Washington, D.C.

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This article is about the capital of the United States. Washington, D.C._sentence_0

For the U.S. state, see Washington (state). Washington, D.C._sentence_1

For the former district in the Pacific Northwest, see Columbia District. Washington, D.C._sentence_2

For the history of the District of Columbia as a separate legal entity, see District of Columbia (until 1871). Washington, D.C._sentence_3

For other uses, see United States capital (disambiguation) and Washington (disambiguation). Washington, D.C._sentence_4

For an administrative division of the South American country Colombia, see Districts of Colombia. Washington, D.C._sentence_5

Washington, D.C._table_infobox_0

Washington, D.C.Washington, D.C._header_cell_0_0_0
CountryWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesWashington, D.C._cell_0_1_1
Residence ActWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_2_0 1790Washington, D.C._cell_0_2_1
OrganizedWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_3_0 1801Washington, D.C._cell_0_3_1
ConsolidatedWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_4_0 1871Washington, D.C._cell_0_4_1
Home Rule ActWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_5_0 1973Washington, D.C._cell_0_5_1
Named forWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_6_0 George Washington, Christopher ColumbusWashington, D.C._cell_0_6_1
GovernmentWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_7_0
MayorWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_8_0 Muriel Bowser (D)Washington, D.C._cell_0_8_1
D.C. CouncilWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_9_0 ListWashington, D.C._cell_0_9_1
U.S. HouseWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_10_0 Eleanor Holmes Norton (D),

Delegate (At-large)Washington, D.C._cell_0_10_1

AreaWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_11_0
Federal capital city and federal districtWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_12_0 68.34 sq mi (177.0 km)Washington, D.C._cell_0_12_1
LandWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_13_0 61.05 sq mi (158.1 km)Washington, D.C._cell_0_13_1
WaterWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_14_0 7.29 sq mi (18.9 km)Washington, D.C._cell_0_14_1
Highest elevationWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_15_0 409 ft (125 m)Washington, D.C._cell_0_15_1
Lowest elevationWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_16_0 0 ft (0 m)Washington, D.C._cell_0_16_1
Population (2019)Washington, D.C._header_cell_0_17_0
Federal capital city and federal districtWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_18_0 705,749Washington, D.C._cell_0_18_1
RankWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_19_0 US cities: 20th, U.S. as of 2018Washington, D.C._cell_0_19_1
DensityWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_20_0 11,506/sq mi (4,442/km)Washington, D.C._cell_0_20_1
MetroWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_21_0 6,216,589 (6th U.S.)Washington, D.C._cell_0_21_1
CSAWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_22_0 9,665,892 (4th U.S.)Washington, D.C._cell_0_22_1
Demonym(s)Washington, D.C._header_cell_0_23_0 WashingtonianWashington, D.C._cell_0_23_1
Time zoneWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_24_0 UTC−5 (EST)Washington, D.C._cell_0_24_1
Summer (DST)Washington, D.C._header_cell_0_25_0 UTC−4 (EDT)Washington, D.C._cell_0_25_1
ZIP CodesWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_26_0 20001–20098, 20201–20599Washington, D.C._cell_0_26_1
Area code(s)Washington, D.C._header_cell_0_27_0 202Washington, D.C._cell_0_27_1
Major airportsWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_28_0 Washington, D.C._cell_0_28_1
Commuter railWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_29_0 MARC_Train Virginia_Railway_ExpressWashington, D.C._cell_0_29_1
Rapid transitWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_30_0 Red_Line_(Washington_Metro) Blue_Line_(Washington_Metro) Orange_Line_(Washington_Metro) Yellow_Line_(Washington_Metro) Green_Line_(Washington_Metro) Silver_Line_(Washington_Metro)Washington, D.C._cell_0_30_1
AbbreviationsWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_31_0 DC, D.C.Washington, D.C._cell_0_31_1
WebsiteWashington, D.C._header_cell_0_32_0 Washington, D.C._cell_0_32_1

Washington, D.C._table_infobox_1

Washington, D.C. state symbolsWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_1_0
BirdWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_2_0 Wood ThrushWashington, D.C._cell_1_2_1
FlowerWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_3_0 American Beauty roseWashington, D.C._cell_1_3_1
TreeWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_4_0 Scarlet OakWashington, D.C._cell_1_4_1
Inanimate insigniaWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_5_0
BeverageWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_6_0 RickeyWashington, D.C._cell_1_6_1
DinosaurWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_7_0 CapitalsaurusWashington, D.C._cell_1_7_1
FoodWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_8_0 CherryWashington, D.C._cell_1_8_1
RockWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_9_0 Potomac bluestoneWashington, D.C._cell_1_9_1
SloganWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_10_0 Federal CityWashington, D.C._cell_1_10_1
State route markerWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_11_0
State quarterWashington, D.C._header_cell_1_12_0

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and also known as D.C. or Washington, is the capital city of the United States of America. Washington, D.C._sentence_6

Founded after the American Revolution, Washington was named for George Washington, the first president of the United States and a Founding Father. Washington, D.C._sentence_7

As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. Washington, D.C._sentence_8

Located on the Potomac River bordering Maryland and Virginia, the city is one of the most visited cities in the United States, with more than 20 million visitors annually. Washington, D.C._sentence_9

The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River near the country's East Coast. Washington, D.C._sentence_10

The U.S. Washington, D.C._sentence_11 Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U.S. Washington, D.C._sentence_12 Congress, and the district is therefore not a part of any U.S. Washington, D.C._sentence_13 state. Washington, D.C._sentence_14

The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of [[Georgetown_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_15

)|Georgetown]] and Alexandria. Washington, D.C._sentence_16

The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. Washington, D.C._sentence_17

In 1846, Congress returned the land originally ceded by Virginia, including the city of Alexandria; in 1871, it created a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the district. Washington, D.C._sentence_18

Washington, D.C. had an estimated population of 705,749 as of July 2019, making it the 20th-most populous city in the United States and giving it a population larger than that of two U.S. states. Washington, D.C._sentence_19

Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington, D.C._sentence_20

Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth-largest (including parts of Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia), had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. Washington, D.C._sentence_21

The three branches of the U.S. federal government are centered in the district: Congress (legislative), the president (executive), and the Supreme Court (judicial). Washington, D.C._sentence_22

Washington is home to many national monuments and museums, primarily situated on or around the National Mall. Washington, D.C._sentence_23

The city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profits, lobbying groups, and professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, and the American Red Cross. Washington, D.C._sentence_24

A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the district since 1973. Washington, D.C._sentence_25

However, Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. Washington, D.C._sentence_26

D.C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the district has no representation in the Senate. Washington, D.C._sentence_27

District voters choose three presidential electors in accordance with the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Washington, D.C._sentence_28

History Washington, D.C._section_0

For the capitals of the United States before the founding of Washington, D.C., see List of capitals in the United States § Capitals of the US. Washington, D.C._sentence_29

Further information: History of Washington, D.C.; Timeline of Washington, D.C.; and District of Columbia (until 1871) Washington, D.C._sentence_30

Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people (also known as the Conoy) inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. Washington, D.C._sentence_31

One group known as the Nacotchtank (also called the Nacostines by Catholic missionaries) maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Washington, D.C._sentence_32

Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. Washington, D.C._sentence_33

In his Federalist No. Washington, D.C._sentence_34 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety. Washington, D.C._sentence_35

Five years earlier a band of unpaid soldiers had besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Washington, D.C._sentence_36

Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Washington, D.C._sentence_37

Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". Washington, D.C._sentence_38

However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. Washington, D.C._sentence_39

In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. Washington, D.C._sentence_40

Foundation Washington, D.C._section_1

On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. Washington, D.C._sentence_41

The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16. Washington, D.C._sentence_42

Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side, totaling 100 square miles (259 km). Washington, D.C._sentence_43

Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of [[Georgetown_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_44

)|Georgetown, Maryland]], founded in 1751, and the city of Alexandria, Virginia, founded in 1749. Washington, D.C._sentence_45

During 1791–92, a team under Andrew Ellicott, including Ellicott's brothers Joseph and Benjamin and African-American astronomer Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Washington, D.C._sentence_46

Many of the stones are still standing. Washington, D.C._sentence_47

A new federal city was then constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. Washington, D.C._sentence_48

On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington. Washington, D.C._sentence_49

The federal district was named Columbia (a feminine form of "Columbus"), which was a poetic name for the United States commonly in use at that time. Washington, D.C._sentence_50

Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Washington, D.C._sentence_51

Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 which officially organized the district and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal government. Washington, D.C._sentence_52

Further, the unincorporated area within the district was organized into two counties: the County of Washington to the east of the Potomac and the County of Alexandria to the west. Washington, D.C._sentence_53

After the passage of this Act, citizens living in the district were no longer considered residents of Maryland or Virginia, which therefore ended their representation in Congress. Washington, D.C._sentence_54

Burning during the War of 1812 Washington, D.C._section_2

Main article: War of 1812 Washington, D.C._sentence_55

On August 24–25, 1814, in a raid known as the Burning of Washington, British forces invaded the capital during the War of 1812. Washington, D.C._sentence_56

