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This article is about the German city. Weimar_sentence_0

For the parliamentary republic, see Weimar Republic. Weimar_sentence_1

For the UNESCO World Heritage Site, see Classical Weimar (World Heritage Site). Weimar_sentence_2

For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). Weimar_sentence_3


CountryWeimar_header_cell_0_1_0 GermanyWeimar_cell_0_1_1
StateWeimar_header_cell_0_2_0 ThuringiaWeimar_cell_0_2_1
DistrictWeimar_header_cell_0_3_0 Urban districtWeimar_cell_0_3_1
SubdivisionsWeimar_header_cell_0_4_0 12 districtsWeimar_cell_0_4_1
Lord mayorWeimar_header_cell_0_6_0 Peter Kleine (Ind.)Weimar_cell_0_6_1
TotalWeimar_header_cell_0_8_0 84.48 km (32.62 sq mi)Weimar_cell_0_8_1
ElevationWeimar_header_cell_0_9_0 208 m (682 ft)Weimar_cell_0_9_1
Population (2019-12-31)Weimar_header_cell_0_10_0
TotalWeimar_header_cell_0_11_0 65,228Weimar_cell_0_11_1
DensityWeimar_header_cell_0_12_0 770/km (2,000/sq mi)Weimar_cell_0_12_1
Time zoneWeimar_header_cell_0_13_0 UTC+01:00 (CET)Weimar_cell_0_13_1
Summer (DST)Weimar_header_cell_0_14_0 UTC+02:00 (CEST)Weimar_cell_0_14_1
Postal codesWeimar_header_cell_0_15_0 99423, 99425, 99427, 99428Weimar_cell_0_15_1
Dialling codesWeimar_header_cell_0_16_0 03643, 036453Weimar_cell_0_16_1
Vehicle registrationWeimar_header_cell_0_17_0 WEWeimar_cell_0_17_1
WebsiteWeimar_header_cell_0_18_0 Weimar_cell_0_18_1

Weimar (German pronunciation: [ˈvaɪmaɐ̯; Latin: Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. Weimar_sentence_4

It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately 80 kilometres (50 miles) southwest of Leipzig, 170 kilometres (106 miles) north of Nuremberg and 170 kilometres (106 miles) west of Dresden. Weimar_sentence_5

Together with the neighbour cities Erfurt and Jena, it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia, with approximately 500,000 inhabitants. Weimar_sentence_6

The city itself has a population of 65,000. Weimar_sentence_7

Weimar is well known because of its large cultural heritage and its importance in German history. Weimar_sentence_8

The city was a focal point of the German Enlightenment and home of the leading figures of the literary genre of Weimar Classicism, writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. Weimar_sentence_9

In the 19th century, noted composers such as Franz Liszt made Weimar a music centre. Weimar_sentence_10

Later, artists and architects such as Henry van de Velde, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger, and Walter Gropius came to the city and founded the Bauhaus movement, the most important German design school of the interwar period. Weimar_sentence_11

The political history of 20th-century Weimar was volatile: it was the place where Germany's first democratic constitution was signed after the First World War, giving its name to the Weimar Republic period in German politics (1918–33). Weimar_sentence_12

It was also one of the cities mythologized by fascist National Socialist propaganda. Weimar_sentence_13

Until 1948, Weimar was the capital of Thuringia. Weimar_sentence_14

Since the late 20th century, many places in the city centre have been designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites (either as part of the Weimar Classicism complex, or as part of the Bauhaus complex). Weimar_sentence_15

Heritage tourism is one of the leading economic sectors of Weimar. Weimar_sentence_16

Noted institutions in Weimar are the Bauhaus University, the Liszt School of Music, the Duchess Anna Amalia Library, and two leading courts of Thuringia (the Supreme Administrative Court and Constitutional Court). Weimar_sentence_17

In 1999, Weimar was the European Capital of Culture. Weimar_sentence_18

History Weimar_section_0

Prehistoric times Weimar_section_1

Archaeological finds dating back to the Thuringii epoch (3rd to 6th centuries) show that the Weimar part of the Ilm valley was settled early. Weimar_sentence_19

A tight network of settlements occupied much of the area of today's city. Weimar_sentence_20

Middle Ages Weimar_section_2

The oldest records regarding Weimar date to 899. Weimar_sentence_21

Its name changed over the centuries from Wimares through Wimari to Wimar and finally Weimar; it is derived from Old High German wīh- (holy) and -mari (standing water, swamp). Weimar_sentence_22

The place was the seat of the County of Weimar, first mentioned in 949, which was one of the most powerful jurisdictions in early-Middle Ages Thuringia. Weimar_sentence_23

In 1062 it was united with the County of Orlamünde to the new County of Weimar-Orlamünde, which existed until the Thuringian Counts' War in 1346. Weimar_sentence_24

It fell to the Wettins afterwards. Weimar_sentence_25

The Weimar settlement emerged around the count's wooden castle and two small churches, dedicated to St Peter (which later became the main church), and to St James, respectively. Weimar_sentence_26

In 1240, the count founded the dynasty's monastery in Oberweimar, which ran under Cistercian nuns. Weimar_sentence_27

Soon after, the counts of Weimar founded the town, which was an independent parish since 1249 and called civitas in 1254. Weimar_sentence_28

From 1262 the citizens used their own seal. Weimar_sentence_29

The regional influence of the Weimar counts was declining as the influence of the Wettins in Thuringia increased. Weimar_sentence_30

Hence, the new small town was relatively marginal in a regional context, also due to the fact that it was located far from relevant trade routes, such as the Via Regia. Weimar_sentence_31

The settlement around St James Church developed into a suburb during the 13th century. Weimar_sentence_32

After becoming part of the Wettin's territory in 1346, urban development improved. Weimar_sentence_33

The Wettins fostered Weimar by abolishing socage and granting privileges to the citizens. Weimar_sentence_34

Now Weimar became equal to other Wettinian cities like Weißensee and grew during the 15th century, with the establishment of a town hall and the current main church. Weimar_sentence_35

Weimar acquired woad trade privileges in 1438. Weimar_sentence_36

The castle and the walls were finished in the 16th century, making Weimar into a full city. Weimar_sentence_37

