West Berlin

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For other uses, see West Berlin (disambiguation). West Berlin_sentence_0

West Berlin_table_infobox_0

West Berlin

West-Berlin Berlin-Ouest Berlin (West)West Berlin_header_cell_0_0_0

StatusWest Berlin_header_cell_0_1_0 Western Allies–occupied sectors of BerlinWest Berlin_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesWest Berlin_header_cell_0_2_0 GermanWest Berlin_cell_0_2_1
ReligionWest Berlin_header_cell_0_3_0 Christianity (Evangelical, Catholic), JudaismWest Berlin_cell_0_3_1
Governing MayorWest Berlin_header_cell_0_4_0 West Berlin_cell_0_4_1
1948–1953 (first)West Berlin_header_cell_0_5_0 Ernst Reuter (SPD)West Berlin_cell_0_5_1
1989–1990 (last)West Berlin_header_cell_0_6_0 Walter Momper (SPD)West Berlin_cell_0_6_1
Historical eraWest Berlin_header_cell_0_7_0 Cold WarWest Berlin_cell_0_7_1
End of the Berlin BlockadeWest Berlin_header_cell_0_8_0 12 May 1949West Berlin_cell_0_8_1
ReunificationWest Berlin_header_cell_0_9_0 3 October 1990West Berlin_cell_0_9_1
AreaWest Berlin_header_cell_0_10_0
1989West Berlin_header_cell_0_11_0 479.9 km (185.3 sq mi)West Berlin_cell_0_11_1
PopulationWest Berlin_header_cell_0_12_0
1989West Berlin_header_cell_0_13_0 2,130,525West Berlin_cell_0_13_1
CurrencyWest Berlin_header_cell_0_14_0 Deutsche Mark (official)

United States dollar (also widely used)West Berlin_cell_0_14_1

Preceded by

Succeeded by

Allied-occupied Germany


BerlinWest Berlin_cell_0_15_0

Preceded byWest Berlin_cell_0_16_0 Succeeded byWest Berlin_cell_0_16_1
Allied-occupied GermanyWest Berlin_cell_0_17_0 Germany

BerlinWest Berlin_cell_0_17_1

West Berlin_cell_0_18_0 Allied-occupied GermanyWest Berlin_cell_0_18_1
GermanyWest Berlin_cell_0_19_0 West Berlin_cell_0_19_1
BerlinWest Berlin_cell_0_20_0 West Berlin_cell_0_20_1
Today part ofWest Berlin_header_cell_0_21_0 GermanyWest Berlin_cell_0_21_1

West Berlin (German: Berlin (West) or West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War. West Berlin_sentence_1

Although no specific date on which the sectors of Berlin occupied by the Western Allies became "West Berlin", 1949 is widely accepted as when the name was adopted. West Berlin_sentence_2

West Berlin aligned itself politically with the Federal Republic of Germany and was directly or indirectly represented in its federal institutions. West Berlin_sentence_3

West Berlin was formally controlled by the Western Allies and was entirely surrounded by the Soviet-controlled East Berlin and East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_4

West Berlin had great symbolic significance during the Cold War, as it was widely considered by westerners an "island of freedom". West Berlin_sentence_5

It was heavily subsidised by West Germany as a "showcase of the West". West Berlin_sentence_6

A wealthy city, West Berlin was noted for its distinctly cosmopolitan character, and as a centre of education, research and culture. West Berlin_sentence_7

With about two million inhabitants, West Berlin had the largest population of any city in Germany during the Cold War era. West Berlin_sentence_8

West Berlin was 100 miles (161 kilometres) east and north of the Inner German border and only accessible by land from West Germany by narrow rail and highway corridors. West Berlin_sentence_9

It consisted of the American, British, and French occupation sectors established in 1945. West Berlin_sentence_10

The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, physically separated West Berlin from its East Berlin and East German surroundings until it fell in 1989. West Berlin_sentence_11

On 3 October 1990, the day Germany was officially reunified, East and West Berlin formally reunited, joined the Federal Republic as a city-state and, eventually, once again became the capital of Germany. West Berlin_sentence_12