The Capitol, Treasury, and White House were burned and gutted during the attack. Washington, D.C._sentence_57

Most government buildings were repaired quickly; however, the Capitol was largely under construction at the time and was not completed in its current form until 1868. Washington, D.C._sentence_58

Retrocession and the Civil War Washington, D.C._section_3

See also: District of Columbia retrocession and Washington, D.C., in the American Civil War Washington, D.C._sentence_59

In the 1830s, the district's southern territory of Alexandria went into economic decline partly due to neglect by Congress. Washington, D.C._sentence_60

The city of Alexandria was a major market in the American slave trade, and pro-slavery residents feared that abolitionists in Congress would end slavery in the district, further depressing the economy. Washington, D.C._sentence_61

Alexandria's citizens petitioned Virginia to take back the land it had donated to form the district, through a process known as retrocession. Washington, D.C._sentence_62

The Virginia General Assembly voted in February 1846 to accept the return of Alexandria and on July 9, 1846, Congress agreed to return all the territory that had been ceded by Virginia. Washington, D.C._sentence_63

Therefore, the district's area consists only of the portion originally donated by Maryland. Washington, D.C._sentence_64

Confirming the fears of pro-slavery Alexandrians, the Compromise of 1850 outlawed the slave trade in the district, although not slavery itself. Washington, D.C._sentence_65

The outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 led to the expansion of the federal government and notable growth in the district's population, including a large influx of freed slaves. Washington, D.C._sentence_66

President Abraham Lincoln signed the Compensated Emancipation Act in 1862, which ended slavery in the district of Columbia and freed about 3,100 enslaved persons, nine months prior to the Emancipation Proclamation. Washington, D.C._sentence_67

In 1868, Congress granted the district's African American male residents the right to vote in municipal elections. Washington, D.C._sentence_68

Growth and redevelopment Washington, D.C._section_4

By 1870, the district's population had grown 75% from the previous census to nearly 132,000 residents. Washington, D.C._sentence_69

Despite the city's growth, Washington still had dirt roads and lacked basic sanitation. Washington, D.C._sentence_70

Some members of Congress suggested moving the capital further west, but President Ulysses S. Grant refused to consider such a proposal. Washington, D.C._sentence_71

Congress passed the Organic Act of 1871, which repealed the individual charters of the cities of Washington and Georgetown, and created a new territorial government for the whole District of Columbia. Washington, D.C._sentence_72

President Grant appointed Alexander Robey Shepherd to the position of governor in 1873. Washington, D.C._sentence_73

Shepherd authorized large-scale projects that greatly modernized the City of Washington, but ultimately bankrupted the district government. Washington, D.C._sentence_74

In 1874, Congress replaced the territorial government with an appointed three-member Board of Commissioners. Washington, D.C._sentence_75

The city's first motorized streetcars began service in 1888 and generated growth in areas of the district beyond the City of Washington's original boundaries. Washington, D.C._sentence_76

Washington's urban plan was expanded throughout the district in the following decades. Washington, D.C._sentence_77

Georgetown's street grid and other administrative details were formally merged to those of the legal City of Washington in 1895. Washington, D.C._sentence_78

However, the city had poor housing conditions and strained public works. Washington, D.C._sentence_79

The district was the first city in the nation to undergo urban renewal projects as part of the "City Beautiful movement" in the early 1900s. Washington, D.C._sentence_80

Increased federal spending as a result of the New Deal in the 1930s led to the construction of new government buildings, memorials, and museums in the district, though the chairman of the House Subcommittee on District Appropriations Ross A. Collins from Mississippi justified cuts to funds for welfare and education for local residents, saying that "my constituents wouldn't stand for spending money on niggers." Washington, D.C._sentence_81

World War II further increased government activity, adding to the number of federal employees in the capital; by 1950, the district's population reached its peak of 802,178 residents. Washington, D.C._sentence_82

Civil rights and home rule era Washington, D.C._section_5

Washington, D.C._table_infobox_2

External videoWashington, D.C._header_cell_2_0_0

The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1961, granting the district three votes in the Electoral College for the election of president and vice president, but still no voting representation in Congress. Washington, D.C._sentence_83

After the assassination of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on April 4, 1968, riots broke out in the district, primarily in the U Street, 14th Street, 7th Street, and H Street corridors, centers of black residential and commercial areas. Washington, D.C._sentence_84

The riots raged for three days until more than 13,600 federal troops and D.C. Army National Guardsmen stopped the violence. Washington, D.C._sentence_85

Many stores and other buildings were burned; rebuilding was not completed until the late 1990s. Washington, D.C._sentence_86

In 1973, Congress enacted the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, providing for an elected mayor and thirteen-member council for the district. Washington, D.C._sentence_87

In 1975, Walter Washington became the first elected and first black mayor of the district. Washington, D.C._sentence_88

Geography Washington, D.C._section_6

Main article: Geography of Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_89

Washington, D.C. is located in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Washington, D.C._sentence_90 East Coast. Washington, D.C._sentence_91

Due to the District of Columbia retrocession, the city has a total area of 68.34 square miles (177.0 km), of which 61.05 square miles (158.1 km) is land and 7.29 square miles (18.9 km) (10.67%) is water. Washington, D.C._sentence_92

The district is bordered by Montgomery County, Maryland to the northwest; Prince George's County, Maryland to the east; Arlington County, Virginia to the west; and Alexandria, Virginia to the south. Washington, D.C._sentence_93

The south bank of the Potomac River forms the district's border with Virginia and has two major tributaries: the Anacostia River and Rock Creek. Washington, D.C._sentence_94

Tiber Creek, a natural watercourse that once passed through the National Mall, was fully enclosed underground during the 1870s. Washington, D.C._sentence_95

The creek also formed a portion of the now-filled Washington City Canal, which allowed passage through the city to the Anacostia River from 1815 until the 1850s. Washington, D.C._sentence_96

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal starts in Georgetown and was used during the 19th century to bypass the Little Falls of the Potomac River, located at the northwest edge of Washington at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line. Washington, D.C._sentence_97

The highest natural elevation in the district is 409 feet (125 m) above sea level at Fort Reno Park in upper northwest Washington. Washington, D.C._sentence_98

The lowest point is sea level at the Potomac River. Washington, D.C._sentence_99

The geographic center of Washington is near the intersection of 4th and L Streets NW. Washington, D.C._sentence_100

The district has 7,464 acres (30.21 km) of parkland, about 19% of the city's total area and the second-highest percentage among high-density U.S. cities. Washington, D.C._sentence_101

This factor contributed to Washington, D.C., being ranked as third in the nation for park access and quality in the 2018 ParkScore ranking of the park systems of the 100 most populous cities in the United States, according to the nonprofit Trust for Public Land. Washington, D.C._sentence_102

The National Park Service manages most of the 9,122 acres (36.92 km) of city land owned by the U.S. government. Washington, D.C._sentence_103

Rock Creek Park is a 1,754-acre (7.10 km) urban forest in Northwest Washington, which extends 9.3 miles (15.0 km) through a stream valley that bisects the city. Washington, D.C._sentence_104

Established in 1890, it is the country's fourth-oldest national park and is home to a variety of plant and animal species, including raccoon, deer, owls, and coyotes. Washington, D.C._sentence_105

Other National Park Service properties include the C&O Canal National Historical Park, the National Mall and Memorial Parks, Theodore Roosevelt Island, Columbia Island, Fort Dupont Park, Meridian Hill Park, Kenilworth Park and Aquatic Gardens, and Anacostia Park. Washington, D.C._sentence_106

The D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_107 Department of Parks and Recreation maintains the city's 900 acres (3.6 km) of athletic fields and playgrounds, 40 swimming pools, and 68 recreation centers. Washington, D.C._sentence_108

The U.S. Washington, D.C._sentence_109 Department of Agriculture operates the 446-acre (1.80 km) U.S. Washington, D.C._sentence_110 National Arboretum in Northeast Washington. Washington, D.C._sentence_111

Climate Washington, D.C._section_7

Washington is in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen: Cfa). Washington, D.C._sentence_112

The Trewartha classification is defined as an oceanic climate (Do). Washington, D.C._sentence_113

Winters are usually chilly with light snow, and summers are hot and humid. Washington, D.C._sentence_114

The district is in plant hardiness zone 8a near downtown, and zone 7b elsewhere in the city, indicating a humid subtropical climate. Washington, D.C._sentence_115

Spring and fall are mild to warm, while winter is chilly with annual snowfall averaging 15.5 inches (39 cm). Washington, D.C._sentence_116

Winter temperatures average around 38 °F (3 °C) from mid-December to mid-February. Washington, D.C._sentence_117

However, winter temperatures in excess of 60 °F (16 °C) are not uncommon. Washington, D.C._sentence_118

Summers are hot and humid with a July daily average of 79.8 °F (26.6 °C) and average daily relative humidity around 66%, which can cause moderate personal discomfort. Washington, D.C._sentence_119

Heat indices regularly approach 100 °F (38 °C) at the height of summer. Washington, D.C._sentence_120