Early Modern Period Weimar_section_3

Main article: Saxe-Weimar Weimar_sentence_38

After the Treaty of Leipzig (1485) Weimar became part of the electorate of the Ernestine branch of Wettins with Wittenberg as capital. Weimar_sentence_39

The Protestant Reformation was introduced in Weimar in 1525; Martin Luther stayed several times in the city. Weimar_sentence_40

As the Ernestines lost the Schmalkaldic War in 1547, their capital Wittenberg went also to the Albertines, so that they needed a new residence. Weimar_sentence_41

As the ruler returned from captivity, Weimar became his residence in 1552 and remained as such until the end of the monarchy in 1918. Weimar_sentence_42

The first Ernestine territorial partition in 1572 was followed by various ones, nevertheless Weimar stayed the capital of different Saxe-Weimar states. Weimar_sentence_43

The court and its staff brought some wealth to the city, so that it saw a first construction boom in the 16th century. Weimar_sentence_44

The 17th century brought decline to Weimar, because of changing trade conditions (as in nearby Erfurt). Weimar_sentence_45

Besides, the territorial partitions led to the loss of political importance of the dukes of Saxe-Weimar and their finances shrunk. Weimar_sentence_46

The city's polity weakened more and more and lost its privileges, leading to the absolutist reign of the dukes in the early 18th century. Weimar_sentence_47

On the other hand, this time brought another construction boom to Weimar, and the city got its present appearance, marked by various ducal representation buildings. Weimar_sentence_48

The city walls were demolished in 1757 and during the following decades, Weimar expanded in all directions. Weimar_sentence_49

The biggest building constructed in this period was the Schloss as the residence of the dukes (north and east wing: 1789–1803, west wing 1832–1835, south wing: 1913–1914). Weimar_sentence_50

Between 1708 and 1717 Johann Sebastian Bach worked as the court's organist in Weimar. Weimar_sentence_51

Golden or Classical Age (1758–1832) Weimar_section_4

Main article: Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Weimar_sentence_52

The period from the start of the regencies of Anna Amalia (1758–1775) and her son Carl August (1775–1828) through to Goethe's death in 1832 is denoted as the "golden" or the "classical" age because of the high level of cultural activity in Weimar. Weimar_sentence_53

The city became an important cultural centre of Europe, having been home to such luminaries as Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Wieland and Bertuch; and in music the piano virtuoso Hummel. Weimar_sentence_54

It has been a site of pilgrimage for the German intelligentsia since Goethe first moved to Weimar in 1775. Weimar_sentence_55

Goethe was also active in civic duties while living there. Weimar_sentence_56

He served as Privy Councilor to the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach for an extended period. Weimar_sentence_57

The tombs of Goethe and Schiller, as well as their archives, may be found in the city. Weimar_sentence_58

Goethe's Elective Affinities (1809) is set around the city of Weimar. Weimar_sentence_59

In comparison to many major German states, the dukes' policy was liberal and tolerant in this period. Weimar_sentence_60

The liberal Saxe-Weimar constitution was brought into effect in 1816. Weimar_sentence_61

Silver Ages and The New Weimar (1832–1918) Weimar_section_5

The time after Goethe's death is denoted as the "silver" age because Weimar remained an influential cultural centre. Weimar_sentence_62

The first emphasis was fostering music. Weimar_sentence_63

In 1842, Franz Liszt moved to Weimar to become the Grand Ducal court conductor. Weimar_sentence_64

Liszt organized the premiere of Richard Wagner's Lohengrin (1850) in the city. Weimar_sentence_65

The Weimar School of Music was founded in 1872 as Germany's first orchestra school. Weimar_sentence_66

Richard Strauss worked in Weimar between 1889 and 1894 as second conductor in the acclaimed Staatskapelle Weimar (the court orchestra founded in 1491). Weimar_sentence_67

Several of his encores for works such as Don Juan and Macbeth were performed by the Staatskapelle Weimar. Weimar_sentence_68

Friedrich Nietzsche moved to Weimar in 1897, and died there three years later. Weimar_sentence_69

In 1860 the Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School, the precursor of today's Bauhaus University, was founded. Weimar_sentence_70

This was the beginning of academic arts education in Weimar. Weimar_sentence_71

The institution created its own painting style, the "Weimar School" of painting with representatives such as Max Liebermann and Arnold Böcklin. Weimar_sentence_72

The Kunstgewerbeschule Weimar was found by Henry van de Velde with the support of Grand Duke William Ernest in 1902 and represents the other root of the Bauhaus, known as "Das Neue Weimar" ("The New Weimar") around Harry Graf Kessler. Weimar_sentence_73

It was a foundation against Prussia's restrictive arts policy favouring Historicism instead of international Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau. Weimar_sentence_74

As early as the 19th century, the curation of Weimar and its heritage started. Weimar_sentence_75

Many archives, societies and museums were founded to present and conserve the cultural sights and goods. Weimar_sentence_76

In 1846, Weimar was connected by the Thuringian Railway. Weimar_sentence_77

In the following decades, the city saw a construction and population boom (like most late-19th century cities in Germany). Weimar_sentence_78

Nevertheless, Weimar did not become industrialised, and remained a city of clerks, artists and rentiers. Weimar_sentence_79

During the German Revolution of 1918–19 the last reigning grand duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, William Ernest, had to abdicate and went in exile to Heinrichau in Silesia. Weimar_sentence_80

Weimar Republic Weimar_section_6

The period in German history from 1919 to 1933 is commonly referred to as the Weimar Republic, as the Republic's constitution was drafted here. Weimar_sentence_81

Berlin as the capital was considered too dangerous for the National Assembly to use as a meeting place, because of its street rioting after the 1918 German Revolution. Weimar_sentence_82

The calm and centrally-located Weimar had a suitable place of assembly (the theatre), hotels and infrastructure, so it was chosen as the capital. Weimar_sentence_83

In 1920, the federal state of Thuringia was founded by an association of eight former microstates (Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Reuss-Gera and Reuss-Greiz) and Weimar became its capital. Weimar_sentence_84

