out of an otherwise solid position, and give the benefit of being less intrusive than a shift or string crossing. Violin_sentence_228

The lowest position on the violin is referred to as "half position". Violin_sentence_229

In this position the first finger is on a "low first position" note, e.g. B♭ on the A string, and the fourth finger is in a downward extension from its regular position, e.g. D♮ on the A string, with the other two fingers placed in between as required. Violin_sentence_230

As the position of the thumb is typically the same in "half position" as in first position, it is better thought of as a backwards extension of the whole hand than as a genuine position. Violin_sentence_231

The upper limit of the violin's range is largely determined by the skill of the player, who may easily play more than two octaves on a single string, and four octaves on the instrument as a whole. Violin_sentence_232

Position names are mostly used for the lower positions and in method books and etudes; for this reason, it is uncommon to hear references to anything higher than seventh position. Violin_sentence_233

The highest position, practically speaking, is 13th position. Violin_sentence_234

Very high positions are a particular technical challenge, for two reasons. Violin_sentence_235

Firstly, the difference in location of different notes becomes much narrower in high positions, making the notes more challenging to locate and in some cases to distinguish by ear. Violin_sentence_236

Secondly, the much shorter sounding length of the string in very high positions is a challenge for the right arm and bow in sounding the instrument effectively. Violin_sentence_237

The finer (and more expensive) an instrument, the better able it is to sustain good tone right to the top of the fingerboard, at the highest pitches on the E string. Violin_sentence_238

All notes (except those below the open D) can be played on more than one string. Violin_sentence_239

This is a standard design feature of stringed instruments; however, it differs from the piano, which has only one location for each of its 88 notes. Violin_sentence_240

For instance, the note of open A on the violin can be played as the open A, or on the D string (in first to fourth positions) or even on the G string (very high up in sixth to ninth positions). Violin_sentence_241

Each string has a different tone quality, because of the different weights (thicknesses) of the strings and because of the resonances of other open strings. Violin_sentence_242

For instance, the G string is often regarded as having a very full, sonorous sound which is particularly appropriate to late Romantic music. Violin_sentence_243

This is often indicated in the music by the marking, for example, sul G or IV (a Roman numeral indicating to play on the fourth string; by convention, the strings are numbered from thinnest, highest pitch (I) to the lowest pitch (IV). Violin_sentence_244

Even without an explicit instructions in the score, an advanced violinist will use her/his discretion and artistic sensibility to select which string to play specific notes or passages. Violin_sentence_245

Open strings Violin_section_14

If a string is bowed or plucked without any finger stopping it, it is said to be an open string. Violin_sentence_246

This gives a different sound from a stopped string, since the string vibrates more freely at the nut than under a finger. Violin_sentence_247

Further, it is impossible to use vibrato fully on an open string (though a partial effect can be achieved by stopping a note an octave up on an adjacent string and vibrating that, which introduces an element of vibrato into the overtones). Violin_sentence_248

In the classical tradition, violinists will often use a string crossing or shift of position to allow them to avoid the change of timbre introduced by an open string, unless indicated by the composer. Violin_sentence_249

This is particularly true for the open E which is often regarded as having a harsh sound. Violin_sentence_250

However, there are also situations where an open string may be specifically chosen for artistic effect. Violin_sentence_251

This is seen in classical music which is imitating the drone of an organ (J. S. Bach, in his Partita in E for solo violin, achieved this), fiddling (e.g., Hoedown) or where taking steps to avoid the open string is musically inappropriate (for instance in Baroque music where shifting position was less common). Violin_sentence_252

In quick passages of scales or arpeggios an open E string may simply be used for convenience if the note does not have time to ring and develop a harsh timbre. Violin_sentence_253

In folk music, fiddling and other traditional music genres, open strings are commonly used for their resonant timbre. Violin_sentence_254

Playing an open string simultaneously with a stopped note on an adjacent string produces a bagpipe-like drone, often used by composers in imitation of folk music. Violin_sentence_255