The combination of heat and humidity in the summer brings very frequent thunderstorms, some of which occasionally produce tornadoes in the area. Washington, D.C._sentence_121

Blizzards affect Washington on average once every four to six years. Washington, D.C._sentence_122

The most violent storms are called "nor'easters", which often affect large sections of the East Coast. Washington, D.C._sentence_123

From January 27 to 28, 1922, the city officially received 28 inches (71 cm) of snowfall, the largest snowstorm since official measurements began in 1885. Washington, D.C._sentence_124

According to notes kept at the time, the city received between 30 and 36 inches (76 and 91 cm) from a snowstorm in January 1772. Washington, D.C._sentence_125

Hurricanes (or their remnants) occasionally track through the area in late summer and early fall but are often weak by the time they reach Washington, partly due to the city's inland location. Washington, D.C._sentence_126

Flooding of the Potomac River, however, caused by a combination of high tide, storm surge, and runoff, has been known to cause extensive property damage in the neighborhood of [[Georgetown_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_127

)|Georgetown]]. Washington, D.C._sentence_128

Precipitation occurs throughout the year. Washington, D.C._sentence_129

Washington's climate will grow warmer and rainfall will increase as the result of climate change. Washington, D.C._sentence_130

The highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on August 6, 1918, and on July 20, 1930. while the lowest recorded temperature was −15 °F (−26 °C) on February 11, 1899, right before the Great Blizzard of 1899. Washington, D.C._sentence_131

During a typical year, the city averages about 37 days at or above 90 °F (32 °C) and 64 nights at or below the freezing mark (32 °F or 0 °C). Washington, D.C._sentence_132

On average, the first day with a minimum at or below freezing is November 18 and the last day is March 27. Washington, D.C._sentence_133

Cityscape Washington, D.C._section_8

See also: Streets and highways of Washington, D.C.; Neighborhoods in Washington, D.C.; and List of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_134

Washington, D.C. is a planned city. Washington, D.C._sentence_135

In 1791, President Washington commissioned Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant, a French-born architect and city planner, to design the new capital. Washington, D.C._sentence_136

He enlisted Scottish surveyor Alexander Ralston to help lay out the city plan. Washington, D.C._sentence_137

The L'Enfant Plan featured broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles, providing room for open space and landscaping. Washington, D.C._sentence_138

He based his design on plans of cities such as Paris, Amsterdam, Karlsruhe, and Milan that Thomas Jefferson had sent to him. Washington, D.C._sentence_139

L'Enfant's design also envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue" approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) in length and 400 feet (120 m) wide in the area that is now the National Mall. Washington, D.C._sentence_140

President Washington dismissed L'Enfant in March 1792 due to conflicts with the three commissioners appointed to supervise the capital's construction. Washington, D.C._sentence_141

Andrew Ellicott, who had worked with L'Enfant surveying the city, was then tasked with completing the design. Washington, D.C._sentence_142

Though Ellicott made revisions to the original plans—including changes to some street patterns—L'Enfant is still credited with the overall design of the city. Washington, D.C._sentence_143

By the early 1900s, L'Enfant's vision of a grand national capital had become marred by slums and randomly placed buildings, including a railroad station on the National Mall. Washington, D.C._sentence_144

Congress formed a special committee charged with beautifying Washington's ceremonial core. Washington, D.C._sentence_145

What became known as the McMillan Plan was finalized in 1901 and included re-landscaping the Capitol grounds and the National Mall, clearing slums, and establishing a new citywide park system. Washington, D.C._sentence_146

The plan is thought to have largely preserved L'Enfant's intended design. Washington, D.C._sentence_147

By law, Washington's skyline is low and sprawling. Washington, D.C._sentence_148

The federal Height of Buildings Act of 1910 allows buildings that are no taller than the width of the adjacent street, plus 20 feet (6.1 m). Washington, D.C._sentence_149

Despite popular belief, no law has ever limited buildings to the height of the United States Capitol Building or the 555-foot (169 m) Washington Monument, which remains the district's tallest structure. Washington, D.C._sentence_150

City leaders have criticized the height restriction as a primary reason why the district has limited affordable housing and traffic problems caused by suburban sprawl. Washington, D.C._sentence_151

The district is divided into four quadrants of unequal area: Northwest (NW), Northeast (NE), Southeast (SE), and Southwest (SW). Washington, D.C._sentence_152

The axes bounding the quadrants radiate from the U.S. Capitol building. Washington, D.C._sentence_153

All road names include the quadrant abbreviation to indicate their location and house numbers generally correspond with the number of blocks away from the Capitol. Washington, D.C._sentence_154

Most streets are set out in a grid pattern with east–west streets named with letters (e.g., C Street SW), north–south streets with numbers (e.g., 4th Street NW), and diagonal avenues, many of which are named after states. Washington, D.C._sentence_155

The City of Washington was bordered by Boundary Street to the north (renamed Florida Avenue in 1890), Rock Creek to the west, and the Anacostia River to the east. Washington, D.C._sentence_156

Washington's street grid was extended, where possible, throughout the district starting in 1888. Washington, D.C._sentence_157

Georgetown's streets were renamed in 1895. Washington, D.C._sentence_158

Some streets are particularly noteworthy, such as [[Pennsylvania_Avenue_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_159

)|Pennsylvania Avenue]]—which connects the White House to the Capitol, and [[K_Street_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_160

)|K Street]]—which houses the offices of many lobbying groups. Washington, D.C._sentence_161

Constitution Avenue and [[Independence_Avenue_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_162

)|Independence Avenue]], located on the north and south sides of the National Mall, respectively, are home to many of Washington's iconic museums, including the Smithsonian institutions, the National Archives Building, and the Newseum. Washington, D.C._sentence_163

Washington hosts 177 foreign embassies, constituting approximately 297 buildings beyond the more than 1,600 residential properties owned by foreign countries, many of which are on a section of [[Massachusetts_Avenue_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_164

)|Massachusetts Avenue]] informally known as Embassy Row. Washington, D.C._sentence_165

Architecture Washington, D.C._section_9

The architecture of Washington varies greatly. Washington, D.C._sentence_166

Six of the top 10 buildings in the American Institute of Architects' 2007 ranking of "America's Favorite Architecture" are in the District of Columbia: the White House, the Washington National Cathedral, the Thomas Jefferson Memorial, the United States Capitol, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Washington, D.C._sentence_167

The neoclassical, Georgian, gothic, and modern architectural styles are all reflected among those six structures and many other prominent edifices in Washington. Washington, D.C._sentence_168

Notable exceptions include buildings constructed in the French Second Empire style such as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building. Washington, D.C._sentence_169

Outside downtown Washington, architectural styles are even more varied. Washington, D.C._sentence_170

Historic buildings are designed primarily in the Queen Anne, Châteauesque, Richardsonian Romanesque, Georgian revival, Beaux-Arts, and a variety of Victorian styles. Washington, D.C._sentence_171

Rowhouses are especially prominent in areas developed after the Civil War and typically follow Federalist and late Victorian designs. Washington, D.C._sentence_172

Georgetown's [[Old_Stone_House_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_173

)|Old Stone House]] was built in 1765, making it the oldest-standing original building in the city. Washington, D.C._sentence_174

Founded in 1789, Georgetown University features a mix of Romanesque and Gothic Revival architecture. Washington, D.C._sentence_175

The Ronald Reagan Building is the largest building in the district with a total area of approximately 3.1 million square feet (288,000 m). Washington, D.C._sentence_176

Demographics Washington, D.C._section_10

Main article: Demographics of Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_177

Washington, D.C._table_general_3

Demographic profileWashington, D.C._header_cell_3_0_0 2010Washington, D.C._header_cell_3_0_1 1990Washington, D.C._header_cell_3_0_2 1970Washington, D.C._header_cell_3_0_3 1940Washington, D.C._header_cell_3_0_4
WhiteWashington, D.C._cell_3_1_0 38.5%Washington, D.C._cell_3_1_1 29.6%Washington, D.C._cell_3_1_2 27.7%Washington, D.C._cell_3_1_3 71.5%Washington, D.C._cell_3_1_4
Non-Hispanic whitesWashington, D.C._cell_3_2_0 34.8%Washington, D.C._cell_3_2_1 27.4%Washington, D.C._cell_3_2_2 26.5%Washington, D.C._cell_3_2_3 71.4%Washington, D.C._cell_3_2_4
Black or African AmericanWashington, D.C._cell_3_3_0 50.7%Washington, D.C._cell_3_3_1 65.8%Washington, D.C._cell_3_3_2 71.1%Washington, D.C._cell_3_3_3 28.2%Washington, D.C._cell_3_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Washington, D.C._cell_3_4_0 9.1%Washington, D.C._cell_3_4_1 5.4%Washington, D.C._cell_3_4_2 2.1%Washington, D.C._cell_3_4_3 0.1%Washington, D.C._cell_3_4_4
AsianWashington, D.C._cell_3_5_0 3.5%Washington, D.C._cell_3_5_1 1.8%Washington, D.C._cell_3_5_2 0.6%Washington, D.C._cell_3_5_3 0.2%Washington, D.C._cell_3_5_4