Due to that fact, the city experienced another period of growth. Weimar_sentence_85

In 1919, Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus School by a merger of the Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School with the Kunstgewerbeschule Weimar. Weimar_sentence_86

The Bauhaus in Weimar lasted from 1919 to 1925, when it moved to Dessau, after the newly elected right-wing Thuringian council put pressure on the school by withdrawing funding and forcing its teachers to quit. Weimar_sentence_87

Many buildings in Weimar today have influences from the Bauhaus period. Weimar_sentence_88

However, only one original Bauhaus building was constructed during 1919–1925, the Haus am Horn, now used for exhibitions and events on Bauhaus culture. Weimar_sentence_89

The Weimar Republic era was marked by a constant conflict between "progressive" and national socialist forces, the former represented by Harry Graf Kessler and the latter Adolf Bartels in Weimar. Weimar_sentence_90

After 1929, the right wing forces prevailed and Weimar became an early centre of Nazism. Weimar_sentence_91

Nazi Germany and World War II Weimar_section_7

Weimar was important to the Nazis for two reasons: first, it was where the hated Weimar Republic was founded, and second, it had been a centre of German high culture during recent centuries. Weimar_sentence_92

In 1926, the NSDAP held its party convention in Weimar. Weimar_sentence_93

Adolf Hitler visited Weimar more than forty times prior to 1933. Weimar_sentence_94

In 1930, Wilhelm Frick became minister for internal affairs and education in Thuringia, the first NSDAP minister in Germany. Weimar_sentence_95

In 1932, the NSDAP came to power in Thuringia under Fritz Sauckel. Weimar_sentence_96

In 1933, the first Nazi concentration camps were established around Weimar in Nohra (the first one in Germany) and Bad Sulza. Weimar_sentence_97

Most prisoners at this time were communists and social democrats. Weimar_sentence_98

After Kristallnacht in 1938, harassment of Jews became more intense, so that many of them emigrated or were arrested. Weimar_sentence_99

The Weimar Synagogue was destroyed in 1938. Weimar_sentence_100

During the 1930s, the barracks in Weimar was greatly extended. Weimar_sentence_101

One famous person serving as a soldier in Weimar was Wolfgang Borchert, later a well known poet and playwright. Weimar_sentence_102

As it was the capital of Thuringia, the Nazis built a new Roman-fascist-style administrative centre between the city centre and the main station. Weimar_sentence_103

This Gauforum, designed by Hermann Giesler, was the only Nazi governmental building completed outside Berlin (though there were plans for all German state capitals). Weimar_sentence_104

Today it hosts the Thuringian State Administration. Weimar_sentence_105

Other Giesler buildings are the "Villa Sauckel", the governor's palace and the "Hotel Elephant" in the city centre. Weimar_sentence_106

In 1937, the Nazis established Buchenwald concentration camp eight kilometres from Weimar city centre. Weimar_sentence_107

Between July 1938 and April 1945, some 240,000 people were incarcerated in the camp by the Nazi regime, including 168 Western Allied POWs. Weimar_sentence_108

The number of deaths in Buchenwald is estimated at 56,545. Weimar_sentence_109

The Buchenwald concentration camp provided slave labour for local industry (arms manufacturer Wilhelm-Gustloff-Werk). Weimar_sentence_110

The city centre was partially damaged by US Air Force bombing in 1945 with some 1,800 people killed and many historic buildings destroyed. Weimar_sentence_111

Nevertheless, most of the destroyed buildings were restored soon after the war because of their importance in German cultural history. Weimar_sentence_112

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Weimar in April 1945, and the city surrendered to the US 80th Infantry Division on 12 April 1945. Weimar_sentence_113

The residents of Weimar were ordered to walk through Buchenwald, to see what had been happening so close to the city, as documented in Billy Wilder's film Death Mills. Weimar_sentence_114

The city ended up in the Soviet zone of occupation, so US troops were soon replaced by Soviet forces. Weimar_sentence_115

Since 1945 Weimar_section_8

From 1945 to 1950, the Soviet Union used the occupied Buchenwald concentration camp as a NKVD special camp to imprison defeated Nazis and other Germans. Weimar_sentence_116

The camp slogan remained Jedem das Seine. Weimar_sentence_117

On 6 January 1950, the Soviets handed over Buchenwald to the East German Ministry of Internal Affairs. Weimar_sentence_118

In 1948, the East German government declared Erfurt as Thuringia's new capital, and Weimar lost its influence on German contemporary culture and politics. Weimar_sentence_119

(The state of Thuringia itself was dissolved in 1952 and replaced by three Bezirke (districts) in a local government reform; Weimar belonged to the Bezirk of Erfurt.) Weimar_sentence_120

The city was the headquarters of the Soviet Union's 8th Guards Army as part of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. Weimar_sentence_121

Due to its fame and importance for tourism, Weimar received more financial subsidies from the GDR government and remained in better condition than most East German cities. Weimar_sentence_122

After German reunification in 1990, Weimar experienced significant economic hardship, but funding restored much that had deteriorated, and it was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1996 (Bauhaus) and 1998 (Classical Weimar). Weimar_sentence_123

The European Council of Ministers selected the city as European Capital of Culture for 1999. Weimar_sentence_124

Tourism has become an important economic factor over the decades. Weimar_sentence_125

Weimar is now a popular residence of people working in Erfurt and Jena, both less than 20 minutes away. Weimar_sentence_126

In 2004, a fire broke out at the Duchess Anna Amalia Library. Weimar_sentence_127

The library contains a 13,000-volume collection including Goethe's masterpiece Faust, in addition to the duchess's music collection. Weimar_sentence_128

An authentic Lutheran Bible from 1534 was saved from the fire. Weimar_sentence_129

The library is one of the oldest in Europe, dating back to 1691, and is listed as a UNESCO world heritage site. Weimar_sentence_130

Over one million volumes were housed in the library, of which forty to fifty thousand were damaged beyond repair. Weimar_sentence_131

A number of books were shock-frozen in Leipzig to save them from rotting. Weimar_sentence_132