Sometimes the two notes are identical (for instance, playing a fingered A on the D string against the open A string), giving a ringing sort of "fiddling" sound. Violin_sentence_256

Playing an open string simultaneously with an identical stopped note can also be called for when more volume is required, especially in orchestral playing. Violin_sentence_257

Some classical violin parts have notes for which the composer requests the violinist to play an open string, because of the specific sonority created by an open string. Violin_sentence_258

Double stops, triple stops, chords and drones Violin_section_15

Double stopping is when two separate strings are stopped by the fingers, and bowed simultaneously, producing a sixth, third, fifth, etc. Double-stops can be indicated in any position, though the widest interval that can be double-stopped in one position is an octave (with the first finger on the lower string and the fourth finger on the higher string). Violin_sentence_259

Nonetheless, intervals of tenths or even more are sometimes required to be double-stopped in advanced playing, resulting in a stretched left-hand position with the fingers extended. Violin_sentence_260

The term "double stop" is often used to encompass sounding an open string alongside a fingered note as well, even though only one finger stops the string. Violin_sentence_261

Where three or four more simultaneous notes are written, the violinist will typically "split" the chord, choosing the lower one or two notes to play first before promptly continuing onto the upper one or two notes. Violin_sentence_262

A "triple stop" with three simultaneous notes is possible in some circumstances. Violin_sentence_263

The bow will not naturally strike three strings at once, but if there is sufficient bow speed and pressure when the violinist "breaks" a three note chord, the bow hair can be bent temporarily so all three can sound. Violin_sentence_264

This is accomplished with a heavy stroke, typically quite near the frog, and quite loud. Violin_sentence_265

Double stops in orchestra are occasionally marked divisi and divided between the players, with half of the musicians playing the lower note and the other half playing the higher note.. Violin_sentence_266

Playing double stops is common when the violins play accompaniment and another instrument or section plays melodically. Violin_sentence_267

In some genres of historically informed performance (usually of Baroque music and earlier), neither split-chord nor triple-stop chords are thought to be appropriate and violinists will arpeggiate all chords (and even what appear to be regular double stops), playing all or most notes individually as if they had been written as a slurred figure. Violin_sentence_268

In some musical styles, a sustained open string drone can be played during a passage mainly written on an adjacent string, to provide a basic accompaniment. Violin_sentence_269

This is more often seen in folk traditions than in classical music. Violin_sentence_270

However, with the development of modern violins, triple-stopping came more naturally due to the bridge being less curved. Violin_sentence_271

Vibrato Violin_section_16

Vibrato is a technique of the left hand and arm in which the pitch of a note varies subtly in a pulsating rhythm. Violin_sentence_272

While various parts of the hand or arm may be involved in the motion, the end result is a movement of the fingertip bringing about a slight change in vibrating string length, which causes an undulation in pitch. Violin_sentence_273

Some violinists oscillate backwards, or lower in pitch from the actual note when using vibrato, since it is believed that perception favors the highest pitch in a varying sound. Violin_sentence_274

Vibrato does little, if anything, to disguise an out-of-tune note; in other words, misapplied vibrato is a poor substitute for good intonation. Violin_sentence_275

Scales and other exercises meant to work on intonation are typically played without vibrato to make the work easier and more effective. Violin_sentence_276

Music students are often taught that unless otherwise marked in music, vibrato is assumed. Violin_sentence_277

However, it has to be noted that this is only a trend; there is nothing on the sheet music that compels violinists to add vibrato. Violin_sentence_278

This can be an obstacle to a classically trained violinist wishing to play in a style that uses little or no vibrato at all, such as baroque music played in period style and many traditional fiddling styles. Violin_sentence_279

Vibrato can be produced by a proper combination of finger, wrist and arm motions. Violin_sentence_280

One method, called hand vibrato, involves rocking the hand back at the wrist to achieve oscillation, while another method, arm vibrato, modulates the pitch by rocking at the elbow. Violin_sentence_281

A combination of these techniques allows a player to produce a large variety of tonal effects. Violin_sentence_282

