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"Sing", "Singer", and "Vocals" redirect here. Singing_sentence_0

For other uses, see Sing (disambiguation), Singer (disambiguation), and Vocals (disambiguation). Singing_sentence_1

Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques. Singing_sentence_2

A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist (in jazz and popular music). Singing_sentence_3

Singers perform music (arias, recitatives, songs, etc.) that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing_sentence_4

Singing is often done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singing_sentence_5

Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument (as in art song or some jazz styles) up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Singing_sentence_6

Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, jazz, blues, ghazal and popular music styles such as pop, rock and electronic dance music. Singing_sentence_7

Singing can be formal or informal, arranged, or improvised. Singing_sentence_8

It may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort, or ritual as part of music education, or as a profession. Singing_sentence_9

Excellence in singing requires time, dedication, instruction, and regular practice. Singing_sentence_10

If practice is done regularly then the sounds can become clearer and stronger. Singing_sentence_11

Professional singers usually build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success (singing in more than one genre). Singing_sentence_12

Professional singers usually take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. Singing_sentence_13

Voices Singing_section_0

In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows; on the larynx, which acts as a reed or vibrator; on the chest, head cavities and skeleton, which have the function of an amplifier, as the tube in a wind instrument; and on the tongue, which together with the palate, teeth, and lips articulate and impose consonants and vowels on the amplified sound. Singing_sentence_14

Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are nevertheless coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. Singing_sentence_15

During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Singing_sentence_16

Exhalation may be aided by the abdominal, internal intercostal and lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Singing_sentence_17

Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals, scalenes, and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Singing_sentence_18

The pitch is altered with the vocal cords. Singing_sentence_19

With the lips closed, this is called humming. Singing_sentence_20

The sound of each individual's singing voice is entirely unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords, but also due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body. Singing_sentence_21

Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, and over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. Singing_sentence_22

The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, and the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Singing_sentence_23

Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, volume (loudness), timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Singing_sentence_24

Sound also resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singing_sentence_25

Singers can also learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract. Singing_sentence_26

This is known as vocal resonation. Singing_sentence_27

Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds. Singing_sentence_28

These different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. Singing_sentence_29

The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant; which has been shown to match particularly well to the most sensitive part of the ear's frequency range. Singing_sentence_30

It has also been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa. Singing_sentence_31

The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Singing_sentence_32

Vocal registration Singing_section_1

Main article: Vocal registration Singing_sentence_33

Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. Singing_sentence_34

A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, and possessing the same quality. Singing_sentence_35

Registers originate in laryngeal function. Singing_sentence_36

They occur because the vocal folds are capable of producing several different vibratory patterns. Singing_sentence_37

Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds. Singing_sentence_38

The occurrence of registers has also been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. Singing_sentence_39

The term "register" can be somewhat confusing as it encompasses several aspects of the voice. Singing_sentence_40

The term register can be used to refer to any of the following: Singing_sentence_41


  • A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers.Singing_item_0_0
  • A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice.Singing_item_0_1
  • A phonatory process (phonation is the process of producing vocal sound by the vibration of the vocal folds that is in turn modified by the resonance of the vocal tract)Singing_item_0_2
  • A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color"Singing_item_0_3
  • A region of the voice which is defined or delimited by vocal breaks.Singing_item_0_4

In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Singing_sentence_42

Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, and a certain type of sound. Singing_sentence_43

Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, and the whistle register. Singing_sentence_44

This view is also adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Singing_sentence_45

Vocal resonation Singing_section_2

Main article: Vocal resonation Singing_sentence_46

Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air. Singing_sentence_47

Various terms related to the resonation process include amplification, enrichment, enlargement, improvement, intensification, and prolongation, although in strictly scientific usage acoustic authorities would question most of them. Singing_sentence_48

The main point to be drawn from these terms by a singer or speaker is that the end result of resonation is, or should be, to make a better sound. Singing_sentence_49

There are seven areas that may be listed as possible vocal resonators. Singing_sentence_50

In sequence from the lowest within the body to the highest, these areas are the chest, the tracheal tree, the larynx itself, the pharynx, the oral cavity, the nasal cavity, and the sinuses. Singing_sentence_51

Chest voice and head voice Singing_section_3

Main articles: Chest voice and Head voice Singing_sentence_52

Chest voice and head voice are terms used within vocal music. Singing_sentence_53

The use of these terms varies widely within vocal pedagogical circles and there is currently no one consistent opinion among vocal music professionals in regards to these terms. Singing_sentence_54

Chest voice can be used in relation to a particular part of the vocal range or type of vocal register; a vocal resonance area; or a specific vocal timbre. Singing_sentence_55

Head voice can be used in relation to a particular part of the vocal range or type of vocal register or a vocal resonance area. Singing_sentence_56