The library was reopened in 2007. Weimar_sentence_133

Geography and demographics Weimar_section_9

Topography Weimar_section_10

Weimar is situated within the valley of Ilm river, a tributary of Saale river on the southern border of the Thuringian Basin, a fertile agricultural area between the Harz mountains 70 km (43 mi) in the north and the Thuringian Forest 50 km (31 mi) in the southwest. Weimar_sentence_134

The municipal terrain is hilly; the height of the city centre in Ilm valley is approximately 200 m of elevation. Weimar_sentence_135

To the north, the terrain rises to Ettersberg, the city's backyard mountain, 482 m in height. Weimar_sentence_136

The range of hills in the south of Weimar rises up to 370 m and is part of the Ilm Saale Plate Muschelkalk formation. Weimar_sentence_137

The eastern, central and western parts of the municipal territory are in agricultural use, whereas the Ettersberg and some southern areas are wooded. Weimar_sentence_138

Climate Weimar_section_11

Weimar has a humid continental climate (Dfb) or an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Weimar_sentence_139

Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 23 °C (73 °F) and lows of 12 °C (54 °F). Weimar_sentence_140

Winters are relatively cold with average high temperatures of 2 °C (36 °F) and lows of −3 °C (27 °F). Weimar_sentence_141

The city's topography creates a microclimate caused through the basin position with sometimes inversion in winter (quite cold nights under −20 °C (−4 °F)). Weimar_sentence_142

Annual precipitation is only 574 millimeters (22.6 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Weimar_sentence_143

Light snowfall occurs, mainly from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long. Weimar_sentence_144

Administrative division Weimar_section_12

Weimar abuts the district of Weimarer Land with the municipalities Berlstedt, Ettersburg, Kleinobringen, Großobringen and Wohlsborn in the north, Kromsdorf, Umpferstedt and Mellingen in the east, Vollersroda, Buchfart, Hetschburg, Bad Berka and Troistedt in the south and Nohra, Daasdorf am Berge, Hopfgarten and Ottstedt am Berge in the west. Weimar_sentence_145

The city itself is divided into 10 inner urban and 11 suburban districts. Weimar_sentence_146

The centre is formed by the district Altstadt (old town) and the Gründerzeit districts Nordvorstadt in the north, Parkvorstadt in the east and Westvorstadt in the south and west. Weimar_sentence_147

Later additions are Südstadt in the south and Schönblick in the southwest. Weimar_sentence_148

Finally, there are the Plattenbau settlements, constructed during the GDR period, Weststadt and Nordstadt as well as two industrial areas in the north and west. Weimar_sentence_149

The 11 suburban districts are villages which became incorporated during the 20th century; however, they have mostly stayed rural to date: Weimar_sentence_150


  • Gaberndorf (incorporated in 1994)Weimar_item_0_0
  • Gelmeroda (1994)Weimar_item_0_1
  • Legefeld/Holzdorf (1994)Weimar_item_0_2
  • Niedergrunstedt (1994)Weimar_item_0_3
  • Oberweimar/Ehringsdorf (1922)Weimar_item_0_4
  • Possendorf (1994)Weimar_item_0_5
  • Schöndorf (1939)Weimar_item_0_6
  • Süßenborn (1994)Weimar_item_0_7
  • Taubach (1994)Weimar_item_0_8
  • Tiefurt (1922)Weimar_item_0_9
  • Tröbsdorf (1994)Weimar_item_0_10

Demographics Weimar_section_13

Over the centuries, Weimar remained a small town of less than 5,000 inhabitants. Weimar_sentence_151

When it became the capital of Saxe-Weimar in 1572, population growth was stimulated and population increased from 3,000 in 1650 to 6,000 in 1750. Weimar_sentence_152

Around the year 1800, Weimar had 7,000 inhabitants. Weimar_sentence_153

Their number grew constantly over the years to 13,000 in 1850, 28,000 in 1900 and 35,000 at the beginning of World War I. Weimar_sentence_154

During the interwar period, the new capital of Thuringia saw a population boom, which led to 65,000 inhabitants in 1940. Weimar_sentence_155

Since that time, the population levels have stagnated. Weimar_sentence_156

The years 2009 to 2012 brought a moderate growth of approximately 0.35% p. a., whereas the population in bordering rural regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Weimar_sentence_157

Suburbanization played only a small role in Weimar. Weimar_sentence_158

It occurred after the reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders. Weimar_sentence_159

The birth surplus was +3 in 2012, this is +0.0 per 1,000 inhabitants (Thuringian average: −4.5; national average: −2.4). Weimar_sentence_160

The net migration rate was +4.5 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8; national average: +4.6). Weimar_sentence_161

The most important regions of origin are rural areas of Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony as well as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. Weimar_sentence_162

Like other eastern German cities, Weimar has a relatively small foreign population (compared to the German average): circa 4.0% are non-Germans by citizenship, while 7.9% have a migrant background (according to 2011 EU census). Weimar_sentence_163

Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in Weimar are Vietnamese people, Russians and Ukrainians. Weimar_sentence_164

During recent years, the economic situation of the city improved: the unemployment rate declined from 20% in 2005 to 5.1% in 2019. Weimar_sentence_165

Due to the official atheism in the former GDR, most of the population is non-religious. Weimar_sentence_166

21.1% are members of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany and 6.8% are Catholics (according to 2011 EU census). Weimar_sentence_167

Culture, sights and cityscape Weimar_section_14


Classical WeimarWeimar_table_caption_1
UNESCO World Heritage SiteWeimar_header_cell_1_0_0
CriteriaWeimar_header_cell_1_1_0 Cultural: iii, viWeimar_cell_1_1_1
ReferenceWeimar_header_cell_1_2_0 Weimar_cell_1_2_1
InscriptionWeimar_header_cell_1_3_0 1998 (22nd session)Weimar_cell_1_3_1

World Heritage Sites Weimar_section_15

Two World Heritage Sites converge in Weimar: Weimar_sentence_168


  • The Classical Weimar World Heritage Site consists of 11 sites related to Weimar as a European centre of the Enlightenment during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.Weimar_item_1_11
  • The Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau World Heritage Site comprises six separate sites, two in Weimar, which are associated with the Bauhaus art school, which had a revolutionary influence on 20th century architectural and aesthetic thinking and practice.Weimar_item_1_12

