Vladimir Putin

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"Putin" redirects here. Vladimir Putin_sentence_0

For other uses, see Putin (surname). Vladimir Putin_sentence_1

In this Eastern Slavic name, the patronymic is Vladimirovich and the family name is Putin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_2

Vladimir Putin_table_infobox_0

Vladimir Putin

Владимир ПутинVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_0_0

President of RussiaVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_1_0
Prime MinisterVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_2_0 Dmitry Medvedev

Mikhail MishustinVladimir Putin_cell_0_2_1

Preceded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_3_0 Dmitry MedvedevVladimir Putin_cell_0_3_1
Prime MinisterVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_4_0 Mikhail Kasyanov

Mikhail Fradkov Viktor ZubkovVladimir Putin_cell_0_4_1

Preceded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_5_0 Boris YeltsinVladimir Putin_cell_0_5_1
Succeeded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_6_0 Dmitry MedvedevVladimir Putin_cell_0_6_1
Prime Minister of RussiaVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_7_0
PresidentVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_8_0 Dmitry MedvedevVladimir Putin_cell_0_8_1
First DeputyVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_9_0 Sergei Ivanov

Viktor Zubkov Igor ShuvalovVladimir Putin_cell_0_9_1

Preceded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_10_0 Viktor ZubkovVladimir Putin_cell_0_10_1
Succeeded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_11_0 Dmitry MedvedevVladimir Putin_cell_0_11_1
PresidentVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_12_0 Boris YeltsinVladimir Putin_cell_0_12_1
First DeputyVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_13_0 Nikolai Aksyonenko

Viktor Khristenko Mikhail KasyanovVladimir Putin_cell_0_13_1

Preceded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_14_0 Sergei StepashinVladimir Putin_cell_0_14_1
Succeeded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_15_0 Mikhail KasyanovVladimir Putin_cell_0_15_1
Secretary of the Security CouncilVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_16_0
PresidentVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_17_0 Boris YeltsinVladimir Putin_cell_0_17_1
Preceded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_18_0 Nikolay BordyuzhaVladimir Putin_cell_0_18_1
Succeeded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_19_0 Sergei IvanovVladimir Putin_cell_0_19_1
Director of the Federal Security ServiceVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_20_0
PresidentVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_21_0 Boris YeltsinVladimir Putin_cell_0_21_1
Preceded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_22_0 Nikolay KovalyovVladimir Putin_cell_0_22_1
Succeeded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_23_0 Nikolai PatrushevVladimir Putin_cell_0_23_1
Additional positions

Leader of All-Russia People's FrontIncumbentAssumed office 12 June 2013Preceded byOffice establishedChairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union StateIn office 27 May 2008 – 18 July 2012Chm of Sup. Cncl.General SecretaryPavel BorodinPreceded byViktor ZubkovSucceeded byDmitry MedvedevLeader of United RussiaIn office 7 May 2008 – 26 May 2012Preceded byBoris GryzlovSucceeded byDmitry MedvedevVladimir Putin_cell_0_24_0

Additional positionsVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_25_0
Leader of All-Russia People's FrontVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_26_0
Preceded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_27_0 Office establishedVladimir Putin_cell_0_27_1
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union StateVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_28_0
Chm of Sup. Cncl.Vladimir Putin_header_cell_0_29_0 Vladimir Putin_cell_0_29_1
General SecretaryVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_30_0 Pavel BorodinVladimir Putin_cell_0_30_1
Preceded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_31_0 Viktor ZubkovVladimir Putin_cell_0_31_1
Succeeded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_32_0 Dmitry MedvedevVladimir Putin_cell_0_32_1
Leader of United RussiaVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_33_0
Preceded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_34_0 Boris GryzlovVladimir Putin_cell_0_34_1
Succeeded byVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_35_0 Dmitry MedvedevVladimir Putin_cell_0_35_1
Personal detailsVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_36_0
BornVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_37_0 Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
(1952-10-07) 7 October 1952 (age 68)

Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet UnionVladimir Putin_cell_0_37_1

Political partyVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_38_0 Independent (1991–95; 2001–08; 2012–present)Vladimir Putin_cell_0_38_1
Other political

affiliationsVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_39_0

People's Front (2011–present)

CPSU (1975–91) Our Home – Russia (1995–99) Unity (1999–2001) United Russia (2008–12)Vladimir Putin_cell_0_39_1

Spouse(s)Vladimir Putin_header_cell_0_40_0 Lyudmila Shkrebneva

​ ​(m. 1983; div. 2014)​Vladimir Putin_cell_0_40_1

ChildrenVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_41_0 At least 2, Maria and KaterinaVladimir Putin_cell_0_41_1
ResidenceVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_42_0 Novo-Ogaryovo, MoscowVladimir Putin_cell_0_42_1
Alma materVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_43_0 Saint Petersburg State University (LLB)

Saint Petersburg Mining Institute (PhD)Vladimir Putin_cell_0_43_1

AwardsVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_44_0 Order of HonourVladimir Putin_cell_0_44_1
SignatureVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_45_0 Vladimir Putin_cell_0_45_1
WebsiteVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_46_0 Vladimir Putin_cell_0_46_1
Military serviceVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_47_0
AllegianceVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_48_0 Soviet Union

 RussiaVladimir Putin_cell_0_48_1

Branch/serviceVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_49_0 KGB; FSB;

Russian Armed ForcesVladimir Putin_cell_0_49_1

Years of serviceVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_50_0 1975–1991Vladimir Putin_cell_0_50_1
RankVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_51_0 ColonelVladimir Putin_cell_0_51_1
Battles/warsVladimir Putin_header_cell_0_52_0 Vladimir Putin_cell_0_52_1

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (/ˈpuːtɪn/; Russian: Владимир Владимирович Путин, [vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪr vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ˈputʲɪn (listen); born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and a former officer of the KGB who has served as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 1999 until 2008. Vladimir Putin_sentence_3

He was also Prime Minister of Russia from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012. Vladimir Putin_sentence_4

Putin was born in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) and studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Vladimir Putin_sentence_5

Putin worked as a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, before resigning in 1991 to begin a political career in Saint Petersburg. Vladimir Putin_sentence_6

He later moved to Moscow in 1996 to join the administration of President Boris Yeltsin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_7

He served as Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB) and Secretary of the Security Council, before being appointed as Prime Minister in August 1999. Vladimir Putin_sentence_8

After the resignation of Yeltsin, Putin became Acting President, and less than four months later was elected outright to his first term as president and was reelected in 2004. Vladimir Putin_sentence_9

During his first tenure as president, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, with GDP measured by purchasing power increasing by 72%, real incomes increased by a factor of 2.5, real wages more than tripled; unemployment and poverty more than halved and the Russians' self-assessed life satisfaction rose significantly. Vladimir Putin_sentence_10

The growth was a result of a fivefold increase in the price of oil and gas which constitute the majority of Russian exports, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crises, a rise in foreign investment, and prudent economic and fiscal policies. Vladimir Putin_sentence_11

Putin served as Prime Minister under Dmitry Medvedev from 2008 to 2012, where he oversaw large scale military reform and police reform. Vladimir Putin_sentence_12

In 2012, Putin sought a third term as president and won with 64% of the vote. Vladimir Putin_sentence_13

Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea and the Russo-Ukrainian War led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth, and the recession officially ended. Vladimir Putin_sentence_14

Development under Putin has included the construction of pipelines, the restoration of the satellite navigation system GLONASS, and the building of infrastructure for international events such as the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Vladimir Putin_sentence_15

Putin received 76% of the vote in the 2018 election and was re-elected for a six-year term ending in 2024. Vladimir Putin_sentence_16

Under Putin's leadership, Russia has experienced democratic backsliding. Vladimir Putin_sentence_17

Experts do not generally consider Russia to be a democracy, citing jailing of political opponents, curtailed press freedom, and the lack of free and fair elections. Vladimir Putin_sentence_18

Russia has scored poorly on Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index and Freedom House's Freedom in the World index (including a record low 20/100 rating in the 2017 Freedom in the World report, a rating not given since the time of the Soviet Union). Vladimir Putin_sentence_19

Human rights organizations and activists accuse Putin of persecuting political critics and activists as well as ordering them tortured or assassinated. Vladimir Putin_sentence_20

Officials of the United States government have accused him of leading an interference program against Hillary Clinton in support of Donald Trump during the U.S. Vladimir Putin_sentence_21 presidential election in 2016. Vladimir Putin_sentence_22

Early life Vladimir Putin_section_0

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia), the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin (1911–1999) and Maria Ivanovna Putina (née Shelomova; 1911–1998). Vladimir Putin_sentence_23

Vladimir Spiridonovich's father was a cook to Vladimir Lenin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_24

Putin's birth was preceded by the deaths of two brothers, Viktor and Albert, born in the mid-1930s. Vladimir Putin_sentence_25

Albert died in infancy and Viktor died of diphtheria during the Siege of Leningrad by Nazi Germany's forces in World War II. Vladimir Putin_sentence_26

Putin's mother was a factory worker and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy, serving in the submarine fleet in the early 1930s. Vladimir Putin_sentence_27

Early in World War II, his father served in the destruction battalion of the NKVD. Vladimir Putin_sentence_28

Later, he was transferred to the regular army and was severely wounded in 1942. Vladimir Putin_sentence_29

Putin's maternal grandmother was killed by the German occupiers of Tver region in 1941, and his maternal uncles disappeared on the Eastern Front during World War II. Vladimir Putin_sentence_30

On 1 September 1960, Putin started at School No. Vladimir Putin_sentence_31

193 at Baskov Lane, near his home. Vladimir Putin_sentence_32

He was one of a few in the class of approximately 45 pupils who was not yet a member of the Young Pioneer organization. Vladimir Putin_sentence_33

At age 12, he began to practice sambo and judo. Vladimir Putin_sentence_34

He is a Judo black belt and national master of sports in Sambo. Vladimir Putin_sentence_35

He wished to emulate the intelligence officers portrayed in Soviet cinema. Vladimir Putin_sentence_36

Putin studied German at Saint Petersburg High School 281 and speaks German fluently. Vladimir Putin_sentence_37

Putin studied Law at the Leningrad State University named after Andrei Zhdanov (now Saint Petersburg State University) in 1970 and graduated in 1975. Vladimir Putin_sentence_38

His thesis was on "The Most Favored Nation Trading Principle in International Law". Vladimir Putin_sentence_39

While there, he was required to join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and remained a member until it ceased to exist (it was outlawed in August 1991). Vladimir Putin_sentence_40

Putin met Anatoly Sobchak, an assistant professor who taught business law, and later became the co-author of the Russian constitution and of the corruption schemes persecuted in France. Vladimir Putin_sentence_41

Putin would be influential in Sobchak's career in Saint-Petersburg. Vladimir Putin_sentence_42

Sobchak would be influential in Putin's career in Moscow. Vladimir Putin_sentence_43

KGB career Vladimir Putin_section_1

In 1975, Putin joined the KGB and trained at the 401st KGB school in Okhta, Leningrad. Vladimir Putin_sentence_44

After training, he worked in the Second Chief Directorate (counter-intelligence), before he was transferred to the First Chief Directorate, where he monitored foreigners and consular officials in Leningrad. Vladimir Putin_sentence_45

In September 1984, Putin was sent to Moscow for further training at the Yuri Andropov Red Banner Institute. Vladimir Putin_sentence_46

From 1985 to 1990, he served in Dresden, East Germany, using a cover identity as a translator. Vladimir Putin_sentence_47

Masha Gessen, a Russian-American who has authored a biography about Putin, claims "Putin and his colleagues were reduced mainly to collecting press clippings, thus contributing to the mountains of useless information produced by the KGB". Vladimir Putin_sentence_48

According to a later controversial anonymous source cited by journalist Catherine Belton, Putin was allegedly involved in Soviet support for the West German terrorist Red Army Faction (mainly active in the 1970s, not in the end of 1980s) during this time, though his residence in Dresden was absolutely non-suitable for such activities and his own activities were focused on South-East Asia because of his previous connections to such foreigners in the USSR. Vladimir Putin_sentence_49

His German was not good enough to meet RAF those times. Vladimir Putin_sentence_50

He met Germans to be recruited for wireless communications affairs together with an interpreter. Vladimir Putin_sentence_51

He was involved in wireless communications technologies in South-East Asia due to trips of German engineers, recruited by him, there and to the West. Vladimir Putin_sentence_52

According to Putin's official biography, during the fall of the Berlin Wall that began on 9 November 1989, just he had saved the files of the Soviet Cultural Center (House of Friedship) and of KGB villa in Dresden for the official authorities of the would-be united Germany to prevent demonstrators, including KGB and Stasi agents, from obtaining and destroying them. Vladimir Putin_sentence_53

He then supposedly burnt only those files, that were KGB ones, in a few hours, but saved archives of the Soviet Cultural Center for the German authorities. Vladimir Putin_sentence_54

Nothing is told about selection criteria during burning, Stasi files and about files of other agencies of German Democratic republic and of the USSR. Vladimir Putin_sentence_55

He explained that many documents were left to Germany only because the furnace burst. Vladimir Putin_sentence_56