In Men, the head voice is commonly referred to as the falsetto. Singing_sentence_57

History and development Singing_section_4

The first recorded mention of the terms chest voice and head voice was around the 13th century when it was distinguished from the "throat voice" (pectoris, guttoris, capitis—at this time it is likely that head voice referred to the falsetto register) by the writers Johannes de Garlandia and Jerome of Moravia. Singing_sentence_58

The terms were later adopted within bel canto, the Italian opera singing method, where chest voice was identified as the lowest and head voice the highest of three vocal registers: the chest, passagio, and head registers. Singing_sentence_59

This approach is still taught by some vocal pedagogists today. Singing_sentence_60

Another current popular approach that is based on the bel canto model is to divide both men and women's voices into three registers. Singing_sentence_61

Men's voices are divided into "chest register", "head register", and "falsetto register" and woman's voices into "chest register", "middle register", and "head register". Singing_sentence_62

Such pedagogists teach that the head register is a vocal technique used in singing to describe the resonance felt in the singer's head. Singing_sentence_63

However, as knowledge of physiology has increased over the past two hundred years, so has the understanding of the physical process of singing and vocal production. Singing_sentence_64

As a result, many vocal pedagogists, such as Ralph Appelman at Indiana University and William Vennard at the University of Southern California, have redefined or even abandoned the use of the terms chest voice and head voice. Singing_sentence_65

In particular, the use of the terms chest register and head register have become controversial since vocal registration is more commonly seen today as a product of laryngeal function that is unrelated to the physiology of the chest, lungs, and head. Singing_sentence_66

For this reason, many vocal pedagogists argue that it is meaningless to speak of registers being produced in the chest or head. Singing_sentence_67

They argue that the vibratory sensations which are felt in these areas are resonance phenomena and should be described in terms related to vocal resonance, not to registers. Singing_sentence_68

These vocal pedagogists prefer the terms chest voice and head voice over the term register. Singing_sentence_69

This view believes that the problems which people identify as register problems are really problems of resonance adjustment. Singing_sentence_70

This view is also in alignment with the views of other academic fields that study vocal registration including speech pathology, phonetics, and linguistics. Singing_sentence_71

Although both methods are still in use, current vocal pedagogical practice tends to adopt the newer more scientific view. Singing_sentence_72

Also, some vocal pedagogists take ideas from both viewpoints. Singing_sentence_73

The contemporary use of the term chest voice often refers to a specific kind of vocal coloration or vocal timbre. Singing_sentence_74

In classical singing, its use is limited entirely to the lower part of the modal register or normal voice. Singing_sentence_75

Within other forms of singing, chest voice is often applied throughout the modal register. Singing_sentence_76

Chest timbre can add a wonderful array of sounds to a singer's vocal interpretive palette. Singing_sentence_77

However, the use of overly strong chest voice in the higher registers in an attempt to hit higher notes in the chest can lead to forcing. Singing_sentence_78

Forcing can lead consequently to vocal deterioration. Singing_sentence_79

Classifying singing voices Singing_section_5

Main articles: Voice type and Voice classification in non-classical music Singing_sentence_80

In European classical music and opera, voices are treated like musical instruments. Singing_sentence_81

Composers who write vocal music must have an understanding of the skills, talents, and vocal properties of singers. Singing_sentence_82

Voice classification is the process by which human singing voices are evaluated and are thereby designated into voice types. Singing_sentence_83

These qualities include but are not limited to vocal range, vocal weight, vocal tessitura, vocal timbre, and vocal transition points such as breaks and lifts within the voice. Singing_sentence_84

Other considerations are physical characteristics, speech level, scientific testing, and vocal registration. Singing_sentence_85

The science behind voice classification developed within European classical music has been slow in adapting to more modern forms of singing. Singing_sentence_86

Voice classification is often used within opera to associate possible roles with potential voices. Singing_sentence_87

There are currently several different systems in use within classical music including the German Fach system and the choral music system among many others. Singing_sentence_88

No system is universally applied or accepted. Singing_sentence_89

However, most classical music systems acknowledge seven different major voice categories. Singing_sentence_90

Women are typically divided into three groups: soprano, mezzo-soprano, and contralto. Singing_sentence_91

Men are usually divided into four groups: countertenor, tenor, baritone, and bass. Singing_sentence_92

When considering voices of pre-pubescent children an eighth term, treble, can be applied. Singing_sentence_93

Within each of these major categories, there are several sub-categories that identify specific vocal qualities like coloratura facility and vocal weight to differentiate between voices. Singing_sentence_94

Within choral music, singers' voices are divided solely on the basis of vocal range. Singing_sentence_95