Museums Weimar_section_16

Weimar has a great variety of museums: Weimar_sentence_169


  • The Goethe-Nationalmuseum at Frauenplan shows the life of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in his former residence.Weimar_item_2_13
  • Goethe's garden house in the Park an der Ilm shows an exhibition about Goethe and his connection to nature.Weimar_item_2_14
  • The Schiller-Museum at Schillerstraße shows the life of Friedrich Schiller in his former residence.Weimar_item_2_15
  • The Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv at Hans-Wahl-Straße collects the estate of Goethe, Schiller and other various artists. In 2001, it became a member of the UNESCO Memory of the World Programme.Weimar_item_2_16
  • The Wittumspalais at Theaterplatz shows early-modern court lifestyle with items like furniture and porcelain.Weimar_item_2_17
  • The Liszt-Haus at Marienstraße shows the life of Franz Liszt in his former summer residence.Weimar_item_2_18
  • The Nietzsche-Archiv at Humboldtstraße shows the life and estate of Friedrich Nietzsche.Weimar_item_2_19
  • The Gedenkstätte Buchenwald in former Buchenwald concentration camp commemorates the victims of Nazi terror.Weimar_item_2_20
  • The Bauhaus-Museum at Theaterplatz shows an exhibition about the Bauhaus design school.Weimar_item_2_21
  • The Schlossmuseum inside the residence castle exhibits early-modern antiques and other objects of court life.Weimar_item_2_22
  • The Duchess Anna Amalia Library at Platz der Demokratie is an important early-modern library with various print objects.Weimar_item_2_23
  • The Neues Museum at Weimarplatz shows an exhibition of contemporary art.Weimar_item_2_24
  • The Stadtmuseum at Karl-Liebknecht-Straße exhibits the municipal history of Weimar.Weimar_item_2_25
  • The Kunsthalle Harry Graf Kessler at Goetheplatz hosts rotating exhibitions of contemporary artists.Weimar_item_2_26
  • The Haus am Horn at Am Horn street was the first building designed entirely on the design principles of the Bauhaus art school.Weimar_item_2_27
  • The Fürstengruft at the historic cemetery is a mausoleum of famous Weimar citizens like Goethe and Schiller as well as the dukes of Saxe-Weimar.Weimar_item_2_28
  • The Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Thüringens (museum of pre- and protohistory of Thuringia) at Humboldtstraße exhibits various objects of early Thuringian history such as archaeological finds.Weimar_item_2_29
  • The Deutsches Bienenmuseum (German bee museum) at Ilmstraße in Oberweimar district hosts the only pure exhibition about bees and apiculture in Germany.Weimar_item_2_30


  • Weimar_item_3_31
  • Weimar_item_3_32
  • Weimar_item_3_33
  • Weimar_item_3_34
  • Weimar_item_3_35
  • Weimar_item_3_36
  • Weimar_item_3_37

Cityscape Weimar_section_17

The historic city centre of Weimar is situated between the Ilm river in the east, Grabenstraße in the north, Goetheplatz and Theaterplatz in the west and Schillerstraße in the south. Weimar_sentence_170

Its two central squares are the Marktplatz in the south (with the town hall) and the Herderplatz in the north (with the main church). Weimar_sentence_171

Despite its medieval origin, there are only a few medieval buildings, many being destroyed by frequent fires throughout the city's history. Weimar_sentence_172

Most buildings in this area date back to the 17th and 18th century. Weimar_sentence_173

Furthermore, Weimar has two old suburbs: in the north, the Jakobsvorstadt around St. James' Church (medieval origin) and another one in the south around Frauenplan square. Weimar_sentence_174

The majority of buildings in these areas are also of 17th- and 18th-century origin. Weimar_sentence_175

During the late 19th and early 20th century, Weimar grew in all directions. Weimar_sentence_176

Because of its function as an "officials' city", the houses in these areas are more substantial than in many comparable Gründerzeit quarters in Germany. Weimar_sentence_177

The most uptown areas are those right and left of the Park an der Ilm in the southeast, whereas the western and northern quarters are more basic and mixed with industrial areas in their outer parts. Weimar_sentence_178

During the GDR period, two new Plattenbau settlements were developed in the west and the north of the city. Weimar_sentence_179

After 1990, suburbanization occurred for a short time and the rural districts of Weimar saw significant growth as part of the larger city. Weimar_sentence_180

Sights and architectural heritage Weimar_section_18

Religious buildings Weimar_section_19

The city's main church is the Evangelical St. Weimar_sentence_181 Peter and Paul on the Herderplatz (known as Die Herderkirche). Weimar_sentence_182

It was rebuilt in late Gothic style after a fire around 1500. Weimar_sentence_183

Between 1726 and 1735, the interior underwent a Baroque remodelling by Johann Adolf Richter. Weimar_sentence_184

Johann Gottfried Herder was the dean of the church between 1766 and 1803. Weimar_sentence_185

The second old Evangelical church of Weimar is St. James on Rollplatz, rebuilt in 1712 in Baroque style. Weimar_sentence_186

The Roman Catholic parish church of Weimar is dedicated to the Sacred Heart and was built between 1888 and 1891 in historicist forms imitating Florence Cathedral. Weimar_sentence_187

Another church is the Russian Orthodox Chapel within the historic cemetery. Weimar_sentence_188

It was built in 1862 as the funerary chapel of Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna and was one of the first Russian-styled buildings in Germany. Weimar_sentence_189

Interesting churches in the suburban districts are the Lutheran parish church of Gelmeroda, which was the inspiration for many paintings by Lyonel Feininger, and the Lutheran parish church of Oberweimar, which was a former monastery, and is a good example of Gothic architecture in Weimar. Weimar_sentence_190


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Castles and palaces Weimar_section_20

Due to its function as a ducal residence, Weimar is rich in early-modern castles and palaces. Weimar_sentence_191

The biggest one is the Stadtschloss at Burgplatz in the city centre. Weimar_sentence_192

Today's four-wing building was started after a great fire in 1774. Weimar_sentence_193