But many documents of the KGB villa were sent to Moscow. Vladimir Putin_sentence_57

After the collapse of the Communist East German government, Putin was to resign from active KGB service because of suspicions aroused regarding his loyalty during demonstrations in Dresden and earlier, though the KGB and the Soviet army still operated in Germany, and he returned to Leningrad in early 1990, where he worked for about three months with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University, reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov. Vladimir Putin_sentence_58

There, he looked for new KGB recruits, watched the student body, and renewed his friendship with his former professor, Anatoly Sobchak, soon to be the Mayor of Leningrad. Vladimir Putin_sentence_59

Putin claims that he resigned with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel on 20 August 1991, on the second day of the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt against the Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. Vladimir Putin_sentence_60

Putin said: "As soon as the coup began, I immediately decided which side I was on", although he also noted that the choice was hard because he had spent the best part of his life with "the organs". Vladimir Putin_sentence_61

In 1999, Putin described communism as "a blind alley, far away from the mainstream of civilization". Vladimir Putin_sentence_62

Political career Vladimir Putin_section_2

Main articles: Political career of Vladimir Putin and Russia under Vladimir Putin Vladimir Putin_sentence_63

1990–1996: Saint Petersburg administration Vladimir Putin_section_3

In May 1990, Putin was appointed as an advisor on international affairs to the Mayor of Leningrad Anatoly Sobchak. Vladimir Putin_sentence_64

In a 2017 interview with Oliver Stone, Putin said that he resigned from the KGB in 1991, following the coup against Mikhail Gorbachev, as he did not agree with what had happened and did not want to be part of the intelligence in the new administration. Vladimir Putin_sentence_65

On 28 June 1991, he became head of the Committee for External Relations of the Mayor's Office, with responsibility for promoting international relations and foreign investments and registering business ventures. Vladimir Putin_sentence_66

Within a year, Putin was investigated by the city legislative council led by Marina Salye. Vladimir Putin_sentence_67

It was concluded that he had understated prices and permitted the export of metals valued at $93 million in exchange for foreign food aid that never arrived. Vladimir Putin_sentence_68

Despite the investigators' recommendation that Putin be fired, Putin remained head of the Committee for External Relations until 1996. Vladimir Putin_sentence_69

From 1994 to 1996, he held several other political and governmental positions in Saint Petersburg. Vladimir Putin_sentence_70

In March 1994, Putin was appointed as First Deputy Chairman of the Government of Saint Petersburg. Vladimir Putin_sentence_71

In May 1995, he organized the Saint Petersburg branch of the pro-government Our Home – Russia political party, the liberal party of power founded by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_72

In 1995, he managed the legislative election campaign for that party, and from 1995 through June 1997, he was the leader of its Saint Petersburg branch. Vladimir Putin_sentence_73

1996–1999: Early Moscow career Vladimir Putin_section_4

In June 1996, Sobchak lost his bid for reelection in Saint Petersburg, and Putin who had led his election campaign, refused from joining the team of his successor after this loss. Vladimir Putin_sentence_74

He moved to Moscow and was appointed as Deputy Chief of the Presidential Property Management Department headed by Pavel Borodin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_75

He occupied this position until March 1997. Vladimir Putin_sentence_76

During his tenure, Putin was responsible for the foreign property of the state and organized the transfer of the former assets of the Soviet Union and Communist Party to the Russian Federation. Vladimir Putin_sentence_77

On 26 March 1997, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Putin deputy chief of the Presidential Staff, a post which he retained until May 1998, and chief of the Main Control Directorate of the Presidential Property Management Department (until June 1998). Vladimir Putin_sentence_78

His predecessor in this position was Alexei Kudrin and his successor was Nikolai Patrushev, both future prominent politicians and Putin's associates. Vladimir Putin_sentence_79

On 27 June 1997, at the Saint Petersburg Mining Institute, guided by rector Vladimir Litvinenko, Putin defended his Candidate of Science dissertation in economics, titled "The Strategic Planning of Regional Resources Under the Formation of Market Relations". Vladimir Putin_sentence_80

This exemplified the custom in Russia whereby a young rising official wrote a scholarly work in mid-career. Vladimir Putin_sentence_81

When Putin later became president, the dissertation became a target of plagiarism accusations by fellows at the Brookings Institution; Putin responded that the dissertation was referenced, the Brookings fellows asserted that it constituted plagiarism albeit perhaps unintentional. Vladimir Putin_sentence_82

The dissertation committee refuted the accusations. Vladimir Putin_sentence_83

On 25 May 1998, Putin was appointed First Deputy Chief of the Presidential Staff for the regions, in succession to Viktoriya Mitina; and, on 15 July, he was appointed head of the commission for the preparation of agreements on the delimitation of the power of the regions and head of the federal center attached to the president, replacing Sergey Shakhray. Vladimir Putin_sentence_84

After Putin's appointment, the commission completed no such agreements, although during Shakhray's term as the head of the Commission 46 such agreements had been signed. Vladimir Putin_sentence_85

Later, after becoming president, Putin cancelled all 46 agreements. Vladimir Putin_sentence_86

On 25 July 1998, Yeltsin appointed Putin Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the primary intelligence and security organization of the Russian Federation and the successor to the KGB. Vladimir Putin_sentence_87

1999: First premiership Vladimir Putin_section_5

Main article: Vladimir Putin's First Cabinet Vladimir Putin_sentence_88

On 9 August 1999, Putin was appointed one of three First Deputy Prime Ministers, and later on that day, was appointed acting Prime Minister of the Government of the Russian Federation by President Yeltsin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_89

Yeltsin also announced that he wanted to see Putin as his successor. Vladimir Putin_sentence_90

Later on that same day, Putin agreed to run for the presidency. Vladimir Putin_sentence_91

On 16 August, the State Duma approved his appointment as Prime Minister with 233 votes in favor (vs. 84 against, 17 abstained), while a simple majority of 226 was required, making him Russia's fifth PM in fewer than eighteen months. Vladimir Putin_sentence_92

On his appointment, few expected Putin, virtually unknown to the general public, to last any longer than his predecessors. Vladimir Putin_sentence_93

He was initially regarded as a Yeltsin loyalist; like other prime ministers of Boris Yeltsin, Putin did not choose ministers himself, his cabinet was determined by the presidential administration. Vladimir Putin_sentence_94

Yeltsin's main opponents and would-be successors were already campaigning to replace the ailing president, and they fought hard to prevent Putin's emergence as a potential successor. Vladimir Putin_sentence_95

Following the Russian apartment bombings and the invasion of Daghestan by mudjahedins, including the former KGB agents, based in the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Putin's law-and-order image and unrelenting approach to the Second Chechen War soon combined to raise his popularity and allowed him to overtake his rivals. Vladimir Putin_sentence_96

While not formally associated with any party, Putin pledged his support to the newly formed Unity Party, which won the second largest percentage of the popular vote (23.3%) in the December 1999 Duma elections, and in turn supported Putin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_97

1999–2000: Acting presidency Vladimir Putin_section_6

On 31 December 1999, Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned and, according to the Constitution of Russia, Putin became Acting President of the Russian Federation. Vladimir Putin_sentence_98

On assuming this role, Putin went on a previously scheduled visit to Russian troops in Chechnya. Vladimir Putin_sentence_99

The first Presidential Decree that Putin signed, on 31 December 1999, was titled "On guarantees for the former president of the Russian Federation and the members of his family". Vladimir Putin_sentence_100

This ensured that "corruption charges against the outgoing President and his relatives" would not be pursued. Vladimir Putin_sentence_101

This was most notably targeted at the Mabetex bribery case in which Yeltsin's family members were involved. Vladimir Putin_sentence_102

On 30 August 2000, a criminal investigation (number 18/238278-95) in which Putin himself, as a member of the Saint Petersburg city government, was one of the suspects was dropped. Vladimir Putin_sentence_103

On 30 December 2000, yet another case against the prosecutor general was dropped "for lack of evidence", despite thousands of documents having been passed by Swiss prosecutors. Vladimir Putin_sentence_104

On 12 February 2001, Putin signed a similar federal law which replaced the decree of 1999. Vladimir Putin_sentence_105

A case regarding Putin's alleged corruption in metal exports from 1992 was brought back by Marina Salye, but she was silenced and forced to leave Saint Petersburg. Vladimir Putin_sentence_106

While his opponents had been preparing for an election in June 2000, Yeltsin's resignation resulted in the presidential elections being held within three months, on 26 March 2000; Putin won in the first round with 53% of the vote. Vladimir Putin_sentence_107

2000–2004: First presidential term Vladimir Putin_section_7

The inauguration of President Putin occurred on 7 May 2000. Vladimir Putin_sentence_108

Putin appointed the Minister of Finance, Mikhail Kasyanov, as the Prime Minister. Vladimir Putin_sentence_109

The first major challenge to Putin's popularity came in August 2000, when he was criticized for the alleged mishandling of the Kursk submarine disaster. Vladimir Putin_sentence_110

That criticism was largely because it was several days before Putin returned from vacation, and several more before he visited the scene. Vladimir Putin_sentence_111

Between 2000 and 2004, Putin set about the reconstruction of the impoverished condition of the country, apparently winning a power-struggle with the Russian oligarchs, reaching a 'grand bargain' with them. Vladimir Putin_sentence_112

This bargain allowed the oligarchs to maintain most of their powers, in exchange for their explicit support for—and alignment with—Putin's government. Vladimir Putin_sentence_113

The Moscow theater hostage crisis occurred in October 2002. Vladimir Putin_sentence_114

Many in the Russian press and in the international media warned that the deaths of 130 hostages in the special forces' rescue operation during the crisis would severely damage President Putin's popularity. Vladimir Putin_sentence_115

However, shortly after the siege had ended, the Russian president enjoyed record public approval ratings—83% of Russians declared themselves satisfied with Putin and his handling of the siege. Vladimir Putin_sentence_116

In 2003, a referendum was held in Chechnya, adopting a new constitution which declares that the Republic of Chechnya is a part of Russia; on the other hand, the region did acquire autonomy. Vladimir Putin_sentence_117

Chechnya has been gradually stabilized with the establishment of the Parliamentary elections and a Regional Government. Vladimir Putin_sentence_118

Throughout the Second Chechen War, Russia severely disabled the Chechen rebel movement; however, sporadic attacks by rebels continued to occur throughout the northern Caucasus. Vladimir Putin_sentence_119

2004–2008: Second presidential term Vladimir Putin_section_8

On 14 March 2004, Putin was elected to the presidency for a second term, receiving 71% of the vote. Vladimir Putin_sentence_120

The Beslan school hostage crisis took place in September 2004; more than 330 people died, including 186 children. Vladimir Putin_sentence_121

The near 10-year period prior to the rise of Putin after the dissolution of Soviet rule was a time of upheaval in Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_122

In a 2005 Kremlin speech, Putin characterized the collapse of the Soviet Union as the "greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the Twentieth Century." Vladimir Putin_sentence_123

Putin elaborated "Moreover, the epidemic of disintegration infected Russia itself." Vladimir Putin_sentence_124

The country's cradle-to-grave social safety net was gone and life expectancy declined in the period preceding Putin's rule. Vladimir Putin_sentence_125

In 2005, the National Priority Projects were launched to improve Russia's health care, education, housing and agriculture. Vladimir Putin_sentence_126

The continued criminal prosecution of Russia's then richest man, President of Yukos oil and gas company Mikhail Khodorkovsky, for fraud and tax evasion was seen by the international press as a retaliation for Khodorkovsky's donations to both liberal and communist opponents of the Kremlin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_127

Khodorkovsky was arrested, Yukos was bankrupted and the company's assets were auctioned at below-market value, with the largest share acquired by the state company Rosneft. Vladimir Putin_sentence_128

The fate of Yukos was seen as a sign of a broader shift of Russia towards a system of state capitalism. Vladimir Putin_sentence_129

This was underscored in July 2014 when shareholders of Yukos were awarded $50 billion in compensation by the Permanent Arbitration Court in The Hague. Vladimir Putin_sentence_130

On 7 October 2006, Anna Politkovskaya, a journalist who exposed corruption in the Russian army and its conduct in Chechnya, was shot in the lobby of her apartment building, on Putin's birthday. Vladimir Putin_sentence_131

The death of Politkovskaya triggered international criticism, with accusations that Putin had failed to protect the country's new independent media. Vladimir Putin_sentence_132

Putin himself said that her death caused the government more problems than her writings. Vladimir Putin_sentence_133

In 2007, "Dissenters' Marches" were organized by the opposition group The Other Russia, led by former chess champion Garry Kasparov and national-Bolshevist leader Eduard Limonov. Vladimir Putin_sentence_134

Following prior warnings, demonstrations in several Russian cities were met by police action, which included interfering with the travel of the protesters and the arrests of as many as 150 people who attempted to break through police lines. Vladimir Putin_sentence_135

On 12 September 2007, Putin dissolved the government upon the request of Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov. Vladimir Putin_sentence_136

Fradkov commented that it was to give the President a "free hand" in the run-up to the parliamentary election. Vladimir Putin_sentence_137

Viktor Zubkov was appointed the new prime minister. Vladimir Putin_sentence_138

In December 2007, United Russia won 64.24% of the popular vote in their run for State Duma according to election preliminary results. Vladimir Putin_sentence_139