Choral music most commonly divides vocal parts into high and low voices within each sex (SATB, or soprano, alto, tenor, and bass/). Singing_sentence_96

As a result, the typical choral situation gives many opportunities for misclassification to occur. Singing_sentence_97

Since most people have medium voices, they must be assigned to a part that is either too high or too low for them; the mezzo-soprano must sing soprano or alto and the baritone must sing tenor or bass. Singing_sentence_98

Either option can present problems for the singer, but for most singers, there are fewer dangers in singing too low than in singing too high. Singing_sentence_99

Within contemporary forms of music (sometimes referred to as contemporary commercial music), singers are classified by the style of music they sing, such as jazz, pop, blues, soul, country, folk, and rock styles. Singing_sentence_100

There is currently no authoritative voice classification system within non-classical music. Singing_sentence_101

Attempts have been made to adopt classical voice type terms to other forms of singing but such attempts have been met with controversy. Singing_sentence_102

The development of voice categorizations were made with the understanding that the singer would be using classical vocal technique within a specified range using unamplified (no microphones) vocal production. Singing_sentence_103

Since contemporary musicians use different vocal techniques, microphones, and are not forced to fit into a specific vocal role, applying such terms as soprano, tenor, baritone, etc. can be misleading or even inaccurate. Singing_sentence_104

Vocal pedagogy Singing_section_6

Main article: Vocal pedagogy Singing_sentence_105

Vocal pedagogy is the study of the teaching of singing. Singing_sentence_106

The art and science of vocal pedagogy has a long history that began in Ancient Greece and continues to develop and change today. Singing_sentence_107

Professions that practice the art and science of vocal pedagogy include vocal coaches, choral directors, vocal music educators, opera directors, and other teachers of singing. Singing_sentence_108

Vocal pedagogy concepts are a part of developing proper vocal technique. Singing_sentence_109

Typical areas of study include the following: Singing_sentence_110


  • Anatomy and physiology as it relates to the physical process of singingSinging_item_1_5
    • Vocal health and voice disorders related to singingSinging_item_1_6
    • Breathing and air support for singingSinging_item_1_7
    • PhonationSinging_item_1_8
    • Vocal resonation or Voice projectionSinging_item_1_9
    • Vocal registration: a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, and possessing the same quality, which originate in laryngeal function, because each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds.Singing_item_1_10
    • Voice classificationSinging_item_1_11
  • Vocal styles: for classical singers, this includes styles ranging from Lieder to opera; for pop singers, styles can include "belted out" a blues ballads; for jazz singers, styles can include Swing ballads and scatting.Singing_item_1_12

Vocal technique Singing_section_7

Singing when done with proper vocal technique is an integrated and coordinated act that effectively coordinates the physical processes of singing. Singing_sentence_111

There are four physical processes involved in producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Singing_sentence_112

These processes occur in the following sequence: Singing_sentence_113


  1. Breath is takenSinging_item_2_14
  2. Sound is initiated in the larynxSinging_item_2_15
  3. The vocal resonators receive the sound and influence itSinging_item_2_16
  4. The articulators shape the sound into recognizable unitsSinging_item_2_17

Although these four processes are often considered separately when studied, in actual practice, they merge into one coordinated function. Singing_sentence_114

With an effective singer or speaker, one should rarely be reminded of the process involved as their mind and body are so coordinated that one only perceives the resulting unified function. Singing_sentence_115

Many vocal problems result from a lack of coordination within this process. Singing_sentence_116

Since singing is a coordinated act, it is difficult to discuss any of the individual technical areas and processes without relating them to others. Singing_sentence_117

For example, phonation only comes into perspective when it is connected with respiration; the articulators affect resonance; the resonators affect the vocal folds; the vocal folds affect breath control; and so forth. Singing_sentence_118

Vocal problems are often a result of a breakdown in one part of this coordinated process which causes voice teachers to frequently focus intensively on one area of the process with their student until that issue is resolved. Singing_sentence_119

However, some areas of the art of singing are so much the result of coordinated functions that it is hard to discuss them under a traditional heading like phonation, resonation, articulation, or respiration. Singing_sentence_120

Once the voice student has become aware of the physical processes that make up the act of singing and of how those processes function, the student begins the task of trying to coordinate them. Singing_sentence_121

Inevitably, students and teachers will become more concerned with one area of the technique than another. Singing_sentence_122

The various processes may progress at different rates, with a resulting imbalance or lack of coordination. Singing_sentence_123

The areas of vocal technique which seem to depend most strongly on the student's ability to coordinate various functions are: Singing_sentence_124



  1. Extending the vocal range to its maximum potentialSinging_item_4_18
  2. Developing consistent vocal production with a consistent tone qualitySinging_item_4_19
  3. Developing flexibility and agilitySinging_item_4_20
  4. Achieving a balanced vibratoSinging_item_4_21
  5. A blend of chest and head voice on every note of the rangeSinging_item_4_22