The tower and the Bastille building at its south-western edge are relics of older castles in this place. Weimar_sentence_194

The Fürstenhaus at Platz der Demokratie was the first parliament building in Weimar, established in the 1770s. Weimar_sentence_195

Today it is in use by the Weimar School of Music. Weimar_sentence_196

The Green Castle next to the Fürstenhaus was built in the 1560s in Renaissance style and hosts today the Duchess Anna Amalia Library. Weimar_sentence_197

The Yellow Castle at Grüner Markt was built in 1703 and is the municipal library today. Weimar_sentence_198

The neighbouring Red Castle is also part of the library and was built in the 1570s. Weimar_sentence_199

The Wittumspalais is a smaller widow mansion near Theaterplatz, established in 1768. Weimar_sentence_200

Outbildings of the ducal residence are the Husarenstall (1770), the later residence of Charlotte von Stein at Ackerwand street, the Marstall (1870s) at Kegelplatz, today used as Thuringian State Archive and the Reithaus (1710s) within the Park an der Ilm. Weimar_sentence_201


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Furthermore, there are some impressive ducal country residences around Weimar. Weimar_sentence_202

They are marked by their beautiful parks and gardens. Weimar_sentence_203

Schloss Belvedere, south-east of Weimar was built between 1724 and 1732 in Baroque style with an orangery near to a ducal hunting forest. Weimar_sentence_204

North-east of Weimar, at Ettersburg lies another ducal hunting lodge next to the Ettersberg mountain and its forest. Weimar_sentence_205

It was established between 1706 and 1711 also in Baroque style. Weimar_sentence_206

The third summer residence, Schloss Tiefurt, is located in Tiefurt, north-east of Weimar. Weimar_sentence_207

The small lodge in a wide park in Ilm valley was rebuilt in 1775 in late-Baroque forms. Weimar_sentence_208


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Other sights Weimar_section_21


  • The town hall at Marktplatz was built between 1837 and 1841 in Neo-Gothic style by Heinrich Heß after the former one (15th-century) burnt down.Weimar_item_7_55
  • The two main buildings of Bauhaus University at Marienstraße are icons of 20th-century early-modern architecture. Both were built by Henry van de Velde between 1904 and 1911. They mark the transition from older Historicism and Art Nouveau to the new international modern style in Germany by their functional forms (e. g. skylights for better working conditions inside).Weimar_item_7_56
  • The German National Theatre at Theaterplatz was built in 1906/07 in neo-classicist forms. Two predecessors were in use after 1779 and 1825 as ducal court theatres during Weimar's golden age. In 1919, the Weimar National Assembly developed the Weimar Constitution in this theatre.Weimar_item_7_57
  • The Gauforum at Weimarplatz is a Roman-fascist style representative government district between the city centre and the main station. This Gauforum, designed by Hermann Giesler, was the only realized Nazi government district outside Berlin (whereas there were plans for all German state capitals). Today it hosts the Thuringian Administration State Department.Weimar_item_7_58
  • The Park an der Ilm is the city's largest park along Ilm river between the ducal palace and the district of Oberweimar. It was established between 1778 and 1833 and is an English landscape garden today, part of UNESCO world heritage. Sights inside the park are Goethe's garden house (1690s) and Römisches Haus (in the style of a Roman temple, 1790s).Weimar_item_7_59
  • The Historic Cemetery at Karl-Haußknecht-Straße was opened in 1818 and hosts the graves of Goethe, Schiller and many other famous people from Weimar.Weimar_item_7_60
  • The Goethe-Schiller-Denkmal at Theaterplatz is the most famous memorial in Weimar. It was made by Ernst Rietschel between 1852 and 1857 and is dedicated to Goethe and Schiller, the most important poets of German classical literature.Weimar_item_7_61
  • A rather unknown monument is the Lenin-light-box inside the theatre hall "La Redoute". It's a copy of a stained window by Alexander Leonidovich Korolev that shows Lenin in Petrograd. (today: St. Petersburg).Weimar_item_7_62


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Events Weimar_section_22

The Onion Market (Weimarer Zwiebelmarkt) is an annual festival held in October in Weimar and it is Thuringia's largest festival. Weimar_sentence_209

The festival is held over 3 days and approximately 500 stalls and more than 100 stage performances are put up across the city. Weimar_sentence_210

Weimar first celebrated the Onion Market in 1653. Weimar_sentence_211

Stalls typically offer onion plaits, themed arts and crafts and numerous onion-based foods, including onion cakes, onion soups and onion breads. Weimar_sentence_212

The festival also hosts numerous beer gardens, live music, fairground attractions and a Ferris wheel. Weimar_sentence_213

There are several clubs with live music once or twice a week. Weimar_sentence_214

There is also a student club in the city centre which also features disco and live music events on Friday- and Saturday nights (Kasseturm). Weimar_sentence_215

There are several smaller theatre and cabaret venues other than the large "DNT" (Deutsches National Theater). Weimar_sentence_216

There are four cinemas including a 3-D cinema, and a Bowling Alley in the Weimar Atrium, the local mall. Weimar_sentence_217

Economy and infrastructure Weimar_section_23

Agriculture, industry and services Weimar_section_24

The area around Weimar is relatively fertile and 48% of the municipal surface are used for agricultural production. Weimar_sentence_218

Most common agricultures are cereals, maize and rapeseed, while famous agricultural products from the Weimar region are potatoes (especially from Heichelheim, 7 km (4 mi) to the north) for dishes with (Knödel from potatoes), onions (from Heldrungen and Oldisleben, 45 km (28 mi) to the north), which are sold at Weimar Onion Market in October, and Saale-Unstrut wine from Bad Sulza, 25 km (16 mi) to the north-east. Weimar_sentence_219

Industry has never been dominant in Weimar, nevertheless there were several big factories from different sectors until 1990. Weimar_sentence_220

After reunification, nearly all factories got closed, either because they failed the adoption of free market economy or because the German government sold them to west German businessmen who closed them to avoid competition to their own enterprises. Weimar_sentence_221

On the other hand, the federal government started early in the 1990s to subsidize the foundation of new companies, but it took long time before the economic situation got stabilized around 2006. Weimar_sentence_222