United Russia's victory in the December 2007 elections was seen by many as an indication of strong popular support of the then Russian leadership and its policies. Vladimir Putin_sentence_140

2008–2012: Second premiership Vladimir Putin_section_9

Main article: Vladimir Putin's Second Cabinet Vladimir Putin_sentence_141

Putin was barred from a third consecutive term by the Constitution. Vladimir Putin_sentence_142

First Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev was elected his successor. Vladimir Putin_sentence_143

In a power-switching operation on 8 May 2008, only a day after handing the presidency to Medvedev, Putin was appointed Prime Minister of Russia, maintaining his political dominance. Vladimir Putin_sentence_144

Putin has said that overcoming the consequences of the world economic crisis was one of the two main achievements of his second Premiership. Vladimir Putin_sentence_145

The other was the stabilizing the size of Russia's population between 2008 and 2011 following a long period of demographic collapse that began in the 1990s. Vladimir Putin_sentence_146

At the United Russia Congress in Moscow on 24 September 2011, Medvedev officially proposed that Putin stand for the Presidency in 2012, an offer Putin accepted. Vladimir Putin_sentence_147

Given United Russia's near-total dominance of Russian politics, many observers believed that Putin was assured of a third term. Vladimir Putin_sentence_148

The move was expected to see Medvedev stand on the United Russia ticket in the parliamentary elections in December, with a goal of becoming Prime Minister at the end of his presidential term. Vladimir Putin_sentence_149

After the parliamentary elections on 4 December 2011, tens of thousands of Russians engaged in protests against alleged electoral fraud, the largest protests in Putin's time. Vladimir Putin_sentence_150

Protesters criticized Putin and United Russia and demanded annulment of the election results. Vladimir Putin_sentence_151

Those protests sparked the fear of a colour revolution in society. Vladimir Putin_sentence_152

Putin allegedly organized a number of paramilitary groups loyal to himself and to the United Russia party in the period between 2005 and 2012. Vladimir Putin_sentence_153

2012–2018: Third presidential term Vladimir Putin_section_10

On 24 September 2011, while speaking at the United Russia party congress, Medvedev announced that he would recommend the party nominate Putin as its presidential candidate. Vladimir Putin_sentence_154

He also revealed that the two men had long ago cut a deal to allow Putin to run for president in 2012. Vladimir Putin_sentence_155

This switch was termed by many in the media as "Rokirovka", the Russian term for the chess move "castling". Vladimir Putin_sentence_156

On 4 March 2012, Putin won the 2012 Russian presidential elections in the first round, with 63.6% of the vote, despite widespread accusations of vote-rigging. Vladimir Putin_sentence_157

Opposition groups accused Putin and the United Russia party of fraud. Vladimir Putin_sentence_158

While efforts to make the elections transparent were publicized, including the usage of webcams in polling stations, the vote was criticized by the Russian opposition and by international observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe for procedural irregularities. Vladimir Putin_sentence_159

Anti-Putin protests took place during and directly after the presidential campaign. Vladimir Putin_sentence_160

The most notorious protest was the Pussy riot performance on 21 February, and subsequent trial. Vladimir Putin_sentence_161

An estimated 8,000–20,000 protesters gathered in Moscow on 6 May, when eighty people were injured in confrontations with police, and 450 were arrested, with another 120 arrests taking place the following day. Vladimir Putin_sentence_162

A counter-protest of Putin supporters occurred which culminated in a gathering of an estimated 130,000 supporters at the Luzhniki Stadium, Russia's largest stadium. Vladimir Putin_sentence_163

Some of the attendees stated that they had been paid to come, were forced to come by their employers, or were misled into believing that they were going to attend a folk festival instead. Vladimir Putin_sentence_164

The rally is considered to be the largest in support of Putin to date. Vladimir Putin_sentence_165

Putin's presidency was inaugurated in the Kremlin on 7 May 2012. Vladimir Putin_sentence_166

On his first day as president, Putin issued 14 Presidential decrees, which are sometimes called the "May Decrees" by the media, including a lengthy one stating wide-ranging goals for the Russian economy. Vladimir Putin_sentence_167

Other decrees concerned education, housing, skilled labor training, relations with the European Union, the defense industry, inter-ethnic relations, and other policy areas dealt with in Putin's program articles issued during the presidential campaign. Vladimir Putin_sentence_168

In 2012 and 2013, Putin and the United Russia party backed stricter legislation against the LGBT community, in Saint Petersburg, Archangelsk and Novosibirsk; a law called the Russian gay propaganda law, that is against "homosexual propaganda" (which prohibits such symbols as the rainbow flag as well as published works containing homosexual content) was adopted by the State Duma in June 2013. Vladimir Putin_sentence_169

Responding to international concerns about Russia's legislation, Putin asked critics to note that the law was a "ban on the propaganda of pedophilia and homosexuality" and he stated that homosexual visitors to the 2014 Winter Olympics should "leave the children in peace" but denied there was any "professional, career or social discrimination" against homosexuals in Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_170

In June 2013, Putin attended a televised rally of the All-Russia People's Front where he was elected head of the movement, which was set up in 2011. Vladimir Putin_sentence_171

According to journalist Steve Rosenberg, the movement is intended to "reconnect the Kremlin to the Russian people" and one day, if necessary, replace the increasingly unpopular United Russia party that currently backs Putin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_172

Russo-Ukrainian War Vladimir Putin_section_11

Main articles: Russia–Ukraine relations, Russo-Ukrainian War, and War in Donbass Vladimir Putin_sentence_173

In 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory. Vladimir Putin_sentence_174

After the Euromaidan protests and the fall of Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych, Russian soldiers without insignias took control of strategic positions and infrastructure within the Ukrainian territory of Crimea. Vladimir Putin_sentence_175

Russia then annexed the Republic of Crimea and City of Sevastopol after a referendum in which Crimeans voted to join the Russian Federation, according to official results. Vladimir Putin_sentence_176

Subsequently, demonstrations against Ukrainian Rada legislative actions by pro-Russian groups in the Donbass area of Ukraine escalated into an armed conflict between the Ukrainian government and the Russia-backed separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics. Vladimir Putin_sentence_177

In August Russian military vehicles crossed the border in several locations of Donetsk Oblast. Vladimir Putin_sentence_178

The incursion by the Russian military was seen by Ukrainian authorities as responsible for the defeat of Ukrainian forces in early September. Vladimir Putin_sentence_179

In November 2014, the Ukrainian military reported intensive movement of troops and equipment from Russia into the separatist-controlled parts of eastern Ukraine. Vladimir Putin_sentence_180

The Associated Press reported 80 unmarked military vehicles on the move in rebel-controlled areas. Vladimir Putin_sentence_181

An OSCE Special Monitoring Mission observed convoys of heavy weapons and tanks in DPR-controlled territory without insignia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_182

OSCE monitors further stated that they observed vehicles transporting ammunition and soldiers' dead bodies crossing the Russian-Ukrainian border under the guise of humanitarian-aid convoys. Vladimir Putin_sentence_183

As of early August 2015, the OSCE observed over 21 such vehicles marked with the Russian military code for soldiers killed in action. Vladimir Putin_sentence_184

According to The Moscow Times, Russia has tried to intimidate and silence human-rights workers discussing Russian soldiers' deaths in the conflict. Vladimir Putin_sentence_185

The OSCE repeatedly reported that its observers were denied access to the areas controlled by "combined Russian-separatist forces". Vladimir Putin_sentence_186

The majority of members of the international community and organizations such as Amnesty International have condemned Russia for its actions in post-revolutionary Ukraine, accusing it of breaking international law and of violating Ukrainian sovereignty. Vladimir Putin_sentence_187

Many countries implemented economic sanctions against Russia, Russian individuals or companies – to which Russia responded in kind. Vladimir Putin_sentence_188

In October 2015, The Washington Post reported that Russia had redeployed some of its elite units from Ukraine to Syria in recent weeks to support Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. Vladimir Putin_sentence_189

In December 2015, Russian Federation President Putin admitted that Russian military intelligence officers were operating in Ukraine. Vladimir Putin_sentence_190

Many members of the international community assumed that Putin's annexation of Crimea had initiated a completely new kind of Russian foreign policy. Vladimir Putin_sentence_191

They took the annexation of Crimea to mean that his foreign policy had shifted "from state-driven foreign policy" to taking an offensive stance to re-create the Soviet Union. Vladimir Putin_sentence_192

However, this policy shift can be understood as Putin trying to defend nations in Russia's sphere of influence from encroaching western power. Vladimir Putin_sentence_193

While the act to annex the Crimea was bold and drastic, his "new" foreign policy may have more similarities to his older policies. Vladimir Putin_sentence_194

Intervention in Syria Vladimir Putin_section_12

Main article: Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War Vladimir Putin_sentence_195

See also: Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War Vladimir Putin_sentence_196

On 30 September 2015, President Putin authorized Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, following a formal request by the Syrian government for military help against rebel and jihadist groups. Vladimir Putin_sentence_197

The Russian military activities consisted of air strikes, cruise missile strikes and the use of front line advisors and Russian special forces against militant groups opposed to the Syrian government, including the Syrian opposition, as well as Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in the Levant), Tahrir al-Sham, Ahrar al-Sham and the Army of Conquest. Vladimir Putin_sentence_198

After Putin's announcement on 14 March 2016 that the mission he had set for the Russian military in Syria had been "largely accomplished" and ordered the withdrawal of the "main part" of the Russian forces from Syria, Russian forces deployed in Syria continued to actively operate in support of the Syrian government. Vladimir Putin_sentence_199

Russia's interference in the US election Vladimir Putin_section_13

See also: Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections and Russia–United States relations Vladimir Putin_sentence_200

In January 2017, a U.S. intelligence community assessment expressed "high confidence" that Putin personally ordered an "influence campaign," initially to denigrate Hillary Clinton and to harm her electoral chances and potential presidency, then later developing "a clear preference" for Donald Trump. Vladimir Putin_sentence_201

Both Trump and Putin have consistently denied any Russian interference in the U.S. election. Vladimir Putin_sentence_202

The New York Times reported in July 2018 that the CIA had long nurtured a Russian source who eventually rose to a position close to Putin, allowing the source to pass key information in 2016 about Putin's direct involvement. Vladimir Putin_sentence_203

Suspected CIA's mole named as Oleg Smolenkov is now reported to be living in the United States. Vladimir Putin_sentence_204

2018–present: Fourth presidential term Vladimir Putin_section_14

See also: Vladimir Putin 2018 presidential campaign Vladimir Putin_sentence_205

Putin won the 2018 presidential election with more than 76% of the vote. Vladimir Putin_sentence_206

His fourth term began on 7 May 2018, which will last until 2024. Vladimir Putin_sentence_207

On the same day, Putin invited Dmitry Medvedev to form a new government. Vladimir Putin_sentence_208

On 15 May 2018, Putin took part in the opening of the movement along the highway section of the Crimean bridge. Vladimir Putin_sentence_209

On 18 May 2018, Putin signed decrees on the composition of the new Government. Vladimir Putin_sentence_210

On 25 May 2018, Putin announced that he would not run for president in 2024, justifying this in compliance with the Russian Constitution. Vladimir Putin_sentence_211

On 14 June 2018, Putin opened the 21st FIFA World Cup, which took place in Russia for the first time. Vladimir Putin_sentence_212

In September 2019, Putin's administration interfered with the results of Russia's nationwide regional elections and manipulated it by eliminating all candidates in the opposition. Vladimir Putin_sentence_213

The event that was aimed at contributing to the ruling party, United Russia's victory, also contributed to inciting mass protests for democracy, leading to large-scale arrests and cases of police brutality. Vladimir Putin_sentence_214

On 15 January 2020, Dmitry Medvedev and his entire government resigned after Vladimir Putin's Address to the Federal Assembly. Vladimir Putin_sentence_215

Putin suggested major constitutional amendments that could extend his political power after presidency. Vladimir Putin_sentence_216

At the same time, on behalf of Putin, he continued to exercise his powers until the formation of a new government. Vladimir Putin_sentence_217

The president suggested that Medvedev take the newly created post of Deputy Chairman of the Security Council. Vladimir Putin_sentence_218

On the same day, Putin nominated Mikhail Mishustin, head of the country's Federal Tax Service for the post of Prime Minister. Vladimir Putin_sentence_219

The next day, he was confirmed by the State Duma to the post and appointed Prime Minister by Putin's decree. Vladimir Putin_sentence_220

This was the first time ever that a PM was confirmed without any votes against. Vladimir Putin_sentence_221

On 21 January 2020, Mishustin presented to Vladimir Putin a draft structure of his Cabinet. Vladimir Putin_sentence_222

On the same day, the President signed a decree on the structure of the Cabinet and appointed the proposed Ministers. Vladimir Putin_sentence_223

Coronavirus pandemic Vladimir Putin_section_15

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in Russia Vladimir Putin_sentence_224

On 15 March 2020, Putin instructed to form a Working Group of the State Council to counteract the spread of coronavirus. Vladimir Putin_sentence_225

