Wayne Shorter

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Wayne Shorter_table_infobox_0

Wayne ShorterWayne Shorter_header_cell_0_0_0
Background informationWayne Shorter_header_cell_0_1_0
BornWayne Shorter_header_cell_0_2_0 (1933-08-25) August 25, 1933 (age 87)

Newark, New Jersey, United StatesWayne Shorter_cell_0_2_1

GenresWayne Shorter_header_cell_0_3_0 Modal jazz, crossover jazz, post-bop, hard bop, jazz fusion, third streamWayne Shorter_cell_0_3_1
Occupation(s)Wayne Shorter_header_cell_0_4_0 Musician, composerWayne Shorter_cell_0_4_1
InstrumentsWayne Shorter_header_cell_0_5_0 Tenor saxophone, soprano saxophoneWayne Shorter_cell_0_5_1
Years activeWayne Shorter_header_cell_0_6_0 1958–presentWayne Shorter_cell_0_6_1
LabelsWayne Shorter_header_cell_0_7_0 Blue Note, Columbia, VerveWayne Shorter_cell_0_7_1
Associated actsWayne Shorter_header_cell_0_8_0 Art Blakey, Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock, Freddie Hubbard, Joni Mitchell, John Pattitucci, Weather ReportWayne Shorter_cell_0_8_1
WebsiteWayne Shorter_header_cell_0_9_0 Wayne Shorter_cell_0_9_1

Wayne Shorter (born August 25, 1933) is an American jazz saxophonist and composer. Wayne Shorter_sentence_0

Shorter came to wide prominence in the late 1950s as a member of, and eventually primary composer for, Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers. Wayne Shorter_sentence_1

In the 1960s, he went on to join Miles Davis's Second Great Quintet, and from there he co-founded the jazz fusion band Weather Report. Wayne Shorter_sentence_2

He has recorded over 20 albums as a bandleader. Wayne Shorter_sentence_3

Many of Shorter's compositions have become jazz standards, and his output has earned worldwide recognition, critical praise and various commendations. Wayne Shorter_sentence_4

Shorter has won 11 Grammy Awards. Wayne Shorter_sentence_5

He has also received acclaim for his mastery of the soprano saxophone (after switching his focus from the tenor in the late 1960s), beginning an extended reign in 1970 as Down Beat's annual poll-winner on that instrument, winning the critics' poll for 10 consecutive years and the readers' for 18. Wayne Shorter_sentence_6

The New York Times described Shorter in 2008 as "probably jazz's greatest living small-group composer and a contender for greatest living improviser". Wayne Shorter_sentence_7

In 2017, he was awarded the Polar Music Prize. Wayne Shorter_sentence_8

Biography Wayne Shorter_section_0

Early life and career Wayne Shorter_section_1

Wayne Shorter was born in Newark, New Jersey, United States, and attended Newark Arts High School, from which he graduated in 1952. Wayne Shorter_sentence_9

He loved music, being encouraged by his father to take up the clarinet as a teenager; his older brother Alan played alto saxophone before switching to the trumpet in college. Wayne Shorter_sentence_10

While in high school Wayne also performed with the Nat Phipps Band in Newark, NJ. Wayne Shorter_sentence_11

After graduating from New York University with a degree in music education in 1956, Shorter spent two years in the U.S. Wayne Shorter_sentence_12 Army, during which time he played briefly with Horace Silver. Wayne Shorter_sentence_13

After his discharge, he played with Maynard Ferguson. Wayne Shorter_sentence_14

In his youth Shorter had acquired the nickname "Mr. Gone", which later became an album title for Weather Report. Wayne Shorter_sentence_15

His early influences include Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane and Coleman Hawkins. Wayne Shorter_sentence_16

In 1959, Shorter joined Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers where he stayed for four years, and eventually became the band's musical director. Wayne Shorter_sentence_17

Together they toured the US, Japan and Europe, recorded several recognized albums and he also composed pieces for the band. Wayne Shorter_sentence_18

During this time Shorter "established himself as one of the most gifted of the young saxophonists" and received international acknowledgment. Wayne Shorter_sentence_19

With Miles Davis (1964–70) Wayne Shorter_section_2

Herbie Hancock said of Shorter's tenure in Davis's Second Great Quintet: "The master writer to me, in that group, was Wayne Shorter. Wayne Shorter_sentence_20