Since this time, unemployment decreased and overall, new jobs develop. Weimar_sentence_223

Today, there are many small and medium-sized companies in Weimar with electro-technics and engineering in focus. Weimar_sentence_224

Nevertheless, settlement of new factories isn't much in focus of the local government, because it concentrates itself on developing tourism and services. Weimar_sentence_225

The biggest companies with production in Weimar are Bayer (pharmaceutical factory), Coca-Cola (beverages) and Hydrema (dump truck factory). Weimar_sentence_226

A new big commercial zone was established in the 1990s in the neighbouring municipality of Nohra with focus on logistics and distribution. Weimar_sentence_227

Due to its tradition as a capital, Weimar is a centre of governmental services to date. Weimar_sentence_228

Furthermore, creative branches like media, advertising, architecture and design are important for Weimar's economy. Weimar_sentence_229

The most important sector is tourism with 3,500 hotel beds, 350,000 visitors and 650,000 overnight stays in hotels in 2012 and a large number of German one-day visitors. Weimar_sentence_230

Other services like retail, trade fairs and specialized hospitals are more brought by the near neighbour cities Erfurt and Jena with their infrastructure. Weimar_sentence_231

Transport Weimar_section_25

By rail Weimar_section_26

Weimar is connected by the Thuringian Railway to Leipzig in the east and to Frankfurt/Kassel in the west. Weimar_sentence_232

Furthermore, there are some regional railways to Gera via Jena and to Kranichfeld via Bad Berka. Weimar_sentence_233

Today, there are long-distance trains to Frankfurt via Erfurt and Fulda and to Dresden via Leipzig and regional trains to Göttingen and Eisenach via Erfurt, to Halle via Naumburg, to Altenburg, Glauchau, Zwickau and Greiz via Jena and Gera and to Kranichfeld. Weimar_sentence_234

When the new Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway will open (in 2015), Weimar will be disconnected from the German long-distance train network. Weimar_sentence_235

However the regional train service will be augmented to connect Weimar with ICE-stops in Erfurt, Halle and Leipzig. Weimar_sentence_236

In freight transport exists an intermodal terminal in Vieselbach (Güterverkehrszentrum/GVZ) with connection to rail and Autobahn, 15 km (9 mi) west of Weimar. Weimar_sentence_237

By road Weimar_section_27

Weimar is located at the Bundesautobahn 4 (FrankfurtDresden). Weimar_sentence_238

Furthermore, there are two federal roads to Erfurt and Jena (Bundesstraße 7) and to Rudolstadt and Kölleda (Bundesstraße 85) as well as some regional roads to Sömmerda, Oßmannstedt and Magdala. Weimar_sentence_239

A bypass road around Weimar was built in the 2000s in the north and west; the eastern and southern continuation are in discussion, but not in definite planning because of some difficulties in routing. Weimar_sentence_240

By aviation Weimar_section_28

The Erfurt-Weimar Airport lies approximately 30 km (19 mi) west of Weimar. Weimar_sentence_241

It was largely extended in the 1990s, but the anticipated rise in passengers did not occur so that there is only rare air traffic, mostly to Mediterranean holiday regions. Weimar_sentence_242

Other flights are carried out via Frankfurt Airport, which can be reached in 3 hours, and in the future via Berlin Brandenburg Airport, which is scheduled to open in 2020 and is about 3 hours away. Weimar_sentence_243

By bike Weimar_section_29

Biking is becoming more popular since the construction of quality cycle tracks began in the 1990s. Weimar_sentence_244

For tourism, there are the Ilm track and the Thuringian city string track (Radweg Thüringer Städtekette). Weimar_sentence_245

Both connect points of tourist interest, the first along the Ilm valley from the Thuringian Forest to the Saale river and the second close to medieval Via Regia from Eisenach via Gotha, Erfurt, Weimar, and Jena to Altenburg. Weimar_sentence_246

Additionally, there are themed routes like the Goethe cycle track and the Feininger cycle track. Weimar_sentence_247

For inner city everyday traffic, some cycle lanes exist along several main streets. Weimar_sentence_248

Bike rental is offered in the city centre. Weimar_sentence_249

Bus service Weimar_section_30

For a small city, Weimar is well served by city bus routes, which also serve all of the surrounding towns and villages. Weimar_sentence_250

An hourly bus route serves the Buchenwald Memorial and oldtimer buses operate in the city's historical centre. Weimar_sentence_251

All bus routes are connected at Goethe Square in the city centre, and many also serve the main railway station. Weimar_sentence_252

Trams served the city from 1899 to 1937. Weimar_sentence_253

Trolleybus service started in 1948 and was discontinued in 1993. Weimar_sentence_254

Education Weimar_section_31

After the reunification, the educational system was realigned. Weimar_sentence_255

Some academies were combined into the new Bauhaus University, founded in 1996 with approximately 4,200 students and focus on architecture, design and media. Weimar_sentence_256

The Liszt School of Music is a university focussed on music and music education founded in 1872 with 850 students today. Weimar_sentence_257

Furthermore, there are three regular Gymnasiums, the Musikgymnasium Schloss Belvedere, an elite boarding school with focus on music, and the Thuringia International School with an international (and foreign language) curriculum. Weimar_sentence_258

The most important archives in Weimar are the Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv (member of UNESCO Memory of the World Programme) with focus on German literary history and the Thuringia Main State Archive with governmental documents from last 500 years. Weimar_sentence_259

The Duchess Anna Amalia Library hosts books and documents of German literary and cultural history. Weimar_sentence_260

Politics Weimar_section_32

Mayor and city council Weimar_section_33

The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 April 2018, and the results were as follows: Weimar_sentence_261