Developing the singing voice Singing_section_8

Singing is a skill that requires highly developed muscle reflexes. Singing_sentence_125

Singing does not require much muscle strength but it does require a high degree of muscle coordination. Singing_sentence_126

Individuals can develop their voices further through the careful and systematic practice of both songs and vocal exercises. Singing_sentence_127

Vocal exercises have several purposes, including warming up the voice; extending the vocal range; "lining up" the voice horizontally and vertically; and acquiring vocal techniques such as legato, staccato, control of dynamics, rapid figurations, learning to sing wide intervals comfortably, singing trills, singing melismas and correcting vocal faults. Singing_sentence_128

Vocal pedagogists instruct their students to exercise their voices in an intelligent manner. Singing_sentence_129

Singers should be thinking constantly about the kind of sound they are making and the kind of sensations they are feeling while they are singing. Singing_sentence_130

Learning to sing is an activity that benefits from the involvement of an instructor. Singing_sentence_131

A singer does not hear the same sounds inside his or her head that others hear outside. Singing_sentence_132

Therefore, having a guide who can tell a student what kinds of sounds he or she is producing guides a singer to understand which of the internal sounds correspond to the desired sounds required by the style of singing the student aims to re-create. Singing_sentence_133

Health benefits Singing_section_9

Physical Singing_section_10

1. Singing_sentence_134

Works the lungs, tones up the intercostals and diaphragm. Singing_sentence_135

2. Singing_sentence_136

Improves sleep Singing_sentence_137

3. Singing_sentence_138

Benefits cardio function by improving aerobic capacity Singing_sentence_139

4. Singing_sentence_140

Relaxes overall muscle tension Singing_sentence_141

5. Singing_sentence_142

Improves posture. Singing_sentence_143

6. Singing_sentence_144

Opens up sinuses and respiratory tubes Singing_sentence_145

7. Singing_sentence_146

With training, it could help decrease snoring Singing_sentence_147

8. Singing_sentence_148

Releases endorphins Singing_sentence_149

9. Singing_sentence_150

Boosts immune system Singing_sentence_151

10. Singing_sentence_152

Helps improve physical balance in people affected by illnesses such as Parkinson's disease Singing_sentence_153

Extending vocal range Singing_section_11

An important goal of vocal development is to learn to sing to the natural limits of one's vocal range without any obvious or distracting changes of quality or technique. Singing_sentence_154

Vocal pedagogists teach that a singer can only achieve this goal when all of the physical processes involved in singing (such as laryngeal action, breath support, resonance adjustment, and articulatory movement) are effectively working together. Singing_sentence_155

Most vocal pedagogists believe in coordinating these processes by (1) establishing good vocal habits in the most comfortable tessitura of the voice, and then (2) slowly expanding the range. Singing_sentence_156

There are three factors that significantly affect the ability to sing higher or lower: Singing_sentence_157


  1. The energy factor – "energy" has several connotations. It refers to the total response of the body to the making of sound; to a dynamic relationship between the breathing-in muscles and the breathing-out muscles known as the breath support mechanism; to the amount of breath pressure delivered to the vocal folds and their resistance to that pressure; and to the dynamic level of the sound.Singing_item_5_23
  2. The space factor – "space" refers to the size of the inside of the mouth and the position of the palate and larynx. Generally speaking, a singer's mouth should be opened wider the higher he or she sings. The internal space or position of the soft palate and larynx can be widened by relaxing the throat. Vocal pedagogists describe this as feeling like the "beginning of a yawn".Singing_item_5_24
  3. The depth factor – "depth" has two connotations. It refers to the actual physical sensations of depth in the body and vocal mechanism, and to mental concepts of depth that are related to tone quality.Singing_item_5_25

McKinney says, "These three factors can be expressed in three basic rules: (1) As you sing higher, you must use more energy; as you sing lower, you must use less. Singing_sentence_158

(2) As you sing higher, you must use more space; as you sing lower, you must use less. Singing_sentence_159

(3) As you sing higher, you must use more depth; as you sing lower, you must use less." Singing_sentence_160

Posture Singing_section_12

The singing process functions best when certain physical conditions of the body are put in place. Singing_sentence_161

The ability to move air in and out of the body freely and to obtain the needed quantity of air can be seriously affected by the posture of the various parts of the breathing mechanism. Singing_sentence_162

A sunken chest position will limit the capacity of the lungs, and a tense abdominal wall will inhibit the downward travel of the diaphragm. Singing_sentence_163

Good posture allows the breathing mechanism to fulfill its basic function efficiently without any undue expenditure of energy. Singing_sentence_164