Putin appointed Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin as the head of the Group. Vladimir Putin_sentence_226

On 22 March 2020, after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, Putin arranged the Russian army to send military medics, special disinfection vehicles and other medical equipment to Italy, which was the European country hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. Vladimir Putin_sentence_227

On 24 March 2020, Putin visited a hospital in Moscow's Kommunarka, where patients with coronavirus are kept, where he spoke with them and with doctors. Vladimir Putin_sentence_228

Vladimir Putin began working remotely from his office at Novo-Ogaryovo. Vladimir Putin_sentence_229

According to Dmitry Peskov, Putin passes daily tests for coronavirus, and his health is not in danger. Vladimir Putin_sentence_230

On 25 March, President Putin announced in a televised address to the nation that the 22 April constitutional referendum would be postponed due to the coronavirus. Vladimir Putin_sentence_231

He added that the next week would be a nationwide paid holiday and urged Russians to stay at home. Vladimir Putin_sentence_232

Putin also announced a list of measures of social protection, support for small and medium-sized enterprises, and changes in fiscal policy. Vladimir Putin_sentence_233

Putin announced following measures for microenterprises, small- and medium-sized businesses: deferring tax payments (except Russia's value-added tax) for the next six months, cutting the size of social security contributions in half, deferring social security contributions, deferring loan repayments for the next six months, a six-month moratorium on fines, debt collection, and creditors' applications for bankruptcy of debtor enterprises. Vladimir Putin_sentence_234

Additionally, a new tax on income from large deposits will be introduced in 2021, and the tax on offshores will be increased. Vladimir Putin_sentence_235

On 2 April, Putin again issued an address in which he announced prolongation of the non-working time until 30 April. Vladimir Putin_sentence_236

Putin likened Russia's fight against COVID-19 to Russia's battles with invading Pecheneg and Cuman steppe nomads in the 10th and 11th centuries. Vladimir Putin_sentence_237

In a 24 to 27 April Levada poll, 48% of Russian respondents said that they disapproved of Putin's handling of the coronavirus pandemic, and his strict isolation and lack of leadership during the crisis was widely commented as sign of losing his "strongman" image. Vladimir Putin_sentence_238

Constitutional referendum and amendments Vladimir Putin_section_16

Main article: 2020 Russian constitutional referendum Vladimir Putin_sentence_239

Putin signed an executive order on 3 July 2020 to officially insert amendments into the Russian Constitution. Vladimir Putin_sentence_240

These amendments took effect on 4 July 2020. Vladimir Putin_sentence_241

Every day since 11 July, mass protests have been held in the Khabarovsk Krai in Russia's Far East in support of arrested regional governor Sergei Furgal. Vladimir Putin_sentence_242

The 2020 Khabarovsk Krai protests have become increasingly anti-Putin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_243

A July 2020 Levada poll found that 45% of surveyed Russians supported the protests. Vladimir Putin_sentence_244

Domestic policies Vladimir Putin_section_17

Main article: Domestic policies of Vladimir Putin Vladimir Putin_sentence_245

Putin's domestic policies, particularly early in his first presidency, were aimed at creating a vertical power structure. Vladimir Putin_sentence_246

On 13 May 2000, he issued a decree putting the 89 federal subjects of Russia into seven administrative federal districts and appointed a presidential envoy responsible for each of those districts (whose official title is Plenipotentiary Representative). Vladimir Putin_sentence_247

According to Stephen White, under the presidency of Putin Russia made it clear that it had no intention of establishing a "second edition" of the American or British political system, but rather a system that was closer to Russia's own traditions and circumstances. Vladimir Putin_sentence_248

Some commentators have described Putin's administration as a "sovereign democracy". Vladimir Putin_sentence_249

According to the proponents of that description (primarily Vladislav Surkov), the government's actions and policies ought above all to enjoy popular support within Russia itself and not be directed or influenced from outside the country. Vladimir Putin_sentence_250

The practice of the system is however characterized by Swedish economist Anders Åslund: Vladimir Putin_sentence_251

The period after 2012 also saw mass protests against the falsification of elections, censorship and toughening of free assembly laws. Vladimir Putin_sentence_252

See also: 2011–2013 Russian protests, Bolotnaya Square case, and 2017–2018 Russian protests Vladimir Putin_sentence_253

See also: Freedom of assembly in Russia, Media freedom in Russia, and Internet censorship in Russia Vladimir Putin_sentence_254

In July 2000, according to a law proposed by Putin and approved by the Federal Assembly of Russia, Putin gained the right to dismiss the heads of the 89 federal subjects. Vladimir Putin_sentence_255

In 2004, the direct election of those heads (usually called "governors") by popular vote was replaced with a system whereby they would be nominated by the president and approved or disapproved by regional legislatures. Vladimir Putin_sentence_256

This was seen by Putin as a necessary move to stop separatist tendencies and get rid of those governors who were connected with organised crime. Vladimir Putin_sentence_257

This and other government actions effected under Putin's presidency have been criticised by many independent Russian media outlets and Western commentators as anti-democratic. Vladimir Putin_sentence_258

In 2012, as proposed by Putin's successor, Dmitry Medvedev, the direct election of governors was re-introduced. Vladimir Putin_sentence_259

During his first term in office, Putin opposed some of the Yeltsin-era oligarchs, as well as his political opponents, resulting in the exile or imprisonment of such people as Boris Berezovsky, Vladimir Gusinsky, and Mikhail Khodorkovsky; other oligarchs such as Roman Abramovich and Arkady Rotenberg are friends and allies with Putin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_260

Putin succeeded in codifying land law and tax law and promulgated new codes on labor, administrative, criminal, commercial and civil procedural law. Vladimir Putin_sentence_261

Under Medvedev's presidency, Putin's government implemented some key reforms in the area of state security, the Russian police reform and the Russian military reform. Vladimir Putin_sentence_262

Economic, industrial, and energy policies Vladimir Putin_section_18

See also: Economy of Russia, Russian financial crisis (2014–present), Great Recession in Russia, and Energy policy of Russia Vladimir Putin_sentence_263

Sergey Guriyev when talking about Putin's economic policy, divided it into four distinct periods: the "reform" years of his first term (1999–2003); the "statist" years of his second term (2004 – the first half of 2008); the world economic crisis and recovery (the second half of 2008–2013); and the Russo-Ukrainian War, Russia’s growing isolation from the global economy, and stagnation (2014–present). Vladimir Putin_sentence_264

In 2000, Putin launched the "Programme for the Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Federation for the Period 2000-2010", but it was abandoned in 2008 when it was 30% complete. Vladimir Putin_sentence_265

Fueled by the 2000s commodities boom including record high oil prices, under the Putin administration from 2000 to 2016, an increase in income in USD terms was 4.5 times. Vladimir Putin_sentence_266

During Putin's first eight years in office, industry grew substantially, as did production, construction, real incomes, credit, and the middle class. Vladimir Putin_sentence_267

Putin government has also been praised for eliminating widespread barter and thus boosting the economy. Vladimir Putin_sentence_268

Inflation remained a problem however. Vladimir Putin_sentence_269

A fund for oil revenue allowed Russia to repay all of the Soviet Union's debts by 2005. Vladimir Putin_sentence_270

Russia joined the World Trade Organization on 22 August 2012. Vladimir Putin_sentence_271

In 2006, Putin launched an industry consolidation programme to bring the main aircraft producing companies under a single umbrella organization, the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC). Vladimir Putin_sentence_272

UAC general director in September 2020 announced, that UAC will receive largest Post soviet government support package for the aircraft industry to pay and renegotiate the debt. Vladimir Putin_sentence_273

UAC owes banks around 530 billion rubles. Vladimir Putin_sentence_274

The construction of a pipeline at a cost of $77  billion, to be jointly funded by Russia and China, was signed off on by Putin in Shanghai on 21 May 2014. Vladimir Putin_sentence_275

On completion, in an estimated 4 to 6 years, the pipeline would deliver natural gas from the state-majority-owned Gazprom to China's state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation for the next 30 years, in a deal worth $400bn. Vladimir Putin_sentence_276

In 2014, the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project named Putin their Person of the Year Award for furthering corruption and organized crime. Vladimir Putin_sentence_277

As noted by Russian journalists after the 2018 presidential inauguration, Putin has since 2007 repeatedly predicted that Russia will become "one of the world's fifth largest economies" roughly within 10 years from that date; thus far this target has not been achieved. Vladimir Putin_sentence_278

2014 financial crisis and economic downturn Vladimir Putin_section_19

The ongoing financial crisis began in the second half of 2014 when the Russian ruble collapsed due to a decline in the price of oil and international sanctions against Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_279

These events in turn led to loss of investor confidence and capital flight. Vladimir Putin_sentence_280

Though it has also been argued that the sanctions had little to no effect on Russia's economy. Vladimir Putin_sentence_281

Energy, trade, and finance agreements with China worth $25 billion were signed in October 2014 in an effort to compensate for international sanctions. Vladimir Putin_sentence_282

The following year, a $400 billion 30-year natural gas supply agreement was also signed with China. Vladimir Putin_sentence_283

Environmental policy Vladimir Putin_section_20

Main articles: Environment of Russia and Environmental issues in Russia Vladimir Putin_sentence_284

In 2004, President Putin signed the Kyoto Protocol treaty designed to reduce greenhouse gases. Vladimir Putin_sentence_285

However, Russia did not face mandatory cuts, because the Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from 1990 levels and Russia's greenhouse-gas emissions fell well below the 1990 baseline due to a drop in economic output after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Vladimir Putin_sentence_286

Putin personally supervises a number of protection programmes for rare and endangered animals in Russia, such as the Amur tiger, the white whale, the polar bear and the snow leopard. Vladimir Putin_sentence_287

Religious policy Vladimir Putin_section_21

Main article: Religion in Russia Vladimir Putin_sentence_288

Buddhism, Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Islam and Judaism enjoyed limited state support in the Putin era. Vladimir Putin_sentence_289

The vast construction and restoration of churches started in the 1990s, continued under Putin, and the state allowed the teaching of religion in schools (parents are provided with a choice for their children to learn the basics of one of the traditional religions or secular ethics). Vladimir Putin_sentence_290

His approach to religious policy has been characterized as one of support for religious freedoms, but also the attempt to unify different religions under the authority of the state. Vladimir Putin_sentence_291

In 2012, Putin was honored in Bethlehem and a street was named after him. Vladimir Putin_sentence_292

Putin regularly attends the most important services of the Russian Orthodox Church on the main Orthodox Christian holidays. Vladimir Putin_sentence_293

He established a good relationship with Patriarchs of the Russian Church, the late Alexy II of Moscow and the current Kirill of Moscow. Vladimir Putin_sentence_294

As president, he took an active personal part in promoting the Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate, signed 17 May 2007 that restored relations between the Moscow-based Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia after the 80-year schism. Vladimir Putin_sentence_295

Under Putin, the Hasidic FJCR became increasingly influential within the Jewish community, partly due to the influence of Federation-supporting businessmen mediated through their alliances with Putin, notably Lev Leviev and Roman Abramovich. Vladimir Putin_sentence_296

According to the JTA, Putin is popular amongst the Russian Jewish community, who see him as a force for stability. Vladimir Putin_sentence_297

Russia's chief rabbi, Berel Lazar, said Putin "paid great attention to the needs of our community and related to us with a deep respect". Vladimir Putin_sentence_298

In 2016, Ronald S. Lauder, the president of the World Jewish Congress, also praised Putin for making Russia "a country where Jews are welcome". Vladimir Putin_sentence_299

Military development Vladimir Putin_section_22

Main article: 2008 Russian military reform Vladimir Putin_sentence_300

The resumption of long-distance flights of Russia's strategic bombers was followed by the announcement by Russian Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov during his meeting with Putin on 5 December 2007, that 11 ships, including the aircraft carrier Kuznetsov, would take part in the first major navy sortie into the Mediterranean since Soviet times. Vladimir Putin_sentence_301

While from the early 2000s Russia started placing more money into its military and defense industry, it was only in 2008 that the full-scale Russian military reform began, aiming to modernize the Russian Armed Forces and making them significantly more effective. Vladimir Putin_sentence_302

The reform was largely carried out by Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov during Medvedev's presidency, under the supervision of both Putin, as the Head of Government, and Medvedev, as the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armed Forces. Vladimir Putin_sentence_303

Key elements of the reform included reducing the armed forces to a strength of one million; reducing the number of officers; centralising officer training from 65 military schools into 10 'systemic' military training centres; creating a professional NCO corps; reducing the size of the central command; introducing more civilian logistics and auxiliary staff; elimination of cadre-strength formations; reorganising the reserves; reorganising the army into a brigade system, and reorganising air forces into an airbase system instead of regiments. Vladimir Putin_sentence_304

The number of Russia's military districts was reduced to four. Vladimir Putin_sentence_305

The term of draft service was reduced from two years to one. Vladimir Putin_sentence_306

The gradual transition to the majority professional army by the late 2010s was announced, and a large programme of supplying the Armed Forces with new military equipment and ships was started. Vladimir Putin_sentence_307

The Russian Space Forces were replaced on 1 December 2011 with the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. Vladimir Putin_sentence_308