CandidateWeimar_header_cell_2_0_0 PartyWeimar_header_cell_2_0_2 VotesWeimar_header_cell_2_0_3 %Weimar_header_cell_2_0_4
Weimar_cell_2_1_0 Peter KleineWeimar_cell_2_1_1 Independent (CDU/Weimarwerk)Weimar_cell_2_1_2 15,069Weimar_cell_2_1_3 60.3Weimar_cell_2_1_4
Weimar_cell_2_2_0 Stefan WolfWeimar_cell_2_2_1 Social Democratic PartyWeimar_cell_2_2_2 5,359Weimar_cell_2_2_3 21.5Weimar_cell_2_2_4
Weimar_cell_2_3_0 Jan KreyßigWeimar_cell_2_3_1 Alliance 90/The GreensWeimar_cell_2_3_2 3,800Weimar_cell_2_3_3 15.2Weimar_cell_2_3_4
Weimar_cell_2_4_0 Hagen HultzschWeimar_cell_2_4_1 Free Democratic PartyWeimar_cell_2_4_2 745Weimar_cell_2_4_3 3.0Weimar_cell_2_4_4
Valid votesWeimar_header_cell_2_5_0 24,973Weimar_header_cell_2_5_3 99.1Weimar_header_cell_2_5_4
Invalid votesWeimar_header_cell_2_6_0 232Weimar_header_cell_2_6_3 0.9Weimar_header_cell_2_6_4
TotalWeimar_header_cell_2_7_0 25,205Weimar_header_cell_2_7_3 100.0Weimar_header_cell_2_7_4
Electorate/voter turnoutWeimar_header_cell_2_8_0 51,778Weimar_header_cell_2_8_3 48.7Weimar_header_cell_2_8_4

The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows: Weimar_sentence_262


PartyWeimar_header_cell_3_0_0 Lead candidateWeimar_header_cell_3_0_2 VotesWeimar_header_cell_3_0_3 %Weimar_header_cell_3_0_4 +/-Weimar_header_cell_3_0_5 SeatsWeimar_header_cell_3_0_6 +/-Weimar_header_cell_3_0_7
Weimar_cell_3_1_0 Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)Weimar_cell_3_1_1 Ann-Sophie Bohm-EisenbrandtWeimar_cell_3_1_2 16,830Weimar_cell_3_1_3 18.5Weimar_cell_3_1_4 3.0Weimar_cell_3_1_5 8Weimar_cell_3_1_6 1Weimar_cell_3_1_7
Weimar_cell_3_2_0 Weimarwerk Citizens' AllianceWeimar_cell_3_2_1 Wolfgang HölzerWeimar_cell_3_2_2 16,325Weimar_cell_3_2_3 17.9Weimar_cell_3_2_4 3.5Weimar_cell_3_2_5 7Weimar_cell_3_2_6 1Weimar_cell_3_2_7
Weimar_cell_3_3_0 Christian Democratic Union (CDU)Weimar_cell_3_3_1 Peter KrauseWeimar_cell_3_3_2 15,972Weimar_cell_3_3_3 17.5Weimar_cell_3_3_4 6.1Weimar_cell_3_3_5 7Weimar_cell_3_3_6 3Weimar_cell_3_3_7
Weimar_cell_3_4_0 The Left (Die Linke)Weimar_cell_3_4_1 Jana KörberWeimar_cell_3_4_2 14,812Weimar_cell_3_4_3 16.2Weimar_cell_3_4_4 3.2Weimar_cell_3_4_5 7Weimar_cell_3_4_6 1Weimar_cell_3_4_7
Weimar_cell_3_5_0 Social Democratic Party (SPD)Weimar_cell_3_5_1 Thomas HartungWeimar_cell_3_5_2 12,050Weimar_cell_3_5_3 13.2Weimar_cell_3_5_4 4.9Weimar_cell_3_5_5 6Weimar_cell_3_5_6 2Weimar_cell_3_5_7
Weimar_cell_3_6_0 Alternative for Germany (AfD)Weimar_cell_3_6_1 Heike GnatowskiWeimar_cell_3_6_2 10,074Weimar_cell_3_6_3 11.0Weimar_cell_3_6_4 NewWeimar_cell_3_6_5 5Weimar_cell_3_6_6 NewWeimar_cell_3_6_7
Weimar_cell_3_7_0 Free Democratic Party (FDP)Weimar_cell_3_7_1 Hagen HultzschWeimar_cell_3_7_2 3,322Weimar_cell_3_7_3 3.6Weimar_cell_3_7_4 0.4Weimar_cell_3_7_5 1Weimar_cell_3_7_6 ±0Weimar_cell_3_7_7
Weimar_cell_3_8_0 Pirate Party Germany (Piraten)Weimar_cell_3_8_1 Oliver KröningWeimar_cell_3_8_2 1,797Weimar_cell_3_8_3 2.0Weimar_cell_3_8_4 0.9Weimar_cell_3_8_5 1Weimar_cell_3_8_6 ±0Weimar_cell_3_8_7
Valid votesWeimar_header_cell_3_9_0 30,686Weimar_header_cell_3_9_3 96.4Weimar_header_cell_3_9_4 Weimar_header_cell_3_9_5 Weimar_header_cell_3_9_6 Weimar_header_cell_3_9_7
Invalid votesWeimar_header_cell_3_10_0 1,155Weimar_header_cell_3_10_3 3.6Weimar_header_cell_3_10_4 Weimar_header_cell_3_10_5 Weimar_header_cell_3_10_6 Weimar_header_cell_3_10_7
TotalWeimar_header_cell_3_11_0 31,841Weimar_header_cell_3_11_3 100.0Weimar_header_cell_3_11_4 Weimar_header_cell_3_11_5 42Weimar_header_cell_3_11_6 ±0Weimar_header_cell_3_11_7
Electorate/voter turnoutWeimar_header_cell_3_12_0 51,736Weimar_header_cell_3_12_3 61.5Weimar_header_cell_3_12_4 11.9Weimar_header_cell_3_12_5 Weimar_header_cell_3_12_6 Weimar_header_cell_3_12_7

Lord Mayor Weimar_section_34

List of mayors and lord mayors (since 1793) Weimar_sentence_263

The years behind the names indicate the years of office, whereby the year of office did not correspond to the calendar year. Weimar_sentence_264

Since 1838, the city has had a lord mayor. Weimar_sentence_265


Twin towns - sister cities Weimar_section_35

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Weimar_sentence_266

Weimar is twinned with: Weimar_sentence_267

Famous residents of Weimar Weimar_section_36

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weimar.