He still is a master. Wayne Shorter_sentence_21

Wayne was one of the few people who brought music to Miles that didn't get changed." Wayne Shorter_sentence_22

Davis said, "Wayne is a real composer. Wayne Shorter_sentence_23

He writes scores, writes the parts for everybody just as he wants them to sound. Wayne Shorter_sentence_24

... Wayne also brought in a kind of curiosity about working with musical rules. Wayne Shorter_sentence_25

If they didn't work, then he broke them, but with musical sense; he understood that freedom in music was the ability to know the rules in order to bend them to your own satisfaction and taste." Wayne Shorter_sentence_26

Ian Carr, musician and Rough Guide author, states that with Davis, Shorter found his own voice as a player and composer. Wayne Shorter_sentence_27

"Blakey's hard-driving, straight-ahead rhythms had brought out the muscularity in Shorter's tenor playing, but the greater freedom of the Davis rhythm-section allowed him to explore new emotional and technical dimensions." Wayne Shorter_sentence_28

Shorter remained in Davis's band after the breakup of the quintet in 1968, playing on early jazz fusion recordings including In a Silent Way and Bitches Brew (both 1969). Wayne Shorter_sentence_29

His last live dates and studio recordings with Davis were in 1970. Wayne Shorter_sentence_30

Until 1968, he played tenor saxophone exclusively. Wayne Shorter_sentence_31

The final album on which he played tenor in the regular sequence of Davis albums was Filles de Kilimanjaro. Wayne Shorter_sentence_32

In 1969, he played the soprano saxophone on the Davis album In a Silent Way and on his own Super Nova (recorded with then-current Davis sidemen Chick Corea and John McLaughlin). Wayne Shorter_sentence_33

When performing live with Davis, and on recordings from summer 1969 to early spring 1970, he played both soprano and tenor saxophones; by the early 1970s, however, he chiefly played soprano. Wayne Shorter_sentence_34

Solo Blue Note recordings Wayne Shorter_section_3

Simultaneous with his time in the Davis quintet, Shorter recorded several albums for Blue Note Records, featuring almost exclusively his own compositions, with a variety of line-ups, quartets and larger groups, including Blue Note favourites such as trumpeter Freddie Hubbard. Wayne Shorter_sentence_35

His first Blue Note album (of 11 in total recorded from 1964 to 1970) was Night Dreamer, recorded at Rudy Van Gelder's studio in 1964 with Lee Morgan (trumpet), McCoy Tyner (piano), Reggie Workman (bass) and Elvin Jones (drums). Wayne Shorter_sentence_36

The later album The All Seeing Eye (rec. Wayne Shorter_sentence_37

1965, rel. Wayne Shorter_sentence_38

1966) was a workout with a larger group, while Adam's Apple(rec. Wayne Shorter_sentence_39

1966, rel. Wayne Shorter_sentence_40

1967) was back to carefully constructed melodies by Shorter leading a quartet. Wayne Shorter_sentence_41

Then a sextet again in the following year for Schizophrenia (rec. Wayne Shorter_sentence_42

1967, rel. Wayne Shorter_sentence_43

1969) with Herbie Hancock, bassist Ron Carter, trombonist Curtis Fuller, alto saxophonist/flautist James Spaulding and strong rhythms by drummer Joe Chambers. Wayne Shorter_sentence_44

Shorter also recorded occasionally as a sideman (again, mainly for Blue Note) with trumpeter Donald Byrd, McCoy Tyner, trombonist Grachan Moncur III, Freddie Hubbard, Lee Morgan, and bandmates Herbie Hancock and drummer Tony Williams. Wayne Shorter_sentence_45

Weather Report (1971–1986) Wayne Shorter_section_4

Following the release of Odyssey of Iska in 1970, Shorter formed the fusion group Weather Report with Davis veteran keyboardist Joe Zawinul and bassist Miroslav Vitous. Wayne Shorter_sentence_46

The other original members were percussionist Airto Moreira, and drummer Alphonse Mouzon. Wayne Shorter_sentence_47

After Vitous' departure in 1973, Shorter and Zawinul co-led the group until the band's break-up in late 1985. Wayne Shorter_sentence_48

A variety of musicians would make up Weather Report over the years (most notably the revolutionary bassist Jaco Pastorius) helping the band produce many high quality recordings in diverse styles, with funk, bebop, Latin jazz, ethnic music, and futurism being the most prevalent denominators. Wayne Shorter_sentence_49