According to the Kremlin, Putin embarked a build up of Russia's nuclear capabilities because of U.S. President George W. Bush's decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Vladimir Putin_sentence_309

Most analysts agree that Russia's nuclear strategy under Putin eventually brought it into violation of the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Vladimir Putin_sentence_310

Because of this, U.S. President Donald Trump announced the U.S. would no longer consider itself bound by the treaty's provisions, raising nuclear tensions between the two powers. Vladimir Putin_sentence_311

This prompted Putin to state that Russia would not launch first in a nuclear conflict but would "annihilate" any adversary. Vladimir Putin_sentence_312

Russians killed in such a conflict "will go to heaven as martyrs". Vladimir Putin_sentence_313

Most military analysts believe Russia would consider launching first if losing a major conventional conflict as part of an 'escalate to de-escalate' strategy that would bring adversaries to the negotiating table. Vladimir Putin_sentence_314

Putin has also sought to increase Russian territorial claims in the Arctic and its military presence here. Vladimir Putin_sentence_315

In August 2007, Russian expedition Arktika 2007, part of research related to the 2001 Russian territorial extension claim, planted a flag on the seabed below the North Pole. Vladimir Putin_sentence_316

Both Russian submarines and troops deployed in the Arctic have been increasing. Vladimir Putin_sentence_317

Human rights policy Vladimir Putin_section_23

Main article: Human rights in Russia Vladimir Putin_sentence_318

See also: Russian foreign agent law, Internet Restriction Bill, and Dima Yakovlev Law Vladimir Putin_sentence_319

An NGO based in the New York City; Human Rights Watch; in a report entitled Laws of Attrition, authored by Hugh Williamson, the British director of HRW's Europe & Central Asia Division, has claimed that since May 2012, when Putin was re-elected as president, Russia has enacted many restrictive laws, started inspections of nongovernmental organizations, harassed, intimidated, and imprisoned political activists, and started to restrict critics. Vladimir Putin_sentence_320

The new laws include the "foreign agents" law, which is widely regarded as over-broad by including Russian human rights organizations which receive some international grant funding, the treason law, and the assembly law which penalizes many expressions of dissent. Vladimir Putin_sentence_321

Human rights activists have criticized Russia for censoring speech of LGBT activists due to "the gay propaganda law" and increasing violence against LGBT+ people due to the law. Vladimir Putin_sentence_322

The media Vladimir Putin_section_24

See also: Media of Russia Vladimir Putin_sentence_323

Scott Gehlbach, an American Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, has claimed that since 1999, Putin has reportedly punished journalists who challenge his official point of view. Vladimir Putin_sentence_324

Maria Lipman, an American writing in Foreign Affairs (the journal of the Council on Foreign Relations), claims, "The crackdown that followed Putin's return to the Kremlin in 2012 extended to the liberal media, which had until then been allowed to operate fairly independently." Vladimir Putin_sentence_325

The Internet has attracted Putin's attention because his critics have tried to use it to challenge his control of information. Vladimir Putin_sentence_326

Marian K. Leighton, who worked for the CIA as a Soviet analyst in the 1980s says, "Having muzzled Russia's print and broadcast media, Putin focused his energies on the Internet." Vladimir Putin_sentence_327

Robert W. Orttung and Christopher Walker report: Vladimir Putin_sentence_328

Vladimir Putin_description_list_0

  • Reporters Without Borders, for instance, ranked Russia 148 in its 2013 list of 179 countries in terms of freedom of the press. It particularly criticized Russia for the crackdown on the political opposition and the failure of the authorities to vigorously pursue and bring to justice criminals who have murdered journalists. Freedom House ranks Russian media as "not free", indicating that basic safeguards and guarantees for journalists and media enterprises are absent.Vladimir Putin_item_0_0

In the early 2000s, Putin and others in his government began promoting the idea in Russian media that they are the modern-day version of the 17th-century Romanov tsars who ended Russia's "Time of Troubles", meaning they claim to be the peacemakers and stabilizers after the fall of the Soviet Union. Vladimir Putin_sentence_329

Promoting conservatism Vladimir Putin_section_25

Putin has promoted explicitly conservative policies in social, cultural, and political matters, both at home and abroad. Vladimir Putin_sentence_330

Putin has attacked globalism and neo-liberalism and is identified by scholars with Russian conservatism. Vladimir Putin_sentence_331

Putin has promoted new think tanks that bring together like-minded intellectuals and writers. Vladimir Putin_sentence_332

For example, the Izborsky Club, founded in 2012 by the conservative right-wing journalist Alexander Prokhanov, stresses (i) Russian nationalism, (ii) the restoration of Russia's historical greatness, and (iii) systematic opposition to liberal ideas and policies. Vladimir Putin_sentence_333

Vladislav Surkov, a senior government official, has been one of the key economics consultants during Putin's presidency. Vladimir Putin_sentence_334

In cultural and social affairs Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Vladimir Putin_sentence_335

Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, head of the Church, endorsed his election in 2012 stating Putin's terms were like "a miracle of God." Vladimir Putin_sentence_336

Steven Myers reports, "The church, once heavily repressed, had emerged from the Soviet collapse as one of the most respected institutions... Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state." Vladimir Putin_sentence_337

Mark Woods, a Baptist minister and contributing editor to Christian Today, provides specific examples of how the Church has backed the expansion of Russian power into Crimea and eastern Ukraine. Vladimir Putin_sentence_338

More broadly, The New York Times reports in September 2016 how the Church's policy prescriptions support the Kremlin's appeal to social conservatives: Vladimir Putin_sentence_339

Vladimir Putin_description_list_1

  • "A fervent foe of homosexuality and any attempt to put individual rights above those of family, community or nation, the Russian Orthodox Church helps project Russia as the natural ally of all those who pine for a more secure, illiberal world free from the tradition-crushing rush of globalization, multiculturalism and women's and gay rights."Vladimir Putin_item_1_1

International sporting events Vladimir Putin_section_26

In 2007, Putin led a successful effort on behalf of Sochi for the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics, the first Winter Olympic Games to ever be hosted by Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_340

Likewise, in 2008, the city of Kazan won the bid for the 2013 Summer Universiade, and on 2 December 2010 Russia won the right to host the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2018 FIFA World Cup, also for the first time in Russian history. Vladimir Putin_sentence_341

In 2013, Putin stated that gay athletes would not face any discrimination at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics. Vladimir Putin_sentence_342

Wildlife protection and conservation Vladimir Putin_section_27

Putin is chairman of the Russian Geographical Society's board of trustees and is actively engaged in the protection of rare species. Vladimir Putin_sentence_343

The programs are being conducted by the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Vladimir Putin_sentence_344

Foreign policy Vladimir Putin_section_28

Main article: Foreign policy of Vladimir Putin Vladimir Putin_sentence_345

See also: Foreign relations of Russia and List of international presidential trips made by Vladimir Putin Vladimir Putin_sentence_346

Leonid Bershidsky analyzed Putin's interview with the Financial Times and concluded, "Putin is an imperialist of the old Soviet school, rather than a nationalist or a racist, and he has cooperated with, and promoted, people who are known to be gay." Vladimir Putin_sentence_347

Putin spoke favorably of artificial intelligence in regards to foreign policy, "Artificial intelligence is the future, not only for Russia, but for all humankind. Vladimir Putin_sentence_348

It comes with colossal opportunities, but also threats that are difficult to predict. Vladimir Putin_sentence_349

Whoever becomes the leader in this sphere will become the ruler of the world." Vladimir Putin_sentence_350

Mikhail Khodorkovsky stated, "[Putin] would like to sit at a table with the US president, and maybe the president of China, and just these three will decide the fate of the world." Vladimir Putin_sentence_351

South and East Asia Vladimir Putin_section_29

See also: India–Russia relations, Sino-Russian relations since 1991, and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Vladimir Putin_sentence_352

In 2012, Putin wrote an article in the Hindu newspaper, saying that "The Declaration on Strategic Partnership between India and Russia signed in October 2000 became a truly historic step". Vladimir Putin_sentence_353

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during Putin's 2012 visit to India: "President Putin is a valued friend of India and the original architect of the India-Russia strategic partnership". Vladimir Putin_sentence_354

Putin's Russia maintains positive relations with other BRIC countries. Vladimir Putin_sentence_355

The country has sought to strengthen ties especially with the People's Republic of China by signing the Treaty of Friendship as well as building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline and Trans-Siberian gas pipeline geared toward growing Chinese energy needs. Vladimir Putin_sentence_356

The mutual-security cooperation of the two countries and their central Asian neighbours is facilitated by the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Vladimir Putin_sentence_357

The announcement made during the SCO summit that Russia resumes on a permanent basis the long-distance patrol flights of its strategic bombers (suspended in 1992) in the light of joint Russian-Chinese military exercises, first-ever in history held on Russian territory, made some experts believe that Putin is inclined to set up an anti-NATO bloc or the Asian version of OPEC. Vladimir Putin_sentence_358

When presented with the suggestion that "Western observers are already likening the SCO to a military organization that would stand in opposition to NATO", Putin answered that "this kind of comparison is inappropriate in both form and substance". Vladimir Putin_sentence_359

Post-Soviet states Vladimir Putin_section_30

Further information: Colour revolution, Russia–Ukraine gas disputes, Russia–Ukraine relations, Belarus–Russia relations, Georgia–Russia relations, Kyrgyzstan–Russia relations, Kazakhstan–Russia relations, and Eurasian Economic Union Vladimir Putin_sentence_360

A series of so-called colour revolutions in the post-Soviet states, namely the Rose Revolution in Georgia in 2003, the Orange Revolution in Ukraine in 2004 and the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan in 2005, led to frictions in the relations of those countries with Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_361

In December 2004, Putin criticized the Rose and Orange revolutions, saying: "If you have permanent revolutions you risk plunging the post-Soviet space into endless conflict". Vladimir Putin_sentence_362

Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine joined NATO Russia could contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea. Vladimir Putin_sentence_363

At the summit, he told US President George W. Bush that "Ukraine is not even a state!" Vladimir Putin_sentence_364

while the following year Putin referred to Ukraine as "Little Russia". Vladimir Putin_sentence_365

Following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution in March 2014, the Russian Federation annexed Crimea. Vladimir Putin_sentence_366

According to Putin, this was done because "Crimea has always been and remains an inseparable part of Russia". Vladimir Putin_sentence_367

After the Russian annexion of Crimea, he said that Ukraine includes "regions of Russia's historic south" and "was created on a whim by the Bolsheviks". Vladimir Putin_sentence_368

He went on to declare that the February 2014 ousting of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych had been orchestrated by the West as an attempt to weaken Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_369

"Our Western partners have crossed a line. Vladimir Putin_sentence_370

They behaved rudely, irresponsibly and unprofessionally," he said, adding that the people who had come to power in Ukraine were "nationalists, neo-Nazis, Russophobes and anti-Semites". Vladimir Putin_sentence_371

In a July 2014 speech midst an armed insurgency in Eastern Ukraine, Putin stated he would use Russia's "entire arsenal" and "the right of self defence" to protect Russian speakers outside Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_372

With the split of the Ukrainian orthodox church from the Russian one in 2018, a number of experts came to the conclusion that Putin's policy of forceful engagement in post-Soviet republics significantly backfired on him, leading to a situation where he "annexed Crimea, but lost Ukraine", and provoked a much more cautious approach to Russia among other post-Soviet countries. Vladimir Putin_sentence_373

In late August 2014, Putin stated: "People who have their own views on history and the history of our country may argue with me, but it seems to me that the Russian and Ukrainian peoples are practically one people". Vladimir Putin_sentence_374

After making a similar statement, in late December 2015 he stated: "the Ukrainian culture, as well as Ukrainian literature, surely has a source of its own". Vladimir Putin_sentence_375

In August 2008, Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili attempted to restore control over the breakaway South Ossetia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_376

However, the Georgian military was soon defeated in the resulting 2008 South Ossetia War after regular Russian forces entered South Ossetia and then Georgia proper, then also opened a second front in the other Georgian breakaway province of Abkhazia with Abkhazian forces. Vladimir Putin_sentence_377

Despite existing or past tensions between Russia and most of the post-Soviet states, Putin has followed the policy of Eurasian integration. Vladimir Putin_sentence_378

Putin endorsed the idea of a Eurasian Union in 2011; the concept was proposed by the President of Kazakhstan in 1994. Vladimir Putin_sentence_379

On 18 November 2011, the presidents of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia signed an agreement setting a target of establishing the Eurasian Union by 2015. Vladimir Putin_sentence_380

The Eurasian Union was established on 1 January 2015. Vladimir Putin_sentence_381

United States, Western Europe, and NATO Vladimir Putin_section_31

See also: NATO–Russia relations, Russia–United States relations, and Anti-American sentiment in Russia Vladimir Putin_sentence_382

Under Putin, Russia's relationships with NATO and the U.S. have passed through several stages. Vladimir Putin_sentence_383

When he first became president, relations were cautious, but after the 9/11 attacks Putin quickly supported the U.S. in the War on Terror and the opportunity for partnership appeared. Vladimir Putin_sentence_384

However, the U.S. responded by further expansion of NATO to Russia's borders and by unilateral withdrawal from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Vladimir Putin_sentence_385