The "when" and "what for" and "how much" of violin vibrato are artistic matters of style and taste. Violin_sentence_283

Different teachers, music schools and styles of music favour different vibrato styles. Violin_sentence_284

For example, overdone vibrato may become distracting. Violin_sentence_285

In acoustic terms, the interest that vibrato adds to the sound has to do with the way that the overtone mix (or tone color, or timbre) and the directional pattern of sound projection change with changes in pitch. Violin_sentence_286

By "pointing" the sound at different parts of the room in a rhythmic way, vibrato adds a "shimmer" or "liveliness" to the sound of a well-made violin. Violin_sentence_287

Vibrato is, in a large part, left to the discretion of the violinist. Violin_sentence_288

Different types of vibrato will bring different moods to the piece, and the varying degrees and styles of vibrato are often characteristics that stand out in well-known violinists. Violin_sentence_289

Vibrato trill Violin_section_17

A vibrato-like motion can sometimes be used to create a fast trill effect. Violin_sentence_290

To execute this effect, the finger above the finger stopping the note is placed very slightly off the string (firmly pressed against the finger stopping the string) and a vibrato motion is implemented. Violin_sentence_291

The second finger will lightly touch the string above the lower finger with each oscillation, causing the pitch to oscillate in a fashion that sounds like a mix between vide vibrato and a very fast trill. Violin_sentence_292

This gives a less defined transition between the higher and lower note, and is usually implemented by interpretative choice. Violin_sentence_293

This trill technique only works well for semi-tonal trills or trills in high positions (where the distance between notes is lessened), as it requires the trilling finger and the finger below it to be touching, limiting the distance that can be trilled. Violin_sentence_294

In very high positions, where the trilled distance is less than the width of the finger, a vibrato trill may be the only option for trill effects. Violin_sentence_295

Harmonics Violin_section_18

Lightly touching the string with a fingertip at a harmonic node, but without fully pressing the string, and then plucking or bowing the string, creates harmonics. Violin_sentence_296

Instead of the normal tone, a higher pitched note sounds. Violin_sentence_297

Each node is at an integer division of the string, for example half-way or one-third along the length of the string. Violin_sentence_298

A responsive instrument will sound numerous possible harmonic nodes along the length of the string. Violin_sentence_299

Harmonics are marked in music either with a little circle above the note that determines the pitch of the harmonic, or by diamond-shaped note heads. Violin_sentence_300

There are two types of harmonics: natural harmonics and artificial harmonics (also known as false harmonics). Violin_sentence_301

Natural harmonics are played on an open string. Violin_sentence_302

The pitch of the open string when it is plucked or bowed is called the fundamental frequency. Violin_sentence_303

Harmonics are also called overtones or partials. Violin_sentence_304

They occur at whole-number multiples of the fundamental, which is called the first harmonic. Violin_sentence_305

The second harmonic is the first overtone (the octave above the open string), the third harmonic is the second overtone, and so on. Violin_sentence_306

The second harmonic is in the middle of the string and sounds an octave higher than the string's pitch. Violin_sentence_307

The third harmonic breaks the string into thirds and sounds an octave and a fifth above the fundamental, and the fourth harmonic breaks the string into quarters sounding two octaves above the first. Violin_sentence_308

The sound of the second harmonic is the clearest of them all, because it is a common node with all the succeeding even-numbered harmonics (4th, 6th, etc.). Violin_sentence_309

The third and succeeding odd-numbered harmonics are harder to play because they break the string into an odd number of vibrating parts and do not share as many nodes with other harmonics. Violin_sentence_310

Artificial harmonics are more difficult to produce than natural harmonics, as they involve both stopping the string and playing a harmonic on the stopped note. Violin_sentence_311

Using the octave frame (the normal distance between the first and fourth fingers in any given position) with the fourth finger just touching the string a fourth higher than the stopped note produces the fourth harmonic, two octaves above the stopped note. Violin_sentence_312