The U.S. Washington, D.C._sentence_178 Census Bureau estimates that the district's population was 705,749 as of July 2019, an increase of more than 100,000 people since the 2010 United States Census. Washington, D.C._sentence_179

This continues a growth trend since 2000, following a half-century of population decline. Washington, D.C._sentence_180

The city was the 24th most populous place in the United States as of 2010. Washington, D.C._sentence_181

According to data from 2010, commuters from the suburbs increase the district's daytime population to over a million. Washington, D.C._sentence_182

If the district were a state it would rank 49th in population, ahead of Vermont and Wyoming. Washington, D.C._sentence_183

The Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes the district and surrounding suburbs, is the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the United States with an estimated six million residents in 2014. Washington, D.C._sentence_184

When the Washington area is included with Baltimore and its suburbs, the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area had a population exceeding 9.6 million residents in 2016, the fourth-largest combined statistical area in the country. Washington, D.C._sentence_185

According to 2017 Census Bureau data, the population of Washington, D.C., was 47.1% Black or African American, 45.1% White (36.8% non-Hispanic White), 4.3% Asian, 0.6% American Indian or Alaska Native, and 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Washington, D.C._sentence_186

Individuals from two or more races made up 2.7% of the population. Washington, D.C._sentence_187

Hispanics of any race made up 11.0% of the district's population. Washington, D.C._sentence_188

Washington has had a significant African American population since the city's foundation. Washington, D.C._sentence_189

African American residents compose about 30% of the district's total population between 1800 and 1940. Washington, D.C._sentence_190

The black population reached a peak of 70% by 1970, but has since steadily declined due to many African Americans moving to the surrounding suburbs. Washington, D.C._sentence_191

Partly as a result of gentrification, there was a 31.4% increase in the non-Hispanic white population and an 11.5% decrease in the black population between 2000 and 2010. Washington, D.C._sentence_192

According to a study by the National Community Reinvestment Coalition, D.C. has experienced more "intense" gentrification than any other American city, with 40% of neighborhoods gentrified. Washington, D.C._sentence_193

About 17% of D.C. residents were age 18 or younger in 2010, lower than the U.S. average of 24%. Washington, D.C._sentence_194

However, at 34 years old, the district had the lowest median age compared to the 50 states. Washington, D.C._sentence_195

As of 2010, there were an estimated 81,734 immigrants living in Washington, D.C. Major sources of immigration include El Salvador, Vietnam, and Ethiopia, with a concentration of Salvadorans in the Mount Pleasant neighborhood. Washington, D.C._sentence_196

Researchers found that there were 4,822 same-sex couples in the District of Columbia in 2010, about 2% of total households. Washington, D.C._sentence_197

Legislation authorizing same-sex marriage passed in 2009, and the district began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in March 2010. Washington, D.C._sentence_198

A 2007 report found that about a third of District residents were functionally illiterate, compared to a national rate of about one in five. Washington, D.C._sentence_199

This is attributed in part to immigrants who are not proficient in English. Washington, D.C._sentence_200

As of 2011, 85% of D.C. residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language. Washington, D.C._sentence_201

Half of residents had at least a four-year college degree in 2006. Washington, D.C._sentence_202

In 2017, the median household income in D.C. was $77,649; also in 2017, D.C. residents had a personal income per capita of $50,832 (higher than any of the 50 states). Washington, D.C._sentence_203

However, 19% of residents were below the poverty level in 2005, higher than any state except Mississippi. Washington, D.C._sentence_204

In 2019, the poverty rate stood at 14.7%. Washington, D.C._sentence_205

Of the district's population, 17% is Baptist, 13% is Catholic, 6% is evangelical Protestant, 4% is Methodist, 3% is Episcopalian/Anglican, 3% is Jewish, 2% is Eastern Orthodox, 1% is Pentecostal, 1% is Buddhist, 1% is Adventist, 1% is Lutheran, 1% is Muslim, 1% is Presbyterian, 1% is Mormon, and 1% is Hindu. Washington, D.C._sentence_206

As of 2010, more than 90% of D.C. residents had health insurance coverage, the second-highest rate in the nation. Washington, D.C._sentence_207

This is due in part to city programs that help provide insurance to low-income individuals who do not qualify for other types of coverage. Washington, D.C._sentence_208

A 2009 report found that at least three percent of District residents have HIV or AIDS, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) characterizes as a "generalized and severe" epidemic. Washington, D.C._sentence_209

Washington, D.C._table_general_4

Pew Research Center 2014 Religious Landscape Study on religion in the Washington, D.C.Washington, D.C._table_caption_4
AffiliationWashington, D.C._header_cell_4_0_0 % of Washington, D.C. adult populationWashington, D.C._header_cell_4_0_1
TotalWashington, D.C._cell_4_1_0 100Washington, D.C._cell_4_1_1 100Washington, D.C._cell_4_1_2
ChristianWashington, D.C._cell_4_2_0 65Washington, D.C._cell_4_2_1 65Washington, D.C._cell_4_2_2
ProtestantWashington, D.C._cell_4_3_0 41Washington, D.C._cell_4_3_1 41Washington, D.C._cell_4_3_2
Historically Black ProtestantWashington, D.C._cell_4_4_0 23Washington, D.C._cell_4_4_1 23Washington, D.C._cell_4_4_2
CatholicWashington, D.C._cell_4_5_0 20Washington, D.C._cell_4_5_1 20Washington, D.C._cell_4_5_2
MormonWashington, D.C._cell_4_6_0 2Washington, D.C._cell_4_6_1 2Washington, D.C._cell_4_6_2
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsWashington, D.C._cell_4_7_0 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_7_1 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_7_2
Other MormonWashington, D.C._cell_4_8_0 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_8_1 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_8_2
Orthodox ChristianWashington, D.C._cell_4_9_0 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_9_1 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_9_2
Greek OrthodoxWashington, D.C._cell_4_10_0 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_10_1 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_10_2
Other ChristianWashington, D.C._cell_4_11_0 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_11_1 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_11_2
UnaffiliatedWashington, D.C._cell_4_12_0 25Washington, D.C._cell_4_12_1 25Washington, D.C._cell_4_12_2
NontheistWashington, D.C._cell_4_13_0 10Washington, D.C._cell_4_13_1 10Washington, D.C._cell_4_13_2
AtheistWashington, D.C._cell_4_14_0 4Washington, D.C._cell_4_14_1 4Washington, D.C._cell_4_14_2
AgnosticWashington, D.C._cell_4_15_0 6Washington, D.C._cell_4_15_1 6Washington, D.C._cell_4_15_2
Nothing in particularWashington, D.C._cell_4_16_0 14Washington, D.C._cell_4_16_1 14Washington, D.C._cell_4_16_2
Nothing in particular (religion not important)Washington, D.C._cell_4_17_0 9Washington, D.C._cell_4_17_1 9Washington, D.C._cell_4_17_2
Nothing in particular (religion important)Washington, D.C._cell_4_18_0 6Washington, D.C._cell_4_18_1 6Washington, D.C._cell_4_18_2
Don't knowWashington, D.C._cell_4_19_0 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_19_1 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_19_2
Non-Christian faithsWashington, D.C._cell_4_20_0 9Washington, D.C._cell_4_20_1 9Washington, D.C._cell_4_20_2
JewishWashington, D.C._cell_4_21_0 5Washington, D.C._cell_4_21_1 5Washington, D.C._cell_4_21_2
MuslimWashington, D.C._cell_4_22_0 2Washington, D.C._cell_4_22_1 2Washington, D.C._cell_4_22_2
HinduWashington, D.C._cell_4_23_0 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_23_1 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_23_2
Other non-Christian faithsWashington, D.C._cell_4_24_0 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_24_1 1Washington, D.C._cell_4_24_2

Crime Washington, D.C._section_11

Main articles: Crime in Washington, D.C. and List of law enforcement agencies in the District of Columbia Washington, D.C._sentence_210

Crime in Washington, D.C., is concentrated in areas associated with poverty, drug abuse, and gangs. Washington, D.C._sentence_211

A 2010 study found that 5% percent of city blocks accounted for more than 25% of the district's total crimes. Washington, D.C._sentence_212

The more affluent neighborhoods of Northwest Washington are typically safe, especially in areas with concentrations of government operations, such as Downtown Washington, D.C., Foggy Bottom, Embassy Row, and Penn Quarter, but reports of violent crime increase in poorer neighborhoods generally concentrated in the eastern portion of the city. Washington, D.C._sentence_213

Approximately 60,000 residents are ex-convicts. Washington, D.C._sentence_214

In 2012, Washington's annual murder count had dropped to 88, the lowest total since 1961. Washington, D.C._sentence_215

The murder rate has since risen from that historic low, though it remains close to half the rate of the early 2000s. Washington, D.C._sentence_216

Washington was once described as the "murder capital" of the United States during the early 1990s. Washington, D.C._sentence_217

The number of murders peaked in 1991 at 479, but the level of violence then began to decline significantly. Washington, D.C._sentence_218

In 2016, the district's Metropolitan Police Department tallied 135 homicides, a 53% increase from 2012 but a 17% decrease from 2015. Washington, D.C._sentence_219