Good posture also makes it easier to initiate phonation and to tune the resonators as proper alignment prevents unnecessary tension in the body. Singing_sentence_165

Vocal pedagogists have also noted that when singers assume good posture it often provides them with a greater sense of self-assurance and poise while performing. Singing_sentence_166

Audiences also tend to respond better to singers with good posture. Singing_sentence_167

Habitual good posture also ultimately improves the overall health of the body by enabling better blood circulation and preventing fatigue and stress on the body. Singing_sentence_168

There are eight components of the ideal singing posture: Singing_sentence_169


  1. Feet slightly apartSinging_item_6_26
  2. Legs straight but knees slightly bentSinging_item_6_27
  3. Hips facing straight forwardSinging_item_6_28
  4. Spine alignedSinging_item_6_29
  5. Abdomen flatSinging_item_6_30
  6. Chest comfortably forwardSinging_item_6_31
  7. Shoulders down and backSinging_item_6_32
  8. Head facing straight forwardSinging_item_6_33

Breathing and breath support Singing_section_13

Natural breathing has three stages: a breathing-in period, breathing out period, and a resting or recovery period; these stages are not usually consciously controlled. Singing_sentence_170

Within singing, there are four stages of breathing: a breathing-in period (inhalation); a setting up controls period (suspension); a controlled exhalation period (phonation); and a recovery period. Singing_sentence_171

These stages must be under conscious control by the singer until they become conditioned reflexes. Singing_sentence_172

Many singers abandon conscious controls before their reflexes are fully conditioned which ultimately leads to chronic vocal problems. Singing_sentence_173

Vibrato Singing_section_14

Vibrato is a technique in which a sustained note wavers very quickly and consistently between a higher and a lower pitch, giving the note a slight quaver. Singing_sentence_174

Vibrato is the pulse or wave in a sustained tone. Singing_sentence_175

Vibrato occurs naturally and is the result of proper breath support and a relaxed vocal apparatus. Singing_sentence_176

Some studies have shown that vibrato is the result of a neuromuscular tremor in the vocal folds. Singing_sentence_177

In 1922 Max Schoen was the first to make the comparison of vibrato to a tremor due to change in amplitude, lack of automatic control and it being half the rate of normal muscular discharge. Singing_sentence_178

Some singers use vibrato as a means of expression. Singing_sentence_179

Many successful artists can sing a deep, rich vibrato. Singing_sentence_180

Extended vocal technique Singing_section_15

Extended vocal techniques include rapping, screaming, growling, overtones, falsetto, yodeling, using a microphone and sound system, among others. Singing_sentence_181

Vocal music Singing_section_16

Main article: Vocal music Singing_sentence_182

Vocal music is music performed by one or more singers, which are typically called songs, and which may be performed with or without instrumental accompaniment, in which singing provides the main focus of the piece. Singing_sentence_183

Vocal music is probably the oldest form of music since it does not require any instrument or equipment besides the voice. Singing_sentence_184

All musical cultures have some form of vocal music and there are many long-standing singing traditions throughout the world's cultures. Singing_sentence_185

Music which employs singing but does not feature it prominently is generally considered instrumental music. Singing_sentence_186

For example, some blues rock songs may have a short, simple call-and-response chorus, but the emphasis in the song is on the instrumental melodies and improvisation. Singing_sentence_187

Vocal music typically features sung words called lyrics, although there are notable examples of vocal music that are performed using non-linguistic syllables or noises, sometimes as musical onomatopoeia. Singing_sentence_188

A short piece of vocal music with lyrics is broadly termed a song, although, in classical music, terms such as aria are typically used. Singing_sentence_189

Genres of vocal music Singing_section_17

Main article: Music genre Singing_sentence_190

Vocal music is written in many different forms and styles which are often labeled within a particular genre of music. Singing_sentence_191

These genres include Indian classical music, Art music, popular music, traditional music, regional and national music, and fusions of those genres. Singing_sentence_192

Within these larger genres are many subgenres. Singing_sentence_193

For example, popular music would encompass blues, jazz, country music, easy listening, hip hop, rock music, and several other genres. Singing_sentence_194

There may also be a subgenre within a subgenre such as vocalese and scat singing in jazz. Singing_sentence_195

Popular and traditional music Singing_section_18

In many modern pop musical groups, a lead singer performs the primary vocals or melody of a song, as opposed to a backing singer who sings backup vocals or the harmony of a song. Singing_sentence_196

Backing vocalists sing some, but usually, not all, parts of the song often singing only in a song's refrain or humming in the background. Singing_sentence_197

An exception is five-part gospel a cappella music, where the lead is the highest of the five voices and sings a descant and not the melody. Singing_sentence_198