From 2003, when Russia did not support the Iraq War and when Putin became ever more distant from the West in his internal and external policies, relations continued to deteriorate. Vladimir Putin_sentence_386

According to Russia scholar Stephen F. Cohen, the narrative of the mainstream U.S. media, following that of the White House, became anti-Putin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_387

In an interview with Michael Stürmer, Putin said there were three questions which most concerned Russia and Eastern Europe: namely, the status of Kosovo, the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and American plans to build missile defence sites in Poland and the Czech Republic, and suggested that all three were linked. Vladimir Putin_sentence_388

His view was that concessions by the West on one of the questions might be met with concessions from Russia on another. Vladimir Putin_sentence_389

In a January 2007 interview, Putin said Russia was in favor of a democratic multipolar world and strengthening the systems of international law. Vladimir Putin_sentence_390

In February 2007, Putin criticized what he called the United States' monopolistic dominance in global relations, and "almost uncontained hyper use of force in international relations". Vladimir Putin_sentence_391

He said the result of it is that "no one feels safe! Vladimir Putin_sentence_392

Because no one can feel that international law is like a stone wall that will protect them. Vladimir Putin_sentence_393

Of course such a policy stimulates an arms race". Vladimir Putin_sentence_394

This came to be known as the Munich Speech, and former NATO secretary Jaap de Hoop Scheffer called the speech "disappointing and not helpful." Vladimir Putin_sentence_395

The months following Putin's Munich Speech were marked by tension and a surge in rhetoric on both sides of the Atlantic. Vladimir Putin_sentence_396

Both Russian and American officials, however, denied the idea of a new Cold War. Vladimir Putin_sentence_397

Putin publicly opposed plans for the U.S. Vladimir Putin_sentence_398 missile shield in Europe and presented President George W. Bush with a counterproposal on 7 June 2007 which was declined. Vladimir Putin_sentence_399

Russia suspended its participation in the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty on 11 December 2007. Vladimir Putin_sentence_400

Putin opposed Kosovo's 2008 declaration of independence, warning supporters of that precedent that it would de facto destabilize the whole system of international relations. Vladimir Putin_sentence_401

Putin had good relations with former American President George W. Bush, and many western European leaders. Vladimir Putin_sentence_402

His "cooler" and "more business-like" relationship with Germany's current chancellor, Angela Merkel is often attributed to Merkel's upbringing in the former DDR, where Putin was stationed as a KGB agent. Vladimir Putin_sentence_403

He had a very friendly and warm relationship with the former Prime Minister of Italy Silvio Berlusconi; the two leaders often described their relationship as a close friendship, continuing to organize bilateral meetings even after Berlusconi's resignation in November 2011. Vladimir Putin_sentence_404

In late 2013, Russian-American relations deteriorated further when the United States canceled a summit (for the first time since 1960) after Putin gave asylum to Edward Snowden, who had leaked classified information from the NSA. Vladimir Putin_sentence_405

Relations were further strained after the Russo-Ukrainian War and the Annexation of Crimea. Vladimir Putin_sentence_406

In 2014, Russia was suspended from the G8 group as a result of its annexation of Crimea. Vladimir Putin_sentence_407

However, in June 2015, Putin told an Italian newspaper that Russia has no intention of attacking NATO. Vladimir Putin_sentence_408

On 9 November 2016, Putin congratulated Donald Trump on becoming the 45th President of the United States. Vladimir Putin_sentence_409

In December 2016, US intelligence officials (headed by James Clapper) quoted by CBS News stated that Putin approved the email hacking and cyber attacks during the U.S. election, against the democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton. Vladimir Putin_sentence_410

A spokesman for Putin denied the reports. Vladimir Putin_sentence_411

Putin has repeatedly accused Hillary Clinton, who served as U.S. Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, of interfering in Russia's internal affairs, and in December 2016, Clinton accused Putin of having a personal grudge against her. Vladimir Putin_sentence_412

With the election of Trump, Putin's favorability in the U.S. increased. Vladimir Putin_sentence_413

A Gallup poll in February 2017 revealed a positive view of Putin among 22% of Americans, the highest since 2003. Vladimir Putin_sentence_414

However, Putin has stated that U.S.–Russian relations, already at the lowest level since the end of the Cold War, have continued to deteriorate after Trump took office in January 2017. Vladimir Putin_sentence_415

On 18 June 2020, The National Interest published nine thousand words essay by Putin, titled 'The Real Lessons of the 75th Anniversary of World War II'. Vladimir Putin_sentence_416

In the essay, Putin criticizes the western historical view of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact as the start of World War II, stating that the Munich Agreement was the beginning. Vladimir Putin_sentence_417

United Kingdom Vladimir Putin_section_32

In 2003, relations between Russia and the United Kingdom deteriorated when the United Kingdom granted political asylum to Putin's former patron, oligarch Boris Berezovsky. Vladimir Putin_sentence_418

This deterioration was intensified by allegations that the British were spying and making secret payments to pro-democracy and human rights groups. Vladimir Putin_sentence_419

Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko Vladimir Putin_section_33

Main article: Assassination of Alexander Litvinenko Vladimir Putin_sentence_420

The end of 2006 brought more strained relations in the wake of the death by polonium poisoning of former KGB and FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko in London, who became an MI6 agent in 2003. Vladimir Putin_sentence_421

In 2007, the crisis in relations continued with expulsion of four Russian envoys over Russia's refusal to extradite former KGB bodyguard Andrei Lugovoi to face charges in the murder of Litvinenko. Vladimir Putin_sentence_422

Mirroring the British actions, Russia expelled UK diplomats and took other retaliatory steps. Vladimir Putin_sentence_423

In 2015–16, the British Government conducted an inquiry into the death of Alexander Litvinenko. Vladimir Putin_sentence_424

Its report was released in January 2016. Vladimir Putin_sentence_425

According to the report, "The FSB operation to kill Mr Litvinenko was probably approved by Mr Patrushev and also by President Putin." Vladimir Putin_sentence_426

The report outlined some possible motives for the murder, including Litvinenko's public statements and books about the alleged involvement of the FSB in mass murder, and what was "undoubtedly a personal dimension to the antagonism" between Putin and Litvinenko, led to the murder. Vladimir Putin_sentence_427

Media analyst William Dunkerley, writing in The Guardian, criticised the inquiry as politically motivated, biased, lacking in evidence, and logically inconsistent. Vladimir Putin_sentence_428

Poisoning of Sergei Skripal Vladimir Putin_sentence_429

Main article: Poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal Vladimir Putin_sentence_430

On 4 March 2018, former double agent Sergei Skripal was poisoned with a Novichok nerve agent in Salisbury. Vladimir Putin_sentence_431

Ten days later, the British government formally accused the Russian state of attempted murder, a charge which Russia denied. Vladimir Putin_sentence_432

After the UK expelled 23 Russian diplomats (an action which would later be responded to with a Russian expulsion of 23 British diplomats), British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson said on 16 March that it was "overwhelmingly likely" Putin had personally ordered the poisoning of Skripal. Vladimir Putin_sentence_433

Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov called the allegation "shocking and unpardonable diplomatic misconduct". Vladimir Putin_sentence_434

Australia and Latin America Vladimir Putin_section_34

See also: Australia–Russia relations, Russia–Venezuela relations, Cuba–Russia relations, and Argentina–Russia relations Vladimir Putin_sentence_435

Putin and his successor, Medvedev, enjoyed warm relations with the late Hugo Chávez of Venezuela. Vladimir Putin_sentence_436

Much of this has been through the sale of military equipment; since 2005, Venezuela has purchased more than $4 billion worth of arms from Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_437

In September 2008, Russia sent Tupolev Tu-160 bombers to Venezuela to carry out training flights. Vladimir Putin_sentence_438

In November 2008, both countries held a joint naval exercise in the Caribbean. Vladimir Putin_sentence_439

Earlier in 2000, Putin had re-established stronger ties with Fidel Castro's Cuba. Vladimir Putin_sentence_440

In September 2007, Putin visited Indonesia and in doing so became the first Russian leader to visit the country in more than 50 years. Vladimir Putin_sentence_441

In the same month, Putin also attended the APEC meeting held in Sydney where he met with John Howard, who was the Australian Prime Minister at the time, and signed a uranium trade deal for Australia to sell uranium to Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_442

This was the first visit by a Russian president to Australia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_443

Middle East and North Africa Vladimir Putin_section_35

See also: Israel–Russia relations and Iran–Russia relations Vladimir Putin_sentence_444

On 16 October 2007, Putin visited Iran to participate in the Second Caspian Summit in Tehran, where he met with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Vladimir Putin_sentence_445

This was the first visit of a Soviet or Russian leader to Iran since Joseph Stalin's participation in the Tehran Conference in 1943, and thus marked a significant event in Iran-Russia relations. Vladimir Putin_sentence_446

At a press conference after the summit Putin said that "all our (Caspian) states have the right to develop their peaceful nuclear programmes without any restrictions". Vladimir Putin_sentence_447

Putin was quoted as describing Iran as a "partner", though he expressed concerns over the Iranian nuclear programme. Vladimir Putin_sentence_448

In April 2008, Putin became the first Russian President who visited Libya. Vladimir Putin_sentence_449

Putin condemned the foreign military intervention of Libya, he called UN resolution as "defective and flawed," and added "It allows everything. Vladimir Putin_sentence_450

It resembles medieval calls for crusades." Vladimir Putin_sentence_451

Upon the death of Muammar Gaddafi, Putin called it as "planned murder" by the US, saying: "They showed to the whole world how he (Gaddafi) was killed," and "There was blood all over. Vladimir Putin_sentence_452

Is that what they call a democracy?" Vladimir Putin_sentence_453

Regarding Syria, from 2000 to 2010 Russia sold around $1.5 billion worth of arms to that country, making Damascus Moscow's seventh-largest client. Vladimir Putin_sentence_454

During the Syrian civil war, Russia threatened to veto any sanctions against the Syrian government, and continued to supply arms to the regime. Vladimir Putin_sentence_455

Putin opposed any foreign intervention. Vladimir Putin_sentence_456

In June 2012, in Paris, he rejected the statement of French President François Hollande who called on Bashar Al-Assad to step down. Vladimir Putin_sentence_457

Putin echoed Assad's argument that anti-regime militants were responsible for much of the bloodshed. Vladimir Putin_sentence_458

He also talked about previous NATO interventions and their results, and asked "What is happening in Libya, in Iraq? Vladimir Putin_sentence_459

Did they become safer? Vladimir Putin_sentence_460

Where are they heading? Vladimir Putin_sentence_461

Nobody has an answer". Vladimir Putin_sentence_462

On 11 September 2013, The New York Times published an op-ed by Putin urging caution against US intervention in Syria and criticizing American exceptionalism. Vladimir Putin_sentence_463

Putin subsequently helped to arrange for the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons. Vladimir Putin_sentence_464

In 2015, he took a stronger pro-Assad stance and mobilized military support for the regime. Vladimir Putin_sentence_465

Some analysts have summarized Putin as being allied with Shiites and Alawites in the Middle East. Vladimir Putin_sentence_466

In October 2019, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited the United Arab Emirates, where six agreements were struck with Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed. Vladimir Putin_sentence_467

One of them included shared investments between Russian sovereign wealth fund and the Emirati investment fund Mubadala. Vladimir Putin_sentence_468

The two nations signed deals worth over $1.3bn, in energy, health and advance technology sectors. Vladimir Putin_sentence_469

BRICS Summit Vladimir Putin_section_36

President Putin has attended the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) Summit conferences since 2013. Vladimir Putin_sentence_470

Public image Vladimir Putin_section_37

Main article: Public image of Vladimir Putin Vladimir Putin_sentence_471

Polls and rankings Vladimir Putin_section_38

According to a June 2007 public opinion survey, Putin's approval rating was 81%, the second highest of any leader in the world that year. Vladimir Putin_sentence_472

In January 2013, at the time of 2011–2013 Russian protests, Putin's approval rating fell to 62%, the lowest figure since 2000 and a ten-point drop over two years. Vladimir Putin_sentence_473

By May 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution and annexation of Crimea, Putin's approval rating had rebounded to 85.9%, a six-year high. Vladimir Putin_sentence_474

After EU and U.S. sanctions against Russian officials as a result of the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, Putin's approval rating reached 87 percent, according to a Levada Center survey published on 6 August 2014. Vladimir Putin_sentence_475

In February 2015, based on new domestic polling, Putin was ranked the world's most popular politician. Vladimir Putin_sentence_476

In June 2015, Putin's approval rating climbed to 89%, an all-time high. Vladimir Putin_sentence_477

In 2016, the approval rating was 81%. Vladimir Putin_sentence_478

Observers saw Putin's high approval ratings in 2010's as a consequence of significant improvements in living standards, and Russia's reassertion of itself on the world scene during his presidency. Vladimir Putin_sentence_479

Despite high approval for Putin, confidence in the Russian economy was low, dropping to levels in 2016 that rivaled the recent lows in 2009 at the height of the global economic crisis. Vladimir Putin_sentence_480