Finger placement and pressure, as well as bow speed, pressure, and sounding point are all essential in getting the desired harmonic to sound. Violin_sentence_313

And to add to the challenge, in passages with different notes played as false harmonics, the distance between stopping finger and harmonic finger must constantly change, since the spacing between notes changes along the length of the string. Violin_sentence_314

The harmonic finger can also touch at a major third above the pressed note (the fifth harmonic), or a fifth higher (a third harmonic). Violin_sentence_315

These harmonics are less commonly used; in the case of the major third, both the stopped note and touched note must be played slightly sharp otherwise the harmonic does not speak as readily. Violin_sentence_316

In the case of the fifth, the stretch is greater than is comfortable for many violinists. Violin_sentence_317

In the general repertoire fractions smaller than a sixth are not used. Violin_sentence_318

However, divisions up to an eighth are sometimes used and, given a good instrument and a skilled player, divisions as small as a twelfth are possible. Violin_sentence_319

There are a few books dedicated solely to the study of violin harmonics. Violin_sentence_320

Two comprehensive works are Henryk Heller's seven-volume Theory of Harmonics, published by Simrock in 1928, and Michelangelo Abbado's five-volume Tecnica dei suoni armonici published by Ricordi in 1934. Violin_sentence_321

Elaborate passages in artificial harmonics can be found in virtuoso violin literature, especially of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Violin_sentence_322

Two notable examples of this are an entire section of Vittorio Monti's Csárdás and a passage towards the middle of the third movement of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto. Violin_sentence_323

A section of the third movement of Paganini's Violin Concerto No. Violin_sentence_324 1 consists of double-stopped thirds in harmonics. Violin_sentence_325

When strings are worn, dirty and old, the harmonics may no longer be accurate in pitch. Violin_sentence_326

For this reason, violinists change their strings regularly. Violin_sentence_327

Right hand and tone color Violin_section_19

The strings may be sounded by drawing the hair of the bow held by the right hand across them (arco) or by plucking them (pizzicato) most often with the right hand. Violin_sentence_328

In some cases, the violinist will pluck strings with the left hand. Violin_sentence_329

This is done to facilitate transitions from pizzicato to arco playing. Violin_sentence_330

It is also used in some virtuoso showpieces. Violin_sentence_331

Left hand pizzicato is usually done on open strings. Violin_sentence_332

Pizzicato is used on all of the violin family instruments; however, the systematic study of advanced pizzicato techniques is most developed in jazz bass, a style in which the instrument is almost exclusively plucked. Violin_sentence_333

The right arm, hand, and bow and the bow speed are responsible for tone quality, rhythm, dynamics, articulation, and most (but not all) changes in timbre. Violin_sentence_334

The player draws the bow over the string, causing the string to vibrate and produce a sustained tone. Violin_sentence_335

The bow is a wooden stick with tensioned horsetail hair, which has been rosined with a bar of rosin. Violin_sentence_336

The natural texture of the horsehair and the stickiness of the rosin help the bow to "grip" the string, and thus when the bow is drawn over the string, the bow causes the string to sound a pitch. Violin_sentence_337

Bowing can be used to produce long sustained notes or melodies. Violin_sentence_338

With a string section, if the players in a section change their bows at different times, a note can seem to be endlessly sustainable. Violin_sentence_339

As well, the bow can be used to play short, crisp little notes, such as repeated notes, scales and arpeggios, which provide a propulsive rhythm in many styles of music. Violin_sentence_340

Bowing techniques Violin_section_20

The most essential part of bowing technique is the bow grip. Violin_sentence_341

It is usually with the thumb bent in the small area between the frog and the winding of the bow. Violin_sentence_342

The other fingers are spread somewhat evenly across the top part of the bow. Violin_sentence_343

The pinky finger is curled with the tip of the finger placed on the wood next to the screw. Violin_sentence_344

The violin produces louder notes with greater bow speed or more weight on the string. Violin_sentence_345

The two methods are not equivalent, because they produce different timbres; pressing down on the string tends to produce a harsher, more intense sound. Violin_sentence_346