Some artists may sing both the lead and backing vocals on audio recordings by overlapping recorded vocal tracks. Singing_sentence_199

Popular music includes a range of vocal styles. Singing_sentence_200

Hip-hop uses rapping, the rhythmic delivery of rhymes in a rhythmic speech over a beat or without accompaniment. Singing_sentence_201

Some types of rapping consist mostly or entirely of speech and chanting, like the Jamaican "toasting". Singing_sentence_202

In some types of rapping, the performers may interpolate short sung or half-sung passages. Singing_sentence_203

Blues singing is based on the use of the blue notes–notes sung at a slightly lower pitch than that of the major scale for expressive purposes. Singing_sentence_204

In heavy metal and hardcore punk subgenres, vocal styles can include techniques such as screams, shouts, and unusual sounds such as the "death growl". Singing_sentence_205

One difference between live performances in the popular and Classical genres is that whereas Classical performers often sing without amplification in small- to mid-size halls, in popular music, a microphone and PA system (amplifier and speakers) are used in almost all performance venues, even a small coffee house. Singing_sentence_206

The use of the microphone has had several impacts on popular music. Singing_sentence_207

For one, it facilitated the development of intimate, expressive singing styles such as "crooning" which would not have enough projection and volume if done without a microphone. Singing_sentence_208

As well, pop singers who use microphones can do a range of other vocal styles that would not project without amplification, such as making whispering sounds, humming, and mixing half-sung and sung tones. Singing_sentence_209

As well, some performers use the microphone's response patterns to create effects, such as bringing the mic very close to the mouth to get an enhanced bass response, or, in the case of hip-hop beatboxers, doing plosive "p" and "b" sounds into the mic to create percussive effects. Singing_sentence_210

In the 2000s, controversy arose over the widespread use of electronic Auto-Tune pitch correction devices with recorded and live popular music vocals. Singing_sentence_211

Controversy has also arisen due to cases where pop singers have been found to be lip-syncing to a pre-recorded recording of their vocal performance or, in the case of the controversial act Milli Vanilli, lip-syncing to tracks recorded by other uncredited singers. Singing_sentence_212

While some bands use backup singers who only sing when they are on stage, it is common for backup singers in popular music to have other roles. Singing_sentence_213

In many rock and metal bands, the musicians doing backup vocals also play instruments, such as rhythm guitar, electric bass, or drums. Singing_sentence_214

In Latin or Afro-Cuban groups, backup singers may play percussion instruments or shakers while singing. Singing_sentence_215

In some pop and hip-hop groups and in musical theater, the backup singers may be required to perform elaborately choreographed dance routines while they sing through headset microphones. Singing_sentence_216

Careers Singing_section_19

The salaries and working conditions for vocalists vary a great deal. Singing_sentence_217

While jobs in other music fields such as music education choir conductors tend to be based on full-time, salaried positions, singing jobs tend to be based on contracts for individual shows or performances, or for a sequence of shows Singing_sentence_218

Aspiring singers and vocalists must have musical skills, an excellent voice, the ability to work with people, and a sense of showmanship and drama. Singing_sentence_219

Additionally, singers need to have the ambition and drive to continually study and improve, Professional singers continue to seek out vocal coaching to hone their skills, extend their range, and learn new styles. Singing_sentence_220

As well, aspiring singers need to gain specialized skills in the vocal techniques used to interpret songs, learn about the vocal literature from their chosen style of music, and gain skills in choral music techniques, sight singing and memorizing songs, and vocal exercises. Singing_sentence_221

Some singers learn other music jobs, such as the composing, music producing and songwriting. Singing_sentence_222

Some singers put videos on YouTube and streaming apps. Singing_sentence_223

Singers market themselves to buyers of vocal talent, by doing auditions in front of a music director. Singing_sentence_224

Depending on the style of vocal music that a person has trained in, the "talent buyers" that they seek out may be record company, A&R representatives, music directors, choir directors, nightclub managers, or concert promoters. Singing_sentence_225

A CD or DVD with excerpts of vocal performances is used to demonstrate a singer's skills. Singing_sentence_226

Some singers hire an agent or manager to help them to seek out paid engagements and other performance opportunities; the agent or manager is often paid by receiving a percentage of the fees that the singer gets from performing onstage. Singing_sentence_227

Singing competitions Singing_section_20

See also: Music competition Singing_sentence_228

There are many television shows that showcase singing. Singing_sentence_229

American Idol was launched in 2002. Singing_sentence_230

The first singing reality show was Sa Re Ga Ma Pa launched by Zee TV in the 1995. Singing_sentence_231

At the American Idol Contestants audition in front of a panel of judges to see if they can move on to the next round in Hollywood, from then, the competition begins. Singing_sentence_232