Origins West Berlin_section_0

The Potsdam Agreement established the legal framework for the occupation of Germany in the wake of World War II. West Berlin_sentence_13

According to this agreement, Germany would be formally under the administration of four Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and France) until a German government "acceptable to all parties" could be established. West Berlin_sentence_14

The territory of Germany, as it existed in 1937, would be reduced by most of Eastern Germany thus creating the former eastern territories of Germany. West Berlin_sentence_15

The remaining territory would be divided into four zones, each administered by one of the four allied countries. West Berlin_sentence_16

Berlin, which was surrounded by the Soviet zone of occupation—newly established in most of Middle Germany—would be similarly divided, with the Western Allies occupying an enclave consisting of the western parts of the city. West Berlin_sentence_17

According to the agreement, the occupation of Berlin could end only as a result of a agreement. West Berlin_sentence_18

The Western Allies were guaranteed three air corridors to their sectors of Berlin, and the Soviets also informally allowed road and rail access between West Berlin and the western parts of Germany (see section on traffic). West Berlin_sentence_19

At first, this arrangement was intended to be of a temporary administrative nature, with all parties declaring that Germany and Berlin would soon be reunited. West Berlin_sentence_20

However, as the relations between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union soured and the Cold War began, the joint administration of Germany and Berlin broke down. West Berlin_sentence_21

Soon, Soviet-occupied Berlin and western-occupied Berlin had separate city administrations. West Berlin_sentence_22

In 1948, the Soviets tried to force the Western Allies out of Berlin by imposing a land blockade on the western sectors—the Berlin Blockade. West Berlin_sentence_23

The West responded by using its air corridors for supplying their part of the city with food and other goods through the Berlin Airlift. West Berlin_sentence_24

In May 1949, the Soviets lifted the blockade, and West Berlin as a separate city with its own jurisdiction was maintained. West Berlin_sentence_25

Following the Berlin Blockade, normal contacts between East and West Berlin resumed. West Berlin_sentence_26

This was temporary until talks were resumed. West Berlin_sentence_27

In 1952, the East German government began sealing its borders, further isolating West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_28

As a direct result, electrical grids were separated and phone lines were cut. West Berlin_sentence_29

The Volkspolizei and Soviet military personnel also continued the process of blocking all the roads leading away from the city, resulting in several armed standoffs and at least one skirmish with the French Gendarmerie and the Bundesgrenzschutz that June. West Berlin_sentence_30

However, the culmination of the schism did not occur until 1961 with the construction of the Berlin Wall. West Berlin_sentence_31

Legal status West Berlin_section_1

From the legal theory followed by the Western Allies, the occupation of most of Germany ended in 1949 with the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) on 23 May and of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) on 7 October. West Berlin_sentence_32

Under Article 127 of the Basic Law (or constitution) of the Federal Republic, provision was made for federal laws to be extended to Greater Berlin (as West Berlin was officially known) as well as Baden, Rhineland-Palatinate and Württemberg-Hohenzollern within one year of its promulgation. West Berlin_sentence_33

However, because the occupation of Berlin could be ended only by a quadripartite agreement, Berlin remained an occupied territory under the formal sovereignty of the allies. West Berlin_sentence_34

Hence, the Basic Law was not fully applicable to West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_35

On 4 August 1950, the House of Representatives, the city's legislature, passed a new constitution, declaring Berlin to be a state of the Federal Republic and the provisions of the Basic Law as binding law superior to Berlin state law (Article 1, clauses 2 and 3). West Berlin_sentence_36

However, that became statutory law only on 1 September and only with the inclusion of the western Allied provision according to which Art. West Berlin_sentence_37

1, clauses 2 and 3, were deferred for the time being; the clauses became valid law only on 3 October 1990 (the day of Germany's unification). West Berlin_sentence_38

It stated: West Berlin_sentence_39

Thus, civic liberties and personal rights (except for the privacy of telecommunications) guaranteed by the Basic Law were also valid in West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_40