Many neighborhoods such as Columbia Heights and Logan Circle are becoming safer and vibrant. Washington, D.C._sentence_220

However, incidents of robberies and thefts have remained higher in these areas because of increased nightlife activity and greater numbers of affluent residents. Washington, D.C._sentence_221

Even still, citywide reports of both property and violent crimes have declined by nearly half since their most recent highs in the mid-1990s. Washington, D.C._sentence_222

On June 26, 2008, the Supreme Court of the United States held in District of Columbia v. Heller that the city's 1976 handgun ban violated the right to keep and bear arms as protected under the Second Amendment. Washington, D.C._sentence_223

However, the ruling does not prohibit all forms of gun control; laws requiring firearm registration remain in place, as does the city's assault weapon ban. Washington, D.C._sentence_224

In addition to the district's own Metropolitan Police Department, many federal law enforcement agencies have jurisdiction in the city as well—most visibly the U.S. Washington, D.C._sentence_225 Park Police, founded in 1791. Washington, D.C._sentence_226

Economy Washington, D.C._section_12

See also: :Category:Companies based in Washington, D.C. and :Category:Non-profit organizations based in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_227

Washington has a growing, diversified economy with an increasing percentage of professional and business service jobs. Washington, D.C._sentence_228

The district's gross state product in 2018-Q2 was $141 billion. Washington, D.C._sentence_229

The Washington Metropolitan Area's gross product was $435 billion in 2014, making it the sixth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States. Washington, D.C._sentence_230

Between 2009 and 2016, GDP per capita in Washington has consistently ranked on the very top among U.S. states. Washington, D.C._sentence_231

In 2016, at $160,472, its GDP per capita is almost three times as high as that of Massachusetts, which was ranked second in the nation. Washington, D.C._sentence_232

As of 2011, the Washington Metropolitan Area had an unemployment rate of 6.2%; the second-lowest rate among the 49 largest metro areas in the nation. Washington, D.C._sentence_233

The District of Columbia itself had an unemployment rate of 9.8% during the same time period. Washington, D.C._sentence_234

In December 2017, 25% of the employees in Washington, D.C., were employed by a federal governmental agency. Washington, D.C._sentence_235

This is thought to immunize Washington, D.C., to national economic downturns because the federal government continues operations even during recessions. Washington, D.C._sentence_236

Many organizations such as law firms, defense contractors, civilian contractors, nonprofit organizations, lobbying firms, trade unions, industry trade groups, and professional associations have their headquarters in or near Washington, D.C., in order to be close to the federal government. Washington, D.C._sentence_237

The city of Rosslyn, Virginia, located across the Potomac River from D.C., serves as a base of operations for several Fortune 500 companies, due to the building height restrictions in place within the District of Columbia. Washington, D.C._sentence_238

In 2018, Amazon announced they would build "HQ 2" in the Crystal City neighborhood of Arlington, Virginia. Washington, D.C._sentence_239

Tourism is Washington's second-largest industry. Washington, D.C._sentence_240

Approximately 18.9 million visitors contributed an estimated $4.8 billion to the local economy in 2012. Washington, D.C._sentence_241

The district also hosts nearly 200 foreign embassies and international organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization of American States, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Pan American Health Organization. Washington, D.C._sentence_242

In 2008, the foreign diplomatic corps in Washington employed about 10,000 people and contributed an estimated $400 million annually to the local economy. Washington, D.C._sentence_243

The district has growing industries not directly related to government, especially in the areas of education, finance, public policy, and scientific research. Washington, D.C._sentence_244

Georgetown University, George Washington University, Washington Hospital Center, Children's National Medical Center and Howard University are the top five non-government-related employers in the city as of 2009. Washington, D.C._sentence_245

According to statistics compiled in 2011, four of the largest 500 companies in the country were headquartered in the district. Washington, D.C._sentence_246

In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Washington was ranked as having the 12th most competitive financial center in the world, and fifth most competitive in the United States (after New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, and Boston). Washington, D.C._sentence_247

Culture Washington, D.C._section_13

Main article: Culture of Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_248

Landmarks Washington, D.C._section_14

See also: List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C.; National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington, D.C.; and List of museums in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_249

The National Mall is a large, open park in downtown Washington between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol. Washington, D.C._sentence_250

Given its prominence, the mall is often the location of political protests, concerts, festivals, and presidential inaugurations. Washington, D.C._sentence_251

The Washington Monument and the Jefferson Pier are near the center of the mall, south of the White House. Washington, D.C._sentence_252

Also on the mall are the National World War II Memorial at the east end of the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, the Korean War Veterans Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Washington, D.C._sentence_253

Directly south of the mall, the Tidal Basin features rows of Japanese cherry trees. Washington, D.C._sentence_254

The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, George Mason Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial, and the District of Columbia War Memorial are around the Tidal Basin. Washington, D.C._sentence_255

The National Archives houses thousands of documents important to American history, including the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Washington, D.C._sentence_256

Located in three buildings on Capitol Hill, the Library of Congress is the largest library complex in the world with a collection of more than 147 million books, manuscripts, and other materials. Washington, D.C._sentence_257

The United States Supreme Court Building was completed in 1935; before then, the court held sessions in the Old Senate Chamber of the Capitol. Washington, D.C._sentence_258

Museums Washington, D.C._section_15

The Smithsonian Institution is an educational foundation chartered by Congress in 1846 that maintains most of the nation's official museums and galleries in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_259

The U.S. government partially funds the Smithsonian, and its collections are open to the public free of charge. Washington, D.C._sentence_260

The Smithsonian's locations had a combined total of 30 million visits in 2013. Washington, D.C._sentence_261

The most visited museum is the National Museum of Natural History on the National Mall. Washington, D.C._sentence_262

Other Smithsonian Institution museums and galleries on the mall are: the National Air and Space Museum; the National Museum of African Art; the National Museum of American History; the National Museum of the American Indian; the Sackler and Freer galleries, which both focus on Asian art and culture; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; the Arts and Industries Building; the S. Washington, D.C._sentence_263 Dillon Ripley Center; and the Smithsonian Institution Building (also known as "The Castle"), which serves as the institution's headquarters. Washington, D.C._sentence_264

The Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery are housed in the Old Patent Office Building, near Washington's Chinatown. Washington, D.C._sentence_265

The Renwick Gallery is officially part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum but is in a separate building near the White House. Washington, D.C._sentence_266

Other Smithsonian museums and galleries include: the Anacostia Community Museum in Southeast Washington; the National Postal Museum near [[Union_Station_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_267

)|Union Station]]; and the National Zoo in Woodley Park. Washington, D.C._sentence_268

The National Gallery of Art is on the National Mall near the Capitol and features works of American and European art. Washington, D.C._sentence_269

The gallery and its collections are owned by the U.S. government but are not a part of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C._sentence_270

The National Building Museum, which occupies the former Pension Building near Judiciary Square, was chartered by Congress and hosts exhibits on architecture, urban planning, and design. Washington, D.C._sentence_271

There are many private art museums in the District of Columbia, which house major collections and exhibits open to the public such as the National Museum of Women in the Arts and The Phillips Collection in Dupont Circle, the first museum of modern art in the United States. Washington, D.C._sentence_272

Other private museums in Washington include the Newseum, the O Street Museum Foundation, the International Spy Museum, the National Geographic Society Museum, the Marian Koshland Science Museum and the Museum of the Bible. Washington, D.C._sentence_273

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum near the National Mall maintains exhibits, documentation, and artifacts related to the Holocaust. Washington, D.C._sentence_274

Arts Washington, D.C._section_16

Main articles: Theater in Washington, D.C. and Music of Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_275

Washington, D.C., is a national center for the arts. Washington, D.C._sentence_276

The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is home to the National Symphony Orchestra, the Washington National Opera, and the Washington Ballet. Washington, D.C._sentence_277

The Kennedy Center Honors are awarded each year to those in the performing arts who have contributed greatly to the cultural life of the United States. Washington, D.C._sentence_278

The historic Ford's Theatre, site of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, continues to operate as a functioning performance space as well as a museum. Washington, D.C._sentence_279

The Marine Barracks near Capitol Hill houses the United States Marine Band; founded in 1798, it is the country's oldest professional musical organization. Washington, D.C._sentence_280

American march composer and Washington-native John Philip Sousa led the Marine Band from 1880 until 1892. Washington, D.C._sentence_281

Founded in 1925, the United States Navy Band has its headquarters at the Washington Navy Yard and performs at official events and public concerts around the city. Washington, D.C._sentence_282

Washington has a strong local theater tradition. Washington, D.C._sentence_283

Founded in 1950, Arena Stage achieved national attention and spurred growth in the city's independent theater movement that now includes organizations such as the Shakespeare Theatre Company, Woolly Mammoth Theatre Company, and the Studio Theatre. Washington, D.C._sentence_284

Arena Stage opened its newly renovated home in the city's emerging Southwest waterfront area in 2010. Washington, D.C._sentence_285

The GALA Hispanic Theatre, now housed in the historic [[Tivoli_Theatre_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_286