Just 14% of Russians in 2016 said their national economy was getting better, and 18% said this about their local economies. Vladimir Putin_sentence_481

Putin's performance at reining in corruption is also unpopular among Russians. Vladimir Putin_sentence_482

Newsweek reported in June 2017 that "An opinion poll by the Moscow-based Levada Center indicated that 67 percent held Putin personally responsible for high-level corruption". Vladimir Putin_sentence_483

In July 2018, Putin's approval rating fell to 63% and just 49% would vote for Putin if presidential elections were held. Vladimir Putin_sentence_484

Levada poll results published in September 2018 showed Putin's personal trustworthiness levels at 39% (decline from 59% in November 2017) with the main contributing factor being the presidential support of the unpopular pension reform and economic stagnation. Vladimir Putin_sentence_485

In October 2018, two-thirds of Russians surveyed in Levada poll agreed that "Putin bears full responsibility for the problems of the country" which has been attributed to decline of a popular belief in "good tsar and bad boyars", a traditional attitude towards justifying failures of top of ruling hierarchy in Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_486

In January 2019, the percentage of Russians trusting the president hit a then-historic minimum – 33.4%. Vladimir Putin_sentence_487

It declined further to 31.7% in May 2019 which led to a dispute between the VCIOM and President's administration office, who accused it of incorrectly using an open question, after which VCIOM repeated the poll with a closed question getting 72.3%. Vladimir Putin_sentence_488

Nonetheless, in April 2019 Gallup poll showed a record number of Russians (20%) willing to permanently emigrate from Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_489

The decline is even larger in the 17–25 age group, "who find themselves largely disconnected from the country's aging leadership, nostalgic Soviet rhetoric and nepotistic agenda", according to a report prepared by Vladimir Milov. Vladimir Putin_sentence_490

The percentage of people willing to emigrate permanently in this age group is 41% and 60% has favorable views on the United States (three times more than in the 55+ age group). Vladimir Putin_sentence_491

Decline in support for president and the government is also visible in other polls, such as rapidly growing readiness to protest against poor living conditions. Vladimir Putin_sentence_492

In May 2020, amid the COVID-19 crisis, Putin's approval rating was 67.9%, measured by VCIOM when respondents were presented a list of names, and 27% when respondents were expected to name politicians they trust. Vladimir Putin_sentence_493

In a closed-question survey conducted by Levada, the approval rating was 59% which has been attributed to continued post-Crimea economic stagnation but also an apathetic response to the pandemic crisis in Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_494

Assessments Vladimir Putin_section_39

Critics state that Putin has moved Russia in an autocratic direction. Vladimir Putin_sentence_495

Putin has been described as a "dictator" by political opponent Garry Kasparov, as a "bully" and "arrogant" by former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and as "self-centered" and an "isolationist" by the Dalai Lama. Vladimir Putin_sentence_496

Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger wrote in 2014 that the West has demonized Putin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_497

Egon Krenz, former leader of East Germany, said the Cold War never ended and that, "After weak presidents like Gorbachev and Yeltsin, it is a great fortune for Russia that it has [President Vladimir] Putin." Vladimir Putin_sentence_498

Many Russians credit Putin for reviving Russia's fortunes. Vladimir Putin_sentence_499

Former Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev, while acknowledging the flawed democratic procedures and restrictions on media freedom during the Putin presidency, said that Putin had pulled Russia out of chaos at the end of the Yeltsin years, and that Russians "must remember that Putin saved Russia from the beginning of a collapse." Vladimir Putin_sentence_500

In 2015, opposition politician Boris Nemtsov said that Putin was turning Russia into a "raw materials colony" of China. Vladimir Putin_sentence_501

Chechen Republic head and Putin supporter, Ramzan Kadyrov, states that Putin saved both the Chechen people and Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_502

Russia has suffered democratic backsliding during Putin's tenure. Vladimir Putin_sentence_503

Freedom House has listed Russia as being "not free" since 2005. Vladimir Putin_sentence_504

Experts do not generally consider Russia to be a democracy, citing purges and jailing of political opponents, curtailed press freedom, and the lack of free and fair elections. Vladimir Putin_sentence_505

In 2004, Freedom House warned that Russia's "retreat from freedom marks a low point not registered since 1989, when the country was part of the Soviet Union." Vladimir Putin_sentence_506

The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Russia as "authoritarian" since 2011, whereas it had previously been considered a "hybrid regime" (with "some form of democratic government" in place) as late as 2007. Vladimir Putin_sentence_507

According to political scientist, Larry Diamond, writing in 2015, "no serious scholar would consider Russia today a democracy". Vladimir Putin_sentence_508

See also: Media freedom in Russia, Human rights in Russia, and Internet censorship in Russia Vladimir Putin_sentence_509

Personal image Vladimir Putin_section_40

Main article: Public image of Vladimir Putin Vladimir Putin_sentence_510

Putin cultivates an outdoor, sporty, tough guy public image, demonstrating his physical prowess and taking part in unusual or dangerous acts, such as extreme sports and interaction with wild animals, part of a public relations approach that, according to Wired, "deliberately cultivates the macho, take-charge superhero image". Vladimir Putin_sentence_511

For example, in 2007, the tabloid Komsomolskaya Pravda published a huge photograph of a shirtless Putin vacationing in the Siberian mountains under the headline: "Be Like Putin." Vladimir Putin_sentence_512

Some of the activities have been criticised for being staged. Vladimir Putin_sentence_513

Outside of Russia, his macho image has been the subject of parody. Vladimir Putin_sentence_514

Putin is believed to be self-conscious about his height, which has been estimated by Kremlin insiders at between 155 cm (5 ft 2 in) and 165 cm (5 ft 5 in) tall but is usually given at 170 cm (5 ft 7 in). Vladimir Putin_sentence_515

There are many songs about Putin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_516

Putin's name and image are widely used in advertisement and product branding. Vladimir Putin_sentence_517

Among the Putin-branded products are Putinka vodka, the PuTin brand of canned food, the Gorbusha Putina caviar, and a collection of T-shirts with his image. Vladimir Putin_sentence_518

In 2015, his advisor was found dead after days of excessive consumption of alcohol, though this was later ruled an accident. Vladimir Putin_sentence_519

Publication recognition in the United States Vladimir Putin_section_41

In 2007, he was the Time Person of the Year. Vladimir Putin_sentence_520

In 2015, he was No. Vladimir Putin_sentence_521

1 on the Time's Most Influential People List. Vladimir Putin_sentence_522

Forbes ranked him the World's Most Powerful Individual every year from 2013 to 2016. Vladimir Putin_sentence_523

He was ranked the second most powerful individual by Forbes in 2018. Vladimir Putin_sentence_524

Putinisms Vladimir Putin_section_42

Main article: Putinisms Vladimir Putin_sentence_525

Putin has produced many aphorisms and catch-phrases known as putinisms. Vladimir Putin_sentence_526

Many of them were first made during his annual Q&A conferences, where Putin answered questions from journalists and other people in the studio, as well as from Russians throughout the country, who either phoned in or spoke from studios and outdoor sites across Russia. Vladimir Putin_sentence_527

Putin is known for his often tough and sharp language, often alluding to Russian jokes and folk sayings. Vladimir Putin_sentence_528

Putin sometimes uses Russian criminal jargon (fenya), albeit not always correctly. Vladimir Putin_sentence_529

Electoral history Vladimir Putin_section_43

Main article: Electoral history of Vladimir Putin Vladimir Putin_sentence_530

Personal life Vladimir Putin_section_44

Family Vladimir Putin_section_45

On 28 July 1983, Putin married Lyudmila Shkrebneva, and they lived together in East Germany from 1985 to 1990. Vladimir Putin_sentence_531

They have two daughters, Mariya Putina, born 28 April 1985 in Leningrad, and Yekaterina Putina, born 31 August 1986 in Dresden, East Germany. Vladimir Putin_sentence_532

In April 2008, the Moskovsky Korrespondent reported that Putin had divorced Shkrebneva and was engaged to marry rhythmic gymnast Alina Kabaeva. Vladimir Putin_sentence_533

The story was denied and the newspaper was shut down shortly thereafter. Vladimir Putin_sentence_534

Putin and Shkrebneva continued to make public appearances together as spouses, while the status of his relationship with Kabaeva became a topic of speculation. Vladimir Putin_sentence_535

In the subsequent years, there were frequent reports that Putin and Kabaeva had multiple children together, although these reports were denied. Vladimir Putin_sentence_536

On 6 June 2013, Putin and Shkrebneva announced that their marriage was over, and, on 1 April 2014, the Kremlin confirmed that the divorce had been finalized. Vladimir Putin_sentence_537

In 2015, Kabaeva reportedly gave birth to a daughter; Putin is alleged to be the father. Vladimir Putin_sentence_538

In 2019, Kabaeva reportedly gave birth to twin boys by Putin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_539

Putin has two grandsons, born in 2012 and 2017. Vladimir Putin_sentence_540

His cousin, Igor Putin, was a director at Moscow based Master Bank and was accused in a number of money laundering scandals. Vladimir Putin_sentence_541

Personal wealth Vladimir Putin_section_46

See also: Panama Papers Vladimir Putin_sentence_542

Official figures released during the legislative election of 2007 put Putin's wealth at approximately 3.7 million rubles (US$150,000) in bank accounts, a private 77.4-square-meter (833 sq ft) apartment in Saint Petersburg, and miscellaneous other assets. Vladimir Putin_sentence_543

Putin's reported 2006 income totaled 2 million rubles (approximately $80,000). Vladimir Putin_sentence_544

In 2012, Putin reported an income of 3.6 million rubles ($113,000). Vladimir Putin_sentence_545

Putin has been photographed wearing a number of expensive wristwatches, collectively valued at $700,000, nearly six times his annual salary. Vladimir Putin_sentence_546

Putin has been known on occasion to give watches valued at thousands of dollars as gifts to peasants and factory workers. Vladimir Putin_sentence_547

According to Russian opposition politicians and journalists, Putin secretly possesses a multi-billion dollar fortune via successive ownership of stakes in a number of Russian companies. Vladimir Putin_sentence_548

According to one editorial in The Washington Post, "Putin might not technically own these 43 aircraft, but, as the sole political power in Russia, he can act like they're his". Vladimir Putin_sentence_549

Russian RIA journalist argued that "[Western] intelligence agencies (...) could not find anything". Vladimir Putin_sentence_550

These contradictory claims were analyzed by Polygraph.info which looked at a number of reports by Western (Anders Åslund estimate of $100–160 billion) and Russian (Stanislav Belkovsky estimated of $40 billion) analysts, CIA (estimate of $40 billion in 2007) as well as counterarguments of Russian media. Vladimir Putin_sentence_551

Polygraph concluded: Vladimir Putin_sentence_552

In April 2016, 11 million documents belonging to Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseca were leaked to the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung and the Washington-based International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Vladimir Putin_sentence_553

The name of Vladimir Putin does not appear in any of the records, and Putin denied his involvement with the company. Vladimir Putin_sentence_554

However, various media have reported on three of Putin's associates on the list. Vladimir Putin_sentence_555

According to the Panama Papers leak, close trustees of Putin own offshore companies worth US$2 billion in total. Vladimir Putin_sentence_556

The German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung regards the possibility of Putin's family profiting from this money as plausible. Vladimir Putin_sentence_557

According to the paper, the US$2 billion had been "secretly shuffled through banks and shadow companies linked to Putin's associates", such as construction billionaires Arkady and Boris Rotenberg, and Bank Rossiya, previously identified by the U.S. State Department as being treated by Putin as his personal bank account, had been central in facilitating this. Vladimir Putin_sentence_558

It concludes that "Putin has shown he is willing to take aggressive steps to maintain secrecy and protect [such] communal assets." Vladimir Putin_sentence_559

A significant proportion of the money trail leads to Putin's best friend Sergei Roldugin. Vladimir Putin_sentence_560

Although a musician, and in his own words, not a businessman, it appears he has accumulated assets valued at $100m, and possibly more. Vladimir Putin_sentence_561

It has been suggested he was picked for the role because of his low profile. Vladimir Putin_sentence_562

There have been speculations that Putin, in fact, owns the funds, and Roldugin just acted as a proxy. Vladimir Putin_sentence_563

Garry Kasparov says, "[Putin] controls enough money, probably more than any other individual in the history of human race". Vladimir Putin_sentence_564

Residences Vladimir Putin_section_47

Official government residences Vladimir Putin_section_48

As president and prime-minister, Putin has lived in numerous official residences throughout the country. Vladimir Putin_sentence_565

These residences include: the Moscow Kremlin, Novo-Ogaryovo in Moscow Oblast, the White House in Moscow, Gorki-9 near Moscow, Bocharov Ruchey in Sochi, Dolgiye Borody in Novgorod Oblast, and Riviera in Sochi. Vladimir Putin_sentence_566

In August 2012, critics of President Vladimir Putin listed the ownership of 20 villas and palaces, nine of which were built during Putin's 12 years in power. Vladimir Putin_sentence_567

Personal residences Vladimir Putin_section_49

Soon after Putin returned from his KGB service in Dresden, East Germany, he built a dacha in Solovyovka on the eastern shore of Lake Komsomolskoye on the Karelian Isthmus in Priozersky District of Leningrad Oblast, near St. Petersburg. Vladimir Putin_sentence_568