The field of contestants is narrowed down week by week until a winner is chosen. Singing_sentence_233

To move on to the next round, the contestants' fate is determined by a vote by viewers. Singing_sentence_234

The Voice is another singing competition program. Singing_sentence_235

Similar to American Idol, the contestants audition in front of a panel of judges, however, the judges' chairs are faced towards the audience during the performance. Singing_sentence_236

If the coaches are interested in the artist, they will press their button signifying they want to coach them. Singing_sentence_237

Once the auditions conclude, coaches have their team of artists and the competition begins. Singing_sentence_238

Coaches then mentor their artists and they compete to find the best singer. Singing_sentence_239

Other well-known singing competitions include The X Factor, America's Got Talent, Rising Star and The Sing-Off. Singing_sentence_240

A different example of a singing competition is Don't Forget the Lyrics! Singing_sentence_241 , where the show's contestants compete to win cash prizes by correctly recalling song lyrics from a variety of genres. Singing_sentence_242

The show contrasts to many other music-based game shows in that artistic talent (such as the ability to sing or dance in an aesthetically pleasing way) is irrelevant to the contestants' chances of winning; in the words of one of their commercials prior to the first airing, "You don't have to sing it well; you just have to sing it right." Singing_sentence_243

In a similar vein, The Singing Bee combines karaoke singing with a spelling bee-style competition, with the show featuring contestants trying to remember the lyrics to popular songs. Singing_sentence_244

Health benefits Singing_section_21

Scientific studies suggest that singing can have positive effects on people's health. Singing_sentence_245

A preliminary study based on self-reported data from a survey of students participating in choral singing found perceived benefits including increased lung capacity, improved mood, stress reduction, as well as perceived social and spiritual benefits. Singing_sentence_246

However, one much older study of lung capacity compared those with professional vocal training to those without, and failed to back up the claims of increased lung capacity. Singing_sentence_247

Singing may positively influence the immune system through the reduction of stress. Singing_sentence_248

One study found that both singing and listening to choral music reduces the level of stress hormones and increases immune function. Singing_sentence_249

A multinational collaboration to study the connection between singing and health was established in 2009, called Advancing Interdisciplinary Research in Singing (AIRS). Singing_sentence_250

Singing provides physical, cognitive, and emotional benefits to participants. Singing_sentence_251

When they step on stage, many singers forget their worries and focus solely on the song. Singing_sentence_252

Singing is becoming a more widely known method of increasing an individual's overall health and wellness, in turn helping them to battle diseases such as cancer more effectively due to decreased stress, releasing of endorphins, and increased lung capacity. Singing_sentence_253

Effect on the brain Singing_section_22

John Daniel Scott, among others, have cited that "people who sing are more likely to be happy". Singing_sentence_254

This is because "singing elevates the levels of neurotransmitters which are associated with pleasure and well being". Singing_sentence_255

Humans have a long prehistory of music, especially singing; before written language, stories were passed down through song, because song is often more memorable. Singing_sentence_256

There is also evidence that music or singing may have evolved in humans before language. Singing_sentence_257

Levitin, in his This is Your Brain on Music, argues that "music may be the activity that prepared our pre-human ancestors for speech communication" and that "singing ... might have helped our species to refine motor skills, paving the way for the development of the exquisitely fine muscle control required for vocal ... speech" (260). Singing_sentence_258

On the other hand, he cites Pinker, who "argued that language is an adaptation and music is its Spandrel ... an evolutionary accident piggybacking on language" (248). Singing_sentence_259

Studies have found evidence suggesting the mental, as well as physical, benefits of singing. Singing_sentence_260

When conducting a study with 21 members of a choir at three different points over one year, three themes suggested three areas of benefits; the social impact (connectedness with others), personal impact (positive emotions, self-perception, etc.), and functional outcomes (health benefits of being in the choir). Singing_sentence_261

Findings showed that a sense of well-being is associated with singing, by uplifting the mood of the participants and releasing endorphins in the brain. Singing_sentence_262

Many singers also reported that singing helped them regulate stress and relax, allowing them to deal better with their daily lives. Singing_sentence_263

From a social perspective, approval from the audience, and interaction with other choir members in a positive manner is also beneficial. Singing_sentence_264

Singing is beneficial for pregnant mothers. Singing_sentence_265

By giving them another medium of communication with their newborns, mothers in one study reported feelings of love and affection when singing to their unborn children. Singing_sentence_266

They also reported feeling more relaxed than ever before during their stressful pregnancy. Singing_sentence_267

A song can have nostalgic significance by reminding a singer of the past, and momentarily transport them, allowing them to focus on singing and embrace the activity as an escape from their daily lives and problems. Singing_sentence_268