Solo and side projects Wayne Shorter_section_5

Shorter also recorded critically acclaimed albums as a bandleader, notably 1974's Native Dancer, which featured Hancock and Brazilian composer and vocalist Milton Nascimento. Wayne Shorter_sentence_50

In the late 1970s and the early 1980s, he toured in the V.S.O.P. Wayne Shorter_sentence_51 quintet. Wayne Shorter_sentence_52

This group was a revival of the 1960s Davis quintet, except that Freddie Hubbard filled the trumpet chair. Wayne Shorter_sentence_53

Shorter appeared with the same former Davis bandmates on the Carlos Santana double LP The Swing of Delight (1980), for which he also composed a number of pieces. Wayne Shorter_sentence_54

From 1977 through 2002, he appeared on 10 Joni Mitchell studio albums, gaining him a wider audience. Wayne Shorter_sentence_55

He played an extended solo on the title track of Steely Dan's 1977 album Aja. Wayne Shorter_sentence_56

Later career Wayne Shorter_section_6

After leaving Weather Report in 1986, Shorter continued to record and lead groups in jazz fusion styles, including touring in 1988 with guitarist Carlos Santana, who appeared on This is This! Wayne Shorter_sentence_57

(1986), the last Weather Report disc. Wayne Shorter_sentence_58

There is a concert video recorded at the Lugano Jazz Festival in 1987, with Jim Beard (keyboards), Carl James (bass), Terri Lyne Carrington (drums), and Marilyn Mazur (percussion). Wayne Shorter_sentence_59

In 1989, he contributed to a hit on the rock charts, playing the sax solo on Don Henley's song "The End of the Innocence" and also produced the album Pilar by the Portuguese singer-songwriter Pilar Homem de Melo. Wayne Shorter_sentence_60

He has also maintained an occasional working relationship with Herbie Hancock, including a tribute album recorded shortly after Miles Davis's death with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, Tony Williams and Wallace Roney. Wayne Shorter_sentence_61

He continued to appear on Mitchell's records in the 1990s and can be heard on the soundtrack of the Harrison Ford film The Fugitive (1993). Wayne Shorter_sentence_62

In 1995, Shorter released the album High Life, his first solo recording for seven years. Wayne Shorter_sentence_63

It was also his debut as a leader for Verve Records. Wayne Shorter_sentence_64

Shorter composed all the compositions on the album and co-produced it with the bassist Marcus Miller. Wayne Shorter_sentence_65

High Life received the Grammy Award for best Contemporary Jazz Album in 1997. Wayne Shorter_sentence_66

Shorter worked with Herbie Hancock once again in 1997, on the much acclaimed and heralded album 1+1. Wayne Shorter_sentence_67

The song "Aung San Suu Kyi" (named for the Burmese pro-democracy activist) won both Hancock and Shorter a Grammy Award. Wayne Shorter_sentence_68

In 2009, he was announced as one of the headline acts at the Gnaoua World Music Festival in Essaouira, Morocco. Wayne Shorter_sentence_69

His 2013 live album Without a Net (rec. Wayne Shorter_sentence_70

2010) is his first with Blue Note Records since Odyssey of Iska (rec. Wayne Shorter_sentence_71

1970, rel. Wayne Shorter_sentence_72

1971). Wayne Shorter_sentence_73

Quartet Wayne Shorter_section_7

In 2000, Shorter formed the first permanent acoustic group under his name, a quartet with pianist Danilo Perez, bassist John Patitucci, and drummer Brian Blade, playing his own compositions, many of them reworkings of tunes going back to the 1960s. Wayne Shorter_sentence_74

Four albums of live recordings have been released: Footprints Live! Wayne Shorter_sentence_75

(rec. Wayne Shorter_sentence_76

live 2001, rel. Wayne Shorter_sentence_77

2002); Beyond the Sound Barrier (rec. Wayne Shorter_sentence_78

live 2002–2004, rel. Wayne Shorter_sentence_79

2005); Without a Net (rec. Wayne Shorter_sentence_80

live 2010, rel. Wayne Shorter_sentence_81

2013); and Emanon (2018), with the latter, in addition to live material, including Shorter’s quartet in a studio session with the 34-piece Orpheus Chamber Orchestra. Wayne Shorter_sentence_82