In addition, West German federal statutes could only take effect in West Berlin with the approval of the city's legislature. West Berlin_sentence_41

The ambiguous legal status of the city, then still legally styled as Greater Berlin (although technically only comprising the western sectors), meant that West Berliners were not eligible to vote in federal elections. West Berlin_sentence_42

In their notification of permission of 12 May 1949 the three western military governors for Germany explained their proviso in No. West Berlin_sentence_43

4, as follows: West Berlin_sentence_44

Consequently, West Berliners were indirectly represented in the Bundestag in Bonn by 22 non-voting delegates chosen by the House of Representatives. West Berlin_sentence_45

Similarly, the Senate (the city's executive) sent four non-voting delegates to the Bundesrat. West Berlin_sentence_46

In addition, when the first direct elections to the European Parliament were held in 1979, West Berlin's three members were instead indirectly elected by the House of Representatives. West Berlin_sentence_47

However, as West German citizens, West Berliners were able to stand for election in West Germany. West Berlin_sentence_48

For example, Social Democrat Willy Brandt, who eventually became Chancellor, was elected via his party's list of candidates. West Berlin_sentence_49

The West German government considered all West Berliners as well as all citizens of the GDR to be citizens of West Germany. West Berlin_sentence_50

Also, male residents of West Berlin were exempt from the Federal Republic's compulsory military service; this exemption made the city a popular destination for West German young people, which resulted in a flourishing counterculture, which in turn became one of the defining features of the city. West Berlin_sentence_51

The Western Allies remained the ultimate political authorities in West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_52

All legislation of the House of Representatives, whether of the West Berlin legislature or adopted federal law, only applied under the proviso of confirmation by the three Western Allied commanders-in-chief. West Berlin_sentence_53

If they approved a bill, it was enacted as part of West Berlin's statutory law. West Berlin_sentence_54

If the commanders-in-chief rejected a bill, it did not become law in West Berlin; this, for example, was the case with West German laws on military duty. West Berlin_sentence_55

West Berlin was run by the elected Governing Mayor and Senate seated at Rathaus Schöneberg. West Berlin_sentence_56

The Governing Mayor and Senators (ministers) had to be approved by the Western Allies and thus derived their authority from the occupying forces, not from their electoral mandate. West Berlin_sentence_57

The Soviets unilaterally declared the occupation of East Berlin at an end along with the rest of East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_58

This move was, however, not recognised by the Western Allies, who continued to view all of Berlin as a jointly occupied territory belonging to neither of the two countries. West Berlin_sentence_59

This view was supported by the continued practice of patrols of all four sectors by soldiers of all four occupying powers. West Berlin_sentence_60

Thus, occasionally Western Allied soldiers were on patrol in East Berlin as were Soviet soldiers in West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_61

After the Wall was built, East Germany wanted to control Western Allied patrols upon entering or leaving East Berlin, a practice that the Western Allies regarded as unacceptable. West Berlin_sentence_62

So, after protests to the Soviets, the patrols continued uncontrolled on both sides, with the tacit agreement that the western Allies would not use their patrolling privileges for helping Easterners to flee to the West. West Berlin_sentence_63

In many ways, West Berlin functioned as the de facto 11th state of West Germany, and was depicted on maps published in the West as being a part of West Germany. West Berlin_sentence_64

There was freedom of movement (to the extent allowed by geography) between West Berlin and West Germany. West Berlin_sentence_65

There were no separate immigration regulations for West Berlin, all immigration rules for West Germany being followed in West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_66

West German entry visas issued to visitors were stamped with "for the Federal Republic of Germany, including the State of Berlin", in German "für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland einschl. West Berlin_sentence_67

[einschließlich] des Landes Berlin", prompting complaints from the Soviet Union. West Berlin_sentence_68

However, this wording remained on the visas throughout the rest of the entire period of West Berlin's existence. West Berlin_sentence_69

West Berlin remained under military occupation until 3 October 1990, the day of unification of East Germany, East and West Berlin with Federal Republic of Germany. West Berlin_sentence_70