)|Tivoli Theatre]] in [[Columbia_Heights_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_287

)|Columbia Heights]], was founded in 1976 and is a National Center for the Latino Performing Arts. Washington, D.C._sentence_288

The U Street Corridor in Northwest D.C., known as "Washington's Black Broadway", is home to institutions like the Howard Theatre, Bohemian Caverns, and the [[Lincoln_Theatre_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_289

)|Lincoln Theatre]], which hosted music legends such as Washington-native Duke Ellington, John Coltrane, and Miles Davis. Washington, D.C._sentence_290

Washington has its own native music genre called go-go; a post-funk, percussion-driven flavor of rhythm and blues that was popularized in the late 1970s by D.C. band leader Chuck Brown. Washington, D.C._sentence_291

The district is an important center for indie culture and music in the United States. Washington, D.C._sentence_292

The label Dischord Records, formed by Ian MacKaye, frontman of Fugazi, was one of the most crucial independent labels in the genesis of 1980s punk and eventually indie rock in the 1990s. Washington, D.C._sentence_293

Modern alternative and indie music venues like The Black Cat and the 9:30 Club bring popular acts to the U Street area. Washington, D.C._sentence_294

Sports Washington, D.C._section_17

Main article: Sports in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_295

Washington is one of 13 cities in the United States with teams from all four major professional men's sports and is home to one major professional women's team. Washington, D.C._sentence_296

The Washington Wizards (National Basketball Association) and the Washington Capitals (National Hockey League) play at the Capital One Arena in Chinatown. Washington, D.C._sentence_297

The Washington Mystics (Women's National Basketball Association) play in the St. Washington, D.C._sentence_298 Elizabeths East Entertainment and Sports Arena. Washington, D.C._sentence_299

Nationals Park, which opened in Southeast D.C. in 2008, is home to the Washington Nationals (Major League Baseball). Washington, D.C._sentence_300

D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_301 United (Major League Soccer) plays at Audi Field. Washington, D.C._sentence_302

The Washington Football Team (National Football League) plays at FedExField in nearby Landover, Maryland. Washington, D.C._sentence_303

D.C. teams have won a combined thirteen professional league championships: the Washington Football Team (then named the Washington Redskins) have won five (including three Super Bowls during the 1980s); D.C. United has won four; and the Washington Wizards (then the Washington Bullets), Washington Capitals, Washington Mystics and Washington Nationals have each won a single championship. Washington, D.C._sentence_304

Other professional and semi-professional teams in Washington include: DC Defenders (XFL), Old Glory DC (Major League Rugby), the Washington Kastles (World TeamTennis); the Washington D.C. Slayers (USA Rugby League); the Baltimore Washington Eagles (U.S. Australian Football League); the D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_305 Divas (Independent Women's Football League); and the Potomac Athletic Club RFC (Rugby Super League). Washington, D.C._sentence_306

The William H.G. FitzGerald Tennis Center in Rock Creek Park hosts the Citi Open. Washington, D.C._sentence_307

Washington is also home to two major annual marathon races: the Marine Corps Marathon, which is held every autumn, and the Rock 'n' Roll USA Marathon held in the spring. Washington, D.C._sentence_308

The Marine Corps Marathon began in 1976 and is sometimes called "The People's Marathon" because it is the largest marathon that does not offer prize money to participants. Washington, D.C._sentence_309

The district's four NCAA Division I teams, American Eagles, George Washington Colonials, Georgetown Hoyas and Howard Bison and Lady Bison, have a broad following. Washington, D.C._sentence_310

The Georgetown Hoyas men's basketball team is the most notable and also plays at the Capital One Arena. Washington, D.C._sentence_311

From 2008 to 2012, the district hosted an annual college football bowl game at RFK Stadium, called the Military Bowl. Washington, D.C._sentence_312

The D.C. area is home to one regional sports television network, Comcast SportsNet (CSN), based in Bethesda, Maryland. Washington, D.C._sentence_313

Media Washington, D.C._section_18

Main article: Media in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_314

See also: List of newspapers in Washington, D.C. and List of television shows set in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_315

Washington, D.C., is a prominent center for national and international media. Washington, D.C._sentence_316

The Washington Post, founded in 1877, is the oldest and most-read local daily newspaper in Washington. Washington, D.C._sentence_317

"The Post", as it is popularly called, is well known as the newspaper that exposed the Watergate scandal. Washington, D.C._sentence_318

It had the sixth-highest readership of all news dailies in the country in 2011. Washington, D.C._sentence_319

From 2003 to 2019, The Washington Post Company published a daily free commuter newspaper called the Express, which summarized events, sports and entertainment; it still publishes the Spanish-language paper El Tiempo Latino. Washington, D.C._sentence_320

Another popular local daily is The Washington Times, the city's second general interest broadsheet and also an influential paper in conservative political circles. Washington, D.C._sentence_321

The alternative weekly Washington City Paper also has a substantial readership in the Washington area. Washington, D.C._sentence_322

Some community and specialty papers focus on neighborhood and cultural issues, including the weekly Washington Blade and Metro Weekly, which focus on LGBT issues; the Washington Informer and The Washington Afro American, which highlight topics of interest to the black community; and neighborhood newspapers published by The Current Newspapers. Washington, D.C._sentence_323

Congressional Quarterly, The Hill, Politico and Roll Call newspapers focus exclusively on issues related to Congress and the federal government. Washington, D.C._sentence_324

Other publications based in Washington include the National Geographic magazine and political publications such as The Washington Examiner, The New Republic and Washington Monthly. Washington, D.C._sentence_325

The Washington Metropolitan Area is the ninth-largest television media market in the nation, with two million homes, approximately 2% of the country's population. Washington, D.C._sentence_326

Several media companies and cable television channels have their headquarters in the area, including C-SPAN; Black Entertainment Television (BET); Radio One; the National Geographic Channel; Smithsonian Networks; National Public Radio (NPR); Travel Channel (in Chevy Chase, Maryland); Discovery Communications (in Silver Spring, Maryland); and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) (in Arlington, Virginia). Washington, D.C._sentence_327

The headquarters of Voice of America, the U.S. government's international news service, is near the Capitol in Southwest Washington. Washington, D.C._sentence_328

Washington has two local NPR affiliates, WAMU and WETA. Washington, D.C._sentence_329

Government and politics Washington, D.C._section_19

Main article: Government of the District of Columbia Washington, D.C._sentence_330

Politics Washington, D.C._section_20

See also: District of Columbia home rule; List of mayors of Washington, D.C.; and List of District of Columbia symbols Washington, D.C._sentence_331

Article One, Section Eight of the United States Constitution grants the United States Congress "exclusive jurisdiction" over the city. Washington, D.C._sentence_332

The district did not have an elected local government until the passage of the 1973 Home Rule Act. Washington, D.C._sentence_333

The Act devolved certain Congressional powers to an elected mayor and the thirteen-member Council of the District of Columbia. Washington, D.C._sentence_334

However, Congress retains the right to review and overturn laws created by the council and intervene in local affairs. Washington, D.C._sentence_335

Each of the city's eight wards elects a single member of the council and residents elect four at-large members to represent the district as a whole. Washington, D.C._sentence_336

The council chair is also elected at-large. Washington, D.C._sentence_337

There are 37 Advisory Neighborhood Commissions (ANCs) elected by small neighborhood districts. Washington, D.C._sentence_338

ANCs can issue recommendations on all issues that affect residents; government agencies take their advice under careful consideration. Washington, D.C._sentence_339

The attorney general of the District of Columbia is elected to a four-year term. Washington, D.C._sentence_340

Washington, D.C., observes all federal holidays and also celebrates Emancipation Day on April 16, which commemorates the end of slavery in the district. Washington, D.C._sentence_341

The flag of Washington, D.C., was adopted in 1938 and is a variation on George Washington's family coat of arms. Washington, D.C._sentence_342

Washington, D.C. is overwhelmingly Democratic, having voted for the Democratic candidate solidly since 1964. Washington, D.C._sentence_343

Each Republican candidate was voted down in favor of the Democratic candidate by a margin of at least 56 percentage points each time; the closest, albeit very large, margin between the two parties in a presidential election was in 1972, when Richard Nixon secured 21.6 percent of the vote to George McGovern's 78.1 percent. Washington, D.C._sentence_344

Since then, the Republican candidate has never received more than 20 percent of the vote. Washington, D.C._sentence_345

Same-sex marriage has been legal in the district since 2010, and conversion therapy has been forbidden since 2015. Washington, D.C._sentence_346

Assisted suicide is also permitted in the district, with a bill legalizing the practice being introduced in 2015, signed by mayor Muriel Bowser in 2016 and going into effect in 2017, making Washington, D.C. the seventh jurisdiction in the United States to have legalized assisted suicide, along with Washington, Oregon, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Montana and Vermont. Washington, D.C._sentence_347

Washington, D.C. has been a member state of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) since 2015. Washington, D.C._sentence_348

The idiom Inside the Beltway is an occasional reference used by media to describe political issues inside of Washington, D.C., by way of geographical demarcation regarding the region inner to the Capital's Beltway, Interstate 495, the city's highway loop (beltway) constructed in 1964. Washington, D.C._sentence_349