The quartet has received great acclaim from fans and critics, especially for the strength of Shorter's tenor saxophone playing. Wayne Shorter_sentence_83

The biography Footprints: The Life and Work of Wayne Shorter by journalist Michelle Mercer examines the working life of the musicians as well as Shorter's thoughts and Buddhist beliefs. Wayne Shorter_sentence_84

Beyond the Sound Barrier received the 2006 Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Jazz Album. Wayne Shorter_sentence_85

Shorter's 2003 album Alegría (his first studio album for 10 years, since High Life) received the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Jazz Album; it features the quartet with a host of other musicians, including pianist Brad Mehldau, drummer Carrington and former Weather Report percussionist Alex Acuña. Wayne Shorter_sentence_86

Shorter's compositions, some new, some reworked from his Miles Davis period, feature the complex Latin rhythms that he specialised in during his Weather Report days. Wayne Shorter_sentence_87

Lifetime achievement recognition Wayne Shorter_section_8

On September 17, 2013, Shorter received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz. Wayne Shorter_sentence_88

On December 18, 2014, the Recording Academy announced that Shorter was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in honor of his "prolific contributions to our culture and history". Wayne Shorter_sentence_89

In 2016, Shorter was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in the field of music composition, the only jazz artist to receive the honor that year. Wayne Shorter_sentence_90

In 2017, Shorter was announced as the joint winner of the Polar Music Prize. Wayne Shorter_sentence_91

The award committee stated: "Without the musical explorations of Wayne Shorter, modern music would not have drilled so deep." Wayne Shorter_sentence_92

In 2018, Shorter was a recipient of a Kennedy Center Honor Award. Wayne Shorter_sentence_93

Wayne Shorter: Zero Gravity Wayne Shorter_section_9

In 2015, producer/director Dorsay Alavi began filming a documentary about the life of Wayne Shorter called Wayne Shorter: Zero Gravity. Wayne Shorter_sentence_94

The film is set to be released in 2020. Wayne Shorter_sentence_95

Mega Nova Wayne Shorter_section_10

In 2016, it was announced that Shorter, Carlos Santana, and Herbie Hancock would begin touring under the name Mega Nova. Wayne Shorter_sentence_96

Also included within the supergroup was bassist Marcus Miller and drummer Cindy Blackman Santana. Wayne Shorter_sentence_97

Their first show together was on August 24, 2016 at the Hollywood Bowl. Wayne Shorter_sentence_98

Health Wayne Shorter_section_11

Shorter’s health over the past few years has finally forced him to retire from his near 70-year performing career. Wayne Shorter_sentence_99

As his health permits, he continues to compose with a particular focus on completing a new operatic work. Wayne Shorter_sentence_100

Personal life Wayne Shorter_section_12

Shorter met Teruko (Irene) Nakagami in 1961. Wayne Shorter_sentence_101

They were later married and had a daughter, Miyako. Wayne Shorter_sentence_102

Some of his compositions are copyrighted as "Miyako Music" and Shorter dedicated the pieces "Miyako" and "Infant Eyes" to his daughter. Wayne Shorter_sentence_103

The couple separated in 1964. Wayne Shorter_sentence_104

Shorter met Ana Maria Patricio in 1966 and they were married in 1970. Wayne Shorter_sentence_105

In 1985, their daughter Iska died of a grand mal seizure at age 14. Wayne Shorter_sentence_106

Ana Maria and the couple's niece, Dalila, were both killed on July 17, 1996, on TWA Flight 800, while travelling to visit him in Italy. Wayne Shorter_sentence_107

Dalila was the daughter of Ana Maria Shorter's sister and her husband, jazz vocalist Jon Lucien. Wayne Shorter_sentence_108

In 1999, Shorter married Carolina Dos Santos, a close friend of Ana Maria. Wayne Shorter_sentence_109

She practices Nichiren Buddhism and is a longtime member of the Buddhist association Soka Gakkai International. Wayne Shorter_sentence_110

Composer and producer Rick Shorter was Shorter's cousin. Wayne Shorter_sentence_111

Discography Wayne Shorter_section_13

Main article: Wayne Shorter discography Wayne Shorter_sentence_112

Wayne Shorter_unordered_list_0

Awards Wayne Shorter_section_14

Wayne Shorter_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayne Shorter.