One can also achieve a louder sound by placing the bow closer to the bridge. Violin_sentence_347

The sounding point where the bow intersects the string also influences timbre (or "tone colour"). Violin_sentence_348

Playing close to the bridge (sul ponticello) gives a more intense sound than usual, emphasizing the higher harmonics; and playing with the bow over the end of the fingerboard (sul tasto) makes for a delicate, ethereal sound, emphasizing the fundamental frequency. Violin_sentence_349

Dr. Suzuki referred to the sounding point as the Kreisler highway; one may think of different sounding points as lanes in the highway. Violin_sentence_350

Various methods of attack with the bow produce different articulations. Violin_sentence_351

There are many bowing techniques that allow for every range of playing style and many teachers, players, and orchestras spend a lot of time developing techniques and creating a unified technique within the group. Violin_sentence_352

These techniques include legato-style bowing (a smooth, connected, sustained sound suitable for melodies), collé, and a variety of bowings which produce shorter notes, including ricochet, sautillé, martelé, spiccato, and staccato. Violin_sentence_353

Pizzicato Violin_section_21

A note marked pizz. Violin_sentence_354

(abbreviation for pizzicato) in the written music is to be played by plucking the string with a finger of the right hand rather than by bowing. Violin_sentence_355

(The index finger is most commonly used here.) Violin_sentence_356

Sometimes in orchestra parts or virtuoso solo music where the bow hand is occupied (or for show-off effect), left-hand pizzicato will be indicated by a + (plus sign) below or above the note. Violin_sentence_357

In left-hand pizzicato, two fingers are put on the string; one (usually the index or middle finger) is put on the correct note, and the other (usually the ring finger or little finger) is put above the note. Violin_sentence_358

The higher finger then plucks the string while the lower one stays on, thus producing the correct pitch. Violin_sentence_359

By increasing the force of the pluck, one can increase the volume of the note that the string is producing. Violin_sentence_360

Pizzicato is used in orchestral works and in solo showpieces. Violin_sentence_361

In orchestral parts, violinists often have to make very quick shifts from arco to pizzicato, and vice versa. Violin_sentence_362

Col legno Violin_section_22

A marking of col legno (Italian for "with the wood") in the written music calls for striking the string(s) with the stick of the bow, rather than by drawing the hair of the bow across the strings. Violin_sentence_363

This bowing technique is somewhat rarely used, and results in a muted percussive sound. Violin_sentence_364

The eerie quality of a violin section playing col legno is exploited in some symphonic pieces, notably the "Witches' Dance" of the last movement of Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique. Violin_sentence_365

Saint-Saëns's symphonic poem Danse Macabre includes the string section using the col legno technique to imitate the sound of dancing skeletons. Violin_sentence_366

"Mars" from Gustav Holst's "The Planets" uses col legno to play a repeated rhythm in 4 time signature. Violin_sentence_367

Benjamin Britten's The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra demands its use in the "Percussion" Variation. Violin_sentence_368

Dmitri Shostakovich uses it in his Fourteenth Symphony in the movement 'At the Sante Jail'. Violin_sentence_369

Some violinists, however, object to this style of playing as it can damage the finish and impair the value of a fine bow, but most of such will compromise by using a cheap bow for at least the duration of the passage in question. Violin_sentence_370

Detaché Violin_section_23

A smooth and even stroke during which bow speed and weight are the same from beginning of the stroke to the end. Violin_sentence_371

Martelé Violin_section_24

Literally hammered, a strongly accented effect produced by releasing each bowstroke forcefully and suddenly. Violin_sentence_372

Martelé can be played in any part of the bow. Violin_sentence_373

It is sometimes indicated in written music by an arrowhead. Violin_sentence_374

Tremolo Violin_section_25

Tremolo is the very rapid repetition (typically of a single note, but occasionally of multiple notes), usually played at the tip of the bow. Violin_sentence_375

Tremolo is marked with three short, slanted lines across the stem of the note. Violin_sentence_376