The West German Federal Government, as well as the governments of most western nations, considered East Berlin to be a "separate entity" from East Germany, and while the Western Allies later opened embassies in East Berlin, they recognised the city only as the seat of government of the GDR, not as its capital. West Berlin_sentence_71

Communist countries, however, did not recognise West Berlin as part of West Germany and usually described it as a "third" German jurisdiction, called in German selbständige politische Einheit ("independent political unit"). West Berlin_sentence_72

On maps of East Berlin, West Berlin often did not appear as an adjacent urban area but as a monochrome terra incognita, sometimes showing the letters WB, meaning West Berlin, or overlaid with a legend or pictures. West Berlin_sentence_73

It was often labelled "Besonderes politisches Gebiet Westberlin" (West Berlin special political area). West Berlin_sentence_74

Immigration West Berlin_section_2

The Federal Republic of Germany issued West German passports to West Berliners on request that showed West Berlin as their place of residence. West Berlin_sentence_75

However, West Berliners could not use their passports for crossing East German borders and were denied entrance by any country of the Eastern Bloc, since governments of these countries held the view that West Germany was not authorized to issue legal papers for West Berliners. West Berlin_sentence_76

Since West Berlin was not a sovereign state, it did not issue passports. West Berlin_sentence_77

Instead, West Berliners were issued with "auxiliary identity cards" by the West Berlin authorities. West Berlin_sentence_78

These differed visually from the regular West German identity cards, with green bindings instead of the grey standard, they did not show the "Federal Eagle" or coat of arms, and did not contain any indications as to the issuing State. West Berlin_sentence_79

However, they did have a statement that the holder of the document was a German citizen. West Berlin_sentence_80

From 11 June 1968, East Germany made it mandatory that West Berlin and West German "transit passengers" obtain a transit visa, issued upon entering East Germany, because under its second constitution East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners foreigners. West Berlin_sentence_81

Since identity cards had no pages to stamp visas, issuers of East German visas stamped their visas onto separate leaflets which were loosely stuck into the identity cards, which, until the mid-1980s, were little booklets. West Berlin_sentence_82

Although the West German government subsidized visa fees, they were still payable by individual travellers. West Berlin_sentence_83

In order to enter visa-requiring Western countries, such as the US, West Berliners commonly used West German passports. West Berlin_sentence_84

However, for countries which did not require stamped visas for entry, including Switzerland, Austria, and many members of the then European Economic Community, including the United Kingdom, West Berlin identity cards were also acceptable for entry. West Berlin_sentence_85

Active immigration and asylum politics in West Berlin triggered waves of immigration in the 1960s and 1970s. West Berlin_sentence_86

Currently, Berlin is home to at least 178,000 Turkish and Turkish German residents, making it the largest Turkish community outside of Turkey. West Berlin_sentence_87

Naming conventions West Berlin_section_3

Most Westerners called the Western sectors "Berlin", unless further distinction was necessary. West Berlin_sentence_88

The West German Federal government officially called West Berlin "Berlin (West)", although it also used the hyphenated "West-Berlin", whereas the East German government commonly referred to it as "Westberlin". West Berlin_sentence_89

Starting from 31 May 1961, East Berlin was officially called Berlin, Hauptstadt der DDR (Berlin, Capital of the GDR), replacing the formerly used term Demokratisches Berlin, or simply "Berlin", by East Germany, and "Berlin (Ost)" by the West German Federal government. West Berlin_sentence_90

Other names used by West German media included "Ost-Berlin", "Ostberlin", or "Ostsektor". West Berlin_sentence_91

These different naming conventions for the divided parts of Berlin, when followed by individuals, governments, or media, commonly indicated their political leanings, with the centre-right Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung using "Ost-Berlin" and the centre-left Süddeutsche Zeitung using "Ostberlin". West Berlin_sentence_92

Period following the building of the Berlin Wall West Berlin_section_4

After the Berlin Wall was constructed, West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer suggested to U.S. President John F. Kennedy that the United States propose a swap of West Berlin with Thuringia and parts