After the dacha burned down in 1996, Putin built a new one identical to the original and was joined by a group of seven friends who built dachas nearby. Vladimir Putin_sentence_569

In 1996, the group formally registered their fraternity as a co-operative society, calling it Ozero ("Lake") and turning it into a gated community. Vladimir Putin_sentence_570

A massive Italianate-style mansion costing an alleged US$1 billion and dubbed "Putin's Palace" is under construction near the Black Sea village of Praskoveevka. Vladimir Putin_sentence_571

The mansion, built on government land and sporting 3 helipads, and a private road paid for from state funds and guarded by officials wearing uniforms of the official Kremlin guard service, is said to have been built for Putin's private use. Vladimir Putin_sentence_572

In 2012, Sergei Kolesnikov, a former business associate of Putin's, told the BBC's Newsnight programme that he had been ordered by Deputy Prime Minister Igor Sechin to oversee the building of the palace. Vladimir Putin_sentence_573

Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov dismissed Kolesnikov's allegations against Putin as untrue, saying that "Putin has never had any relationship to this palace." Vladimir Putin_sentence_574

Pets Vladimir Putin_section_50

Main article: Pets of Vladimir Putin Vladimir Putin_sentence_575

Putin has received five dogs from various nation leaders, namely: Buffy, Yume, Verni, Pasha and Konni. Vladimir Putin_sentence_576

Konni died in 2014. Vladimir Putin_sentence_577

It is unknown what has happened to Putin’s two other dogs Tosya and Rodeo. Vladimir Putin_sentence_578

Religion Vladimir Putin_section_51

Putin is Russian Orthodox. Vladimir Putin_sentence_579

His mother was a devoted Christian believer who attended the Russian Orthodox Church, while his father was an atheist. Vladimir Putin_sentence_580

Though his mother kept no icons at home, she attended church regularly, despite government persecution of her religion at that time. Vladimir Putin_sentence_581

His mother secretly baptized him as a baby, and she regularly took him to services. Vladimir Putin_sentence_582

According to Putin, his religious awakening began after a serious car crash involving his wife in 1993, and a life-threatening fire that burned down their dacha in August 1996. Vladimir Putin_sentence_583

Shortly before an official visit to Israel, Putin's mother gave him his baptismal cross, telling him to get it blessed. Vladimir Putin_sentence_584

Putin states, "I did as she said and then put the cross around my neck. Vladimir Putin_sentence_585

I have never taken it off since." Vladimir Putin_sentence_586

When asked in 2007 whether he believes in God, he responded, "... Vladimir Putin_sentence_587

There are things I believe, which should not in my position, at least, be shared with the public at large for everybody's consumption because that would look like self-advertising or a political striptease." Vladimir Putin_sentence_588

Putin's rumoured confessor is Russian Orthodox Bishop Tikhon Shevkunov. Vladimir Putin_sentence_589

However, the sincerity of his Christianity has been rejected by his former advisor Sergei Pugachev. Vladimir Putin_sentence_590

Sports Vladimir Putin_section_52

Putin is frequently seen promoting sports—including skiing, badminton, cycling, and fishing—and a healthy lifestyle among Russians. Vladimir Putin_sentence_591

Putin watches football and supports FC Zenit Saint Petersburg. Vladimir Putin_sentence_592

He displays an interest in ice hockey and bandy. Vladimir Putin_sentence_593

Putin has been practicing judo since he was 11 years old, before switching to sambo at the age of fourteen. Vladimir Putin_sentence_594

He won competitions in both sports in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). Vladimir Putin_sentence_595

He was awarded eighth dan of the black belt in 2012, becoming the first Russian to achieve the status. Vladimir Putin_sentence_596

Putin also practises karate. Vladimir Putin_sentence_597

Putin co-authored a book entitled Judo with Vladimir Putin in Russian, and Judo: History, Theory, Practice in English (2004). Vladimir Putin_sentence_598

Benjamin Wittes, a black belt in taekwondo and aikido and editor of Lawfare, has disputed Putin's martial arts skills, stating that there is no video evidence of Putin displaying any real noteworthy judo skills. Vladimir Putin_sentence_599

Honours Vladimir Putin_section_53

Civilian awards presented by different countries Vladimir Putin_section_54

Vladimir Putin_table_general_1

DateVladimir Putin_header_cell_1_0_0 CountryVladimir Putin_header_cell_1_0_1 DecorationVladimir Putin_header_cell_1_0_2 PresenterVladimir Putin_header_cell_1_0_4 NotesVladimir Putin_header_cell_1_0_5
7 March 2001Vladimir Putin_cell_1_1_0 VietnamVladimir Putin_cell_1_1_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_1_2 Order of Ho Chi MinhVladimir Putin_cell_1_1_3 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_1_4 Vietnam's second highest distinctionVladimir Putin_cell_1_1_5
2004Vladimir Putin_cell_1_2_0 KazakhstanVladimir Putin_cell_1_2_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_2_2 Order of the Golden EagleVladimir Putin_cell_1_2_3 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_2_4 Kazakhstan's highest distinctionVladimir Putin_cell_1_2_5
2006Vladimir Putin_cell_1_3_0 Muslim Board of the CaucasusVladimir Putin_cell_1_3_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_3_2 Order of Sheikh ul-IslamVladimir Putin_cell_1_3_3 Allahshukur Pasha-zadeVladimir Putin_cell_1_3_4 Highest Muslim order, awarded for his role in interfaith dialogue between Muslims and Christians in the regionVladimir Putin_cell_1_3_5
22 September 2006Vladimir Putin_cell_1_4_0 FranceVladimir Putin_cell_1_4_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_4_2 Légion d'honneurVladimir Putin_cell_1_4_3 President Jacques ChiracVladimir Putin_cell_1_4_4 Grand-Croix (Grand Cross) rank is the highest French decorationVladimir Putin_cell_1_4_5
2007Vladimir Putin_cell_1_5_0 TajikistanVladimir Putin_cell_1_5_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_5_2 Order of Ismoili SomoniVladimir Putin_cell_1_5_3 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_5_4 Tajikistan's highest distinctionVladimir Putin_cell_1_5_5
12 February 2007Vladimir Putin_cell_1_6_0 Saudi ArabiaVladimir Putin_cell_1_6_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_6_2 Order of Abdulaziz al SaudVladimir Putin_cell_1_6_3 King AbdullahVladimir Putin_cell_1_6_4 Saudi Arabia's highest civilian awardVladimir Putin_cell_1_6_5
10 September 2007Vladimir Putin_cell_1_7_0 UAEVladimir Putin_cell_1_7_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_7_2 Order of ZayedVladimir Putin_cell_1_7_3 Sheikh KhalifaVladimir Putin_cell_1_7_4 UAE's highest civil decorationVladimir Putin_cell_1_7_5
2 April 2010Vladimir Putin_cell_1_8_0 VenezuelaVladimir Putin_cell_1_8_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_8_2 Order of the LiberatorVladimir Putin_cell_1_8_3 President Hugo ChávezVladimir Putin_cell_1_8_4 Venezuela's highest distinctionVladimir Putin_cell_1_8_5
24 March 2011Vladimir Putin_cell_1_9_0 Serbian Orthodox ChurchVladimir Putin_cell_1_9_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_9_2 Order of Saint SavaVladimir Putin_cell_1_9_3 Irinej, Serbian PatriarchVladimir Putin_cell_1_9_4 SOC's highest distinctionVladimir Putin_cell_1_9_5
4 October 2013Vladimir Putin_cell_1_10_0 MonacoVladimir Putin_cell_1_10_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_10_2 Order of Saint-CharlesVladimir Putin_cell_1_10_3 Prince AlbertVladimir Putin_cell_1_10_4 Monaco's highest decorationVladimir Putin_cell_1_10_5
11 July 2014Vladimir Putin_cell_1_11_0 CubaVladimir Putin_cell_1_11_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_11_2 Order of José MartíVladimir Putin_cell_1_11_3 President Raúl CastroVladimir Putin_cell_1_11_4 Cuba's highest decorationVladimir Putin_cell_1_11_5
16 October 2014Vladimir Putin_cell_1_12_0 SerbiaVladimir Putin_cell_1_12_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_12_2 Order of the Republic of SerbiaVladimir Putin_cell_1_12_3 President Tomislav NikolićVladimir Putin_cell_1_12_4 Grand Collar, Serbia's highest awardVladimir Putin_cell_1_12_5
3 October 2017Vladimir Putin_cell_1_13_0 TurkmenistanVladimir Putin_cell_1_13_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_13_2 Order "For contribution to the development of cooperation"Vladimir Putin_cell_1_13_3 President Gurbanguly BerdimuhamedowVladimir Putin_cell_1_13_4 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_13_5
22 November 2017Vladimir Putin_cell_1_14_0 KyrgyzstanVladimir Putin_cell_1_14_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_14_2 Order of ManasVladimir Putin_cell_1_14_3 President Almazbek AtambayevVladimir Putin_cell_1_14_4 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_14_5
8 June 2018Vladimir Putin_cell_1_15_0 ChinaVladimir Putin_cell_1_15_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_15_2 Order of FriendshipVladimir Putin_cell_1_15_3 President Xi JinpingVladimir Putin_cell_1_15_4 People's Republic of China's highest order of honourVladimir Putin_cell_1_15_5
28 May 2019Vladimir Putin_cell_1_16_0 KazakhstanVladimir Putin_cell_1_16_1 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_16_2 Order of NazarbayevVladimir Putin_cell_1_16_3 Elbasy Nursultan NazarbayevVladimir Putin_cell_1_16_4 Vladimir Putin_cell_1_16_5

Honorary doctorates Vladimir Putin_section_55

Vladimir Putin_table_general_2

DateVladimir Putin_header_cell_2_0_0 University/ InstituteVladimir Putin_header_cell_2_0_1
2001Vladimir Putin_cell_2_1_0 Baku Slavic UniversityVladimir Putin_cell_2_1_1
2001Vladimir Putin_cell_2_2_0 Yerevan State UniversityVladimir Putin_cell_2_2_1
2001Vladimir Putin_cell_2_3_0 Athens UniversityVladimir Putin_cell_2_3_1
2011Vladimir Putin_cell_2_4_0 University of BelgradeVladimir Putin_cell_2_4_1

Other awards Vladimir Putin_section_56

Vladimir Putin_table_general_3

YearVladimir Putin_header_cell_3_0_0 AwardVladimir Putin_header_cell_3_0_1 NotesVladimir Putin_header_cell_3_0_2
15 November 2011Vladimir Putin_cell_3_1_0 Confucius Peace PrizeVladimir Putin_cell_3_1_1 The China International Peace Research Centre awarded the Confucius Peace Prize to Putin, citing as reason Putin's opposition to NATO's Libya bombing in 2011 while also paying tribute to his decision to go to war in Chechnya in 1999. According to the committee, Putin's "Iron hand and toughness revealed in this war impressed the Russians a lot, and he was regarded to be capable of bringing safety and stability to Russia".Vladimir Putin_cell_3_1_2
2015Vladimir Putin_cell_3_2_0 Angel of Peace MedalVladimir Putin_cell_3_2_1 Pope Francis presented Putin with the Angel of Peace Medal, which is a customary gift to presidents visiting the Vatican.Vladimir Putin_cell_3_2_2
2020Vladimir Putin_cell_3_3_0 Ig Nobel PrizeVladimir Putin_cell_3_3_1 Putin is among eight world leaders to have received the Ig Nobel Prize in Medical Education "for using the COVID-19 viral pandemic to teach the world that politicians can have a more immediate effect on life and death than scientists and doctors can".Vladimir Putin_cell_3_3_2

Recognition Vladimir Putin_section_57

Vladimir Putin_table_general_4

YearVladimir Putin_header_cell_4_0_0 Award/RecognitionVladimir Putin_header_cell_4_0_1 DescriptionVladimir Putin_header_cell_4_0_2
2007Vladimir Putin_cell_4_1_0 Time: Person of the YearVladimir Putin_cell_4_1_1 "His final year as Russia's president has been his most successful yet. At home, he secured his political future. Abroad, he expanded his outsize—if not always benign—influence on global affairs."Vladimir Putin_cell_4_1_2
December 2007Vladimir Putin_cell_4_2_0 Expert: Person of the YearVladimir Putin_cell_4_2_1 A Russian business-oriented weekly magazine named Putin as its Person of the Year.Vladimir Putin_cell_4_2_2
5 October 2008Vladimir Putin_cell_4_3_0 Vladimir Putin AvenueVladimir Putin_cell_4_3_1 The central street of Grozny, the capital of Russia's Republic of Chechnya, was renamed from the Victory Avenue to the Vladimir Putin Avenue, as ordered by the Chechen President Ramzan Kadyrov.Vladimir Putin_cell_4_3_2
February 2011Vladimir Putin_cell_4_4_0 Vladimir Putin PeakVladimir Putin_cell_4_4_1 The parliament of Kyrgyzstan named a peak in Tian Shan mountains Vladimir Putin Peak.Vladimir Putin_cell_4_4_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir Putin.