Tremolo is often used as a sound effect in orchestral music, particularly in the Romantic music era (1800-1910) and in opera music. Violin_sentence_377

Mute or sordino Violin_section_26

Attaching a small metal, rubber, leather, or wooden device called a mute, or sordino, to the bridge of the violin gives a softer, more mellow tone, with fewer audible overtones; the sound of an entire orchestral string section playing with mutes has a hushed quality. Violin_sentence_378

The mute changes both the loudness and the timbre ("tone colour") of a violin. Violin_sentence_379

The conventional Italian markings for mute usage are con sord., or con sordino, meaning 'with mute'; and senza sord., meaning 'without mute'; or via sord., meaning 'mute off'. Violin_sentence_380

Larger metal, rubber, or wooden mutes are widely available, known as practice mutes or hotel mutes. Violin_sentence_381

Such mutes are generally not used in performance, but are used to deaden the sound of the violin in practice areas such as hotel rooms. Violin_sentence_382

(For practicing purposes there is also the mute violin, a violin without a sound box.) Violin_sentence_383

Some composers have used practice mutes for special effect, for example, at the end of Luciano Berio's Sequenza VIII for solo violin. Violin_sentence_384

Musical styles Violin_section_27

Main article: Musical styles (violin) Violin_sentence_385

Classical music Violin_section_28

Since the Baroque era, the violin has been one of the most important of all instruments in classical music, for several reasons. Violin_sentence_386

The tone of the violin stands out above other instruments, making it appropriate for playing a melody line. Violin_sentence_387

In the hands of a good player, the violin is extremely agile, and can execute rapid and difficult sequences of notes. Violin_sentence_388

Violins make up a large part of an orchestra, and are usually divided into two sections, known as the first and second violins. Violin_sentence_389

Composers often assign the melody to the first violins, typically a more difficult part using higher positions, while second violins play harmony, accompaniment patterns or the melody an octave lower than the first violins. Violin_sentence_390

A string quartet similarly has parts for first and second violins, as well as a viola part, and a bass instrument, such as the cello or, rarely, the double bass. Violin_sentence_391

Jazz Violin_section_29

The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. Violin_sentence_392

Joe Venuti, one of the first jazz violinists, is known for his work with guitarist Eddie Lang during the 1920s. Violin_sentence_393

Since that time there have been many improvising violinists including Stéphane Grappelli, Stuff Smith, Eddie South, Regina Carter, Johnny Frigo, John Blake, Adam Taubitz, Leroy Jenkins, and Jean-Luc Ponty. Violin_sentence_394

While not primarily jazz violinists, Darol Anger and Mark O'Connor have spent significant parts of their careers playing jazz. Violin_sentence_395

The Swiss-Cuban violinist Yilian Cañizares mixes jazz with Cuban music. Violin_sentence_396

Violins also appear in ensembles supplying orchestral backgrounds to many jazz recordings. Violin_sentence_397

Indian classical music Violin_section_30

The Indian violin, while essentially the same instrument as that used in Western music, is different in some senses. Violin_sentence_398

The instrument is tuned so that the IV and III strings (G and D on a western-tuned violin) and the II and I (A and E) strings are sa–pa (do–sol) pairs and sound the same but are offset by an octave, resembling common scordatura or fiddle cross-tunings such as G3–D4–G4–D5 or A3–E4–A4–E5. Violin_sentence_399

The tonic sa (do) is not fixed, but variably tuned to accommodate the vocalist or lead player. Violin_sentence_400

The way the musician holds the instrument varies from Western to Indian music. Violin_sentence_401

In Indian music the musician sits on the floor cross-legged with the right foot out in front of them. Violin_sentence_402

The scroll of the instrument rests on the foot. Violin_sentence_403

This position is essential to playing well due to the nature of Indian music. Violin_sentence_404

The hand can move all over the fingerboard and there is no set position for the left hand, so it is important for the violin to be in a steady, unmoving position. Violin_sentence_405