Budgetary issues Washington, D.C._section_21

The mayor and council set local taxes and a budget, which must be approved by Congress. Washington, D.C._sentence_350

The Government Accountability Office and other analysts have estimated that the city's high percentage of tax-exempt property and the Congressional prohibition of commuter taxes create a structural deficit in the district's local budget of anywhere between $470 million and over $1 billion per year. Washington, D.C._sentence_351

Congress typically provides additional grants for federal programs such as Medicaid and the operation of the local justice system; however, analysts claim that the payments do not fully resolve the imbalance. Washington, D.C._sentence_352

The city's local government, particularly during the mayoralty of Marion Barry, was criticized for mismanagement and waste. Washington, D.C._sentence_353

During his administration in 1989, The Washington Monthly magazine claimed that the district had "the worst city government in America". Washington, D.C._sentence_354

In 1995, at the start of Barry's fourth term, Congress created the District of Columbia Financial Control Board to oversee all municipal spending. Washington, D.C._sentence_355

Mayor Anthony Williams won election in 1998 and oversaw a period of urban renewal and budget surpluses. Washington, D.C._sentence_356

The district regained control over its finances in 2001 and the oversight board's operations were suspended. Washington, D.C._sentence_357

The district has a federally funded "Emergency Planning and Security Fund" to cover security related to visits by foreign leaders and diplomats, presidential inaugurations, protests, and terrorism concerns. Washington, D.C._sentence_358

During the Trump administration, the fund has run with a deficit. Washington, D.C._sentence_359

Trump's January 2017 inauguration cost the city $27 million; of that, $7 million was never repaid to the fund. Washington, D.C._sentence_360

Trump's 2019 Independence Day event, "A Salute to America", cost six times more than Independence Day events in past years. Washington, D.C._sentence_361

Voting rights debate Washington, D.C._section_22

Washington, D.C._table_general_5

Presidential election resultsWashington, D.C._table_caption_5
YearWashington, D.C._header_cell_5_0_0 DemocraticWashington, D.C._header_cell_5_0_1 RepublicanWashington, D.C._header_cell_5_0_2
1964Washington, D.C._cell_5_1_0 85.5% 169,796Washington, D.C._cell_5_1_1 14.5% 28,801Washington, D.C._cell_5_1_2
1968Washington, D.C._cell_5_2_0 81.8% 139,566Washington, D.C._cell_5_2_1 18.2% 31,012Washington, D.C._cell_5_2_2
1972Washington, D.C._cell_5_3_0 78.1% 127,627Washington, D.C._cell_5_3_1 21.6% 35,226Washington, D.C._cell_5_3_2
1976Washington, D.C._cell_5_4_0 81.6% 137,818Washington, D.C._cell_5_4_1 16.5% 27,873Washington, D.C._cell_5_4_2
1980Washington, D.C._cell_5_5_0 74.9% 130,231Washington, D.C._cell_5_5_1 13.4% 26,218Washington, D.C._cell_5_5_2
1984Washington, D.C._cell_5_6_0 85.4% 180,408Washington, D.C._cell_5_6_1 13.7% 29,009Washington, D.C._cell_5_6_2
1988Washington, D.C._cell_5_7_0 82.6% 159,407Washington, D.C._cell_5_7_1 14.3% 27,590Washington, D.C._cell_5_7_2
1992Washington, D.C._cell_5_8_0 84.6% 192,619Washington, D.C._cell_5_8_1 9.1% 20,698Washington, D.C._cell_5_8_2
1996Washington, D.C._cell_5_9_0 85.2% 158,220Washington, D.C._cell_5_9_1 9.3% 17,339Washington, D.C._cell_5_9_2
2000Washington, D.C._cell_5_10_0 85.2% 171,923Washington, D.C._cell_5_10_1 9.0% 18,073Washington, D.C._cell_5_10_2
2004Washington, D.C._cell_5_11_0 89.0% 202,970Washington, D.C._cell_5_11_1 9.3% 21,256Washington, D.C._cell_5_11_2
2008Washington, D.C._cell_5_12_0 92.5% 245,800Washington, D.C._cell_5_12_1 6.5% 17,367Washington, D.C._cell_5_12_2
2012Washington, D.C._cell_5_13_0 90.9% 267,070Washington, D.C._cell_5_13_1 7.3% 21,381Washington, D.C._cell_5_13_2
2016Washington, D.C._cell_5_14_0 90.9% 282,830Washington, D.C._cell_5_14_1 4.1% 12,723Washington, D.C._cell_5_14_2
2020Washington, D.C._cell_5_15_0 92.2% 317,323Washington, D.C._cell_5_15_1 5.4% 18,586Washington, D.C._cell_5_15_2

Washington, D.C._table_general_6

Mayoral election resultsWashington, D.C._table_caption_6
YearWashington, D.C._header_cell_6_0_0 DemocraticWashington, D.C._header_cell_6_0_1 RepublicanWashington, D.C._header_cell_6_0_2
1974Washington, D.C._cell_6_1_0 82.5% 79,065Washington, D.C._cell_6_1_1 3.7% 3,501Washington, D.C._cell_6_1_2
1978Washington, D.C._cell_6_2_0 70.2% 68,354Washington, D.C._cell_6_2_1 28.1% 27,366Washington, D.C._cell_6_2_2
1982Washington, D.C._cell_6_3_0 81.0% 95,007Washington, D.C._cell_6_3_1 14.1% 16,502Washington, D.C._cell_6_3_2
1986Washington, D.C._cell_6_4_0 61.4% 79,142Washington, D.C._cell_6_4_1 32.8% 42,354Washington, D.C._cell_6_4_2
1990Washington, D.C._cell_6_5_0 86.2% 140,011Washington, D.C._cell_6_5_1 11.5% 18,653Washington, D.C._cell_6_5_2
1994Washington, D.C._cell_6_6_0 56.0% 102,884Washington, D.C._cell_6_6_1 41.9% 76,902Washington, D.C._cell_6_6_2
1998Washington, D.C._cell_6_7_0 66.2% 92,504Washington, D.C._cell_6_7_1 30.2% 42,280Washington, D.C._cell_6_7_2
2002Washington, D.C._cell_6_8_0 60.6% 79,841Washington, D.C._cell_6_8_1 34.5% 45,407Washington, D.C._cell_6_8_2
2006Washington, D.C._cell_6_9_0 89.7% 98,740Washington, D.C._cell_6_9_1 6.1% 6,744Washington, D.C._cell_6_9_2
2010Washington, D.C._cell_6_10_0 74.2% 97,978Washington, D.C._cell_6_10_1 Washington, D.C._cell_6_10_2
2014Washington, D.C._cell_6_11_0 54.5% 96,666Washington, D.C._cell_6_11_1 Washington, D.C._cell_6_11_2
2018Washington, D.C._cell_6_12_0 76.4% 171,608Washington, D.C._cell_6_12_1 Washington, D.C._cell_6_12_2

See also: District of Columbia voting rights; District of Columbia retrocession § Proposed Maryland retrocession; and Political party strength in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_362

The district is not a state and therefore has no voting representation in Congress. Washington, D.C._sentence_363

D.C. residents elect a non-voting delegate to the House of Representatives (D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_364 At-Large), who may sit on committees, participate in debate, and introduce legislation, but cannot vote on the House floor. Washington, D.C._sentence_365

The district has no official representation in the United States Senate. Washington, D.C._sentence_366

Neither chamber seats the district's elected "shadow" representative or senators. Washington, D.C._sentence_367

Unlike residents of U.S. Washington, D.C._sentence_368 territories such as Puerto Rico or Guam, which also have non-voting delegates, D.C. residents are subject to all federal taxes. Washington, D.C._sentence_369

In the financial year 2012, D.C. residents and businesses paid $20.7 billion in federal taxes; more than the taxes collected from 19 states and the highest federal taxes per capita. Washington, D.C._sentence_370

A 2005 poll found that 78% of Americans did not know residents of the District of Columbia have less representation in Congress than residents of the fifty states. Washington, D.C._sentence_371

Efforts to raise awareness about the issue have included campaigns by grassroots organizations and featuring the city's unofficial motto, "Taxation Without Representation", on D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_372 vehicle license plates. Washington, D.C._sentence_373

There is evidence of nationwide approval for D.C. voting rights; various polls indicate that 61 to 82% of Americans believe D.C. should have voting representation in Congress. Washington, D.C._sentence_374

Several approaches to resolving these concerns been suggested over the years: Washington, D.C._sentence_375

Washington, D.C._unordered_list_0

  • District of Columbia Statehood: Almost all the District of Columbia would become the 51st State as Washington, Douglass Commonwealth. The much reduced District of Columbia would run from Capitol Hill west to the Potomac, including the White House and many federal buildings; no one resides permanently in this federal enclave.Washington, D.C._item_0_0
  • District of Columbia Retrocession to Maryland: As Arlington County in 1846 was retroceded to Virginia, proponents believe the rest of the District of Columbia with the exception of a small strip of land around the Capitol and the White House (the federal enclave) would be given back to Maryland, allowing for DC residents to become Maryland residents as they were prior to the Residence Act of 1790.Washington, D.C._item_0_1
  • District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment: this option would allow DC residents to vote in Maryland or Virginia for their congressional representatives, with the District of Columbia remaining an independent entity. This was in effect from 1790 to 1801, prior to the Organic Act of 1801.Washington, D.C._item_0_2