Effect on body Singing_section_23

A recent study by Tenovus Cancer Care found that singing in a choir for just one hour boosts levels of immune proteins in cancer patients and has a positive overall effect on the health of patients. Singing_sentence_269

The study explores the possibility that singing could help put patients in the best mental and physical shape to receive the treatment they need, by reducing stress hormones, and increasing quantities of cytokines- proteins of the immune system that can increase the body's ability to fight disease. Singing_sentence_270

"Singing gives you physical benefits like breath control and muscle movement and enunciation, as well as the learning benefits of processing information" says a musical director and accompanist in the study. Singing_sentence_271

The enunciation and speech benefits tie into the language benefits detailed below. Singing_sentence_272

Some have advocated, as in a 2011 article in the Toronto Star, that everyone sing, even if they are not musically talented, because of its health benefits. Singing_sentence_273

Singing lowers blood pressure by releasing pent up emotions, boosting relaxation, and reminding them of happy times. Singing_sentence_274

It also allows singers to breathe more easily. Singing_sentence_275

Patients with lung disease and chronic pulmonary disease experience relief from their symptoms from singing just two times a week. Singing_sentence_276

In addition to breathing related illness, singing also has numerous benefits for stroke victims when it comes to relearning the ability to speak and communicate by singing their thoughts. Singing_sentence_277

Singing activates the right side of the brain when the left side cannot function (the left side is the area of the brain responsible for speech), so it is easy to see how singing can be an excellent alternative to speech while the victim heals. Singing_sentence_278

Singing and language Singing_section_24

Every natural or non-natural language has its own intrinsic musicality which affects singing by means of pitch, phrasing, and accent. Singing_sentence_279

Neurological aspects Singing_section_25

Much research has been done recently on the link between music and language, especially singing. Singing_sentence_280

It is becoming increasingly clear that these two processes are very much alike, and yet also different. Singing_sentence_281

Levitin describes how, beginning with the eardrum, sound waves are translated into pitch, or a tonotopic map, and then shortly thereafter "speech and music probably diverge into separate processing circuits" (130). Singing_sentence_282

There is evidence that neural circuits used for music and language may start out in infants undifferentiated. Singing_sentence_283

There are several areas of the brain that are used for both language and music. Singing_sentence_284

For example, Brodmann area 47, which has been implicated in the processing of syntax in oral and sign languages, as well as musical syntax and semantic aspects of language. Singing_sentence_285

Levitin recounts how in certain studies, "listening to music and attending its syntactic features," similar to the syntactic processes in language, activated this part of the brain. Singing_sentence_286

In addition, "musical syntax ... has been localized to ... areas adjacent to and overlapping with those regions that process speech syntax, such as Broca's area" and "the regions involved in musical semantics .. appear to be [localized] near Wernicke's area." Singing_sentence_287

Both Broca's area and Wernicke's area are important steps in language processing and production. Singing_sentence_288

Singing has been shown to help stroke victims recover speech. Singing_sentence_289

According to neurologist Gottfried Schlaug, there is a corresponding area to that of speech, which resides in the left hemisphere, on the right side of the brain. Singing_sentence_290

This is casually known as the "singing center." Singing_sentence_291

By teaching stroke victims to sing their words, this can help train this area of the brain for speech. Singing_sentence_292

In support of this theory, Levitin asserts that "regional specificity," such as that for speech, "may be temporary, as the processing centers for important mental functions actually move to other regions after trauma or brain damage." Singing_sentence_293

Thus in the right hemisphere of the brain, the "singing center" may be retrained to help produce speech. Singing_sentence_294

Accents and singing Singing_section_26

The speaking dialect or accent of a person may differ greatly from the general singing accent that a person uses while singing. Singing_sentence_295

When people sing, they generally use the accent or neutral accent that is used in the style of music they are singing in, rather than a regional accent or dialect; the style of music and the popular center/region of the style has more influence on the singing accent of a person than where they come from. Singing_sentence_296

For example, in the English language, British singers of rock or popular music often sing in an American accent or neutral accent instead of an English accent. Singing_sentence_297

Singing animals Singing_section_27

Scholars agree that singing is strongly present in many different species. Singing_sentence_298

Wide dispersal of singing behavior among very different animal species, like birds, gibbons, whales, and many others strongly suggests that singing appeared independently in different species. Singing_sentence_299

Currently, there are about 5400 species of animals that are known to sing. Singing_sentence_300

At least some singing species demonstrate the ability to learn their songs, to improvise and even to compose new melodies. Singing_sentence_301

In some animal species singing is a group activity (see, for example, singing in gibbon families.) Singing_sentence_302

See also Singing_section_28


Art music Singing_section_29

Other music Singing_section_30

Physiology Singing_section_31


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