Popular music Violin_section_31

Folk music and fiddling Violin_section_32

Main article: Fiddle Violin_sentence_406

Like many other instruments used in classical music, the violin descends from remote ancestors that were used for folk music. Violin_sentence_407

Following a stage of intensive development in the late Renaissance, largely in Italy, the violin had improved (in volume, tone, and agility), to the point that it not only became a very important instrument in art music, but proved highly appealing to folk musicians as well, ultimately spreading very widely, sometimes displacing earlier bowed instruments. Violin_sentence_408

Ethnomusicologists have observed its widespread use in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. Violin_sentence_409

When played as a folk instrument, the violin is usually referred to in English as a fiddle (although the term fiddle can be used informally no matter what the genre of music). Violin_sentence_410

Worldwide, there are various stringed instruments such as the wheel fiddle and Apache fiddle that are also called "fiddles". Violin_sentence_411

Fiddle music differs from classical in that the tunes are generally considered dance music, and various techniques, such as droning, shuffling, and ornamentation specific to particular styles are used. Violin_sentence_412

In many traditions of folk music, the tunes are not written but are memorized by successive generations of musicians and passed on in what is known as the oral tradition. Violin_sentence_413

Many old-time pieces call for cross-tuning, or using tunings other than standard GDAE. Violin_sentence_414

Some players of American styles of folk fiddling (such as bluegrass or old-time) have their bridge's top edge cut to a slightly flatter curve, making techniques such as a "double shuffle" less taxing on the bow arm, as it reduces the range of motion needed for alternating between double stops on different string pairs. Violin_sentence_415

Fiddlers who use solid steel core strings may prefer to use a tailpiece with fine tuners on all four strings, instead of the single fine tuner on the E string used by many classical players. Violin_sentence_416

Arabic music Violin_section_33

As well as the Arabic rababah, the violin has been used in Arabic music. Violin_sentence_417

Electric violins Violin_section_34

Main article: Electric violin Violin_sentence_418

Electric violins have a magnetic or piezoelectric pickup that converts string vibration to an electric signal. Violin_sentence_419

A patch cable or wireless transmitter sends the signal to an amplifier of a PA system. Violin_sentence_420

Electric violins are usually constructed as such, but a pickup can be added to a conventional acoustic violin. Violin_sentence_421

An electric violin with a resonating body that produces listening-level sound independently of the electric elements can be called an electro-acoustic violin. Violin_sentence_422

To be effective as an acoustic violin, electro-acoustic violins retain much of the resonating body of the violin, and often resemble an acoustic violin or fiddle. Violin_sentence_423

The body may be finished in bright colors and made from alternative materials to wood. Violin_sentence_424

These violins may need to be hooked up to an instrument amplifier or PA system. Violin_sentence_425

Some types come with a silent option that allows the player to use headphones that are hooked up to the violin. Violin_sentence_426

The first specially built electric violins date back to 1928 and were made by Victor Pfeil, Oskar Vierling, George Eisenberg, Benjamin Miessner, George Beauchamp, Hugo Benioff and Fredray Kislingbury. Violin_sentence_427

These violins can be plugged into effect units, just like an electric guitar, including distortion, wah-wah pedal and reverb. Violin_sentence_428

Since electric violins do not rely on string tension and resonance to amplify their sound they can have more strings. Violin_sentence_429

For example, five-stringed electric violins are available from several manufacturers, and a seven string electric violin (with three lower strings encompassing the cello's range) is also available. Violin_sentence_430

The majority of the first electric violinists were musicians playing jazz fusion (e.g., Jean-Luc Ponty) and popular music. Violin_sentence_431

Violin authentication Violin_section_35

Main article: Violin authentication Violin_sentence_432

Violin authentication is the process of determining the maker and manufacture date of a violin. Violin_sentence_433

This process is similar to that used to determine the provenance of art works. Violin_sentence_434

As significant value may be attached to violins made either by specific makers or at specific times and locations, forgery and other methods of fraudulent misrepresentation can be used to inflate the value of an instrument. Violin_sentence_435

See also Violin_section_36

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