Opponents of D.C. voting rights propose that the Founding Fathers never intended for District residents to have a vote in Congress since the Constitution makes clear that representation must come from the states. Washington, D.C._sentence_376

Those opposed to making D.C. a state claim such a move would destroy the notion of a separate national capital and that statehood would unfairly grant Senate representation to a single city. Washington, D.C._sentence_377

Sister cities Washington, D.C._section_23

Washington, D.C., has fifteen official sister city agreements. Washington, D.C._sentence_378

Each of the listed cities is a national capital except for Sunderland, which includes the town of Washington, the ancestral home of George Washington's family. Washington, D.C._sentence_379

Paris and Rome are each formally recognized as a partner city due to their special one sister city policy. Washington, D.C._sentence_380

Listed in the order each agreement was first established, they are: Washington, D.C._sentence_381

Education Washington, D.C._section_24

See also: List of parochial and private schools in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_382

District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) operates the city's 123 public schools. Washington, D.C._sentence_383

The number of students in DCPS steadily decreased for 39 years until 2009. Washington, D.C._sentence_384

In the 2010–11 school year, 46,191 students were enrolled in the public school system. Washington, D.C._sentence_385

DCPS has one of the highest-cost, yet lowest-performing school systems in the country, in terms of both infrastructure and student achievement. Washington, D.C._sentence_386

Mayor Adrian Fenty's administration made sweeping changes to the system by closing schools, replacing teachers, firing principals, and using private education firms to aid curriculum development. Washington, D.C._sentence_387

The District of Columbia Public Charter School Board monitors the 52 public charter schools in the city. Washington, D.C._sentence_388

Due to the perceived problems with the traditional public school system, enrollment in public charter schools has steadily increased. Washington, D.C._sentence_389

As of 2010, D.C., charter schools had a total enrollment of about 32,000, a 9% increase from the prior year. Washington, D.C._sentence_390

The district is also home to 92 private schools, which enrolled approximately 18,000 students in 2008. Washington, D.C._sentence_391

The District of Columbia Public Library operates 25 neighborhood locations including the landmark Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library. Washington, D.C._sentence_392

Higher education Washington, D.C._section_25

See also: List of colleges and universities in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_393

Private universities include American University (AU), the Catholic University of America (CUA), Gallaudet University, George Washington University (GW), Georgetown University (GU), Howard University (HU), the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), and Trinity Washington University. Washington, D.C._sentence_394

The Corcoran College of Art and Design, the oldest arts school in the capital, was absorbed into the George Washington University in 2014, now serving as its college of arts. Washington, D.C._sentence_395

The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) is a public land-grant university providing undergraduate and graduate education. Washington, D.C._sentence_396

D.C. residents may also be eligible for a grant of up to $10,000 per year to offset the cost of tuition at any public university in the country. Washington, D.C._sentence_397

The district is known for its medical research institutions such as Washington Hospital Center and the Children's National Medical Center, as well as the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Washington, D.C._sentence_398

In addition, the city is home to three medical schools and associated teaching hospitals at George Washington, Georgetown, and Howard universities. Washington, D.C._sentence_399

Infrastructure Washington, D.C._section_26

Transportation Washington, D.C._section_27

Main article: Transportation in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_400

There are 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of streets, parkways, and avenues in the district. Washington, D.C._sentence_401

Due to the freeway revolts of the 1960s, much of the proposed interstate highway system through the middle of Washington was never built. Washington, D.C._sentence_402

Interstate 95 (I-95), the nation's major east coast highway, therefore bends around the district to form the eastern portion of the Capital Beltway. Washington, D.C._sentence_403

A portion of the proposed highway funding was directed to the region's public transportation infrastructure instead. Washington, D.C._sentence_404

The interstate highways that continue into Washington, including I-66 and I-395, both terminate shortly after entering the city. Washington, D.C._sentence_405

The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) operates the Washington Metro, the city's rapid transit system, as well as Metrobus. Washington, D.C._sentence_406

Both systems serve the district and its suburbs. Washington, D.C._sentence_407

Metro opened on March 27, 1976 and, as of 2014, consists of 91 stations and 117 miles (188 km) of track. Washington, D.C._sentence_408

With an average of about one million trips each weekday, Metro is the second-busiest rapid transit system in the country. Washington, D.C._sentence_409

Metrobus serves more than 400,000 riders each weekday and is the nation's fifth-largest bus system. Washington, D.C._sentence_410

The city also operates its own DC Circulator bus system, which connects commercial areas within central Washington. Washington, D.C._sentence_411

[[Union_Station_(Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C._sentence_412

)|Union Station]] is the city's main train station and services approximately 70,000 people each day. Washington, D.C._sentence_413

It is Amtrak's second-busiest station with 4.6 million passengers annually and is the southern terminus for the Northeast Corridor and Acela Express routes. Washington, D.C._sentence_414

Maryland's MARC and Virginia's VRE commuter trains and the Metrorail Red Line also provide service into Union Station. Washington, D.C._sentence_415

Following renovations in 2011, Union Station became Washington's primary intercity bus transit center. Washington, D.C._sentence_416

Three major airports serve the district. Washington, D.C._sentence_417

Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is across the Potomac River from downtown Washington in Arlington, Virginia and primarily handles domestic flights. Washington, D.C._sentence_418

Major international flights arrive and depart from Dulles International Airport, 26.3 miles (42.3 km) west of the district in Fairfax and Loudoun counties in Virginia. Washington, D.C._sentence_419

Baltimore/Washington International Airport is 31.7 miles (51.0 km) northeast of the district in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Washington, D.C._sentence_420

According to a 2010 study, Washington-area commuters spent 70 hours a year in traffic delays, which tied with Chicago for having the nation's worst road congestion. Washington, D.C._sentence_421

However, 37% of Washington-area commuters take public transportation to work, the second-highest rate in the country. Washington, D.C._sentence_422

An additional 12% of D.C. commuters walked to work, 6% carpooled, and 3% traveled by bicycle in 2010. Washington, D.C._sentence_423

A 2011 study by Walk Score found that Washington was the seventh-most walkable city in the country with 80% of residents living in neighborhoods that are not car dependent. Washington, D.C._sentence_424

In 2013, the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria metropolitan statistical area (MSA) had the eighth lowest percentage of workers who commuted by private automobile (75.7 percent), with 8 percent of area workers traveling via rail transit. Washington, D.C._sentence_425

An expected 32% increase in transit usage within the district by 2030 has spurred the construction of a new DC Streetcar system to interconnect the city's neighborhoods. Washington, D.C._sentence_426

Construction is also finishing on an additional Metro line that will connect Washington to Dulles airport. Washington, D.C._sentence_427

The district is part of the regional Capital Bikeshare program. Washington, D.C._sentence_428

Started in 2010, it is one of the largest bicycle sharing systems in the country with more than 4,351 bicycles and more than 395 stations, all provided by PBSC Urban Solutions. Washington, D.C._sentence_429

By 2012, the city's network of marked bicycle lanes covered 56 miles (90 km) of streets. Washington, D.C._sentence_430

Utilities Washington, D.C._section_28

The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (i.e. WASA or D.C. Water) is an independent authority of the D.C. government that provides drinking water and wastewater collection in Washington. Washington, D.C._sentence_431

WASA purchases water from the historic Washington Aqueduct, which is operated by the Army Corps of Engineers. Washington, D.C._sentence_432

The water, sourced from the Potomac River, is treated and stored in the city's Dalecarlia, Georgetown, and McMillan reservoirs. Washington, D.C._sentence_433

The aqueduct provides drinking water for a total of 1.1 million people in the district and Virginia, including Arlington, Falls Church, and a portion of Fairfax County. Washington, D.C._sentence_434

The authority also provides sewage treatment services for an additional 1.6 million people in four surrounding Maryland and Virginia counties. Washington, D.C._sentence_435

Pepco is the city's electric utility and services 793,000 customers in the district and suburban Maryland. Washington, D.C._sentence_436

An 1889 law prohibits overhead wires within much of the historic City of Washington. Washington, D.C._sentence_437

As a result, all power lines and telecommunication cables are located underground in downtown Washington, and traffic signals are placed at the edge of the street. Washington, D.C._sentence_438

A plan announced in 2013 would bury an additional 60 miles (97 km) of primary power lines throughout the district. Washington, D.C._sentence_439

Washington Gas is the city's natural gas utility and serves more than a million customers in the district and its suburbs. Washington, D.C._sentence_440

Incorporated by Congress in 1848, the company installed the city's first gas lights in the Capitol, the White House, and along Pennsylvania Avenue. Washington, D.C._sentence_441

See also Washington, D.C._section_29

Washington, D.C._unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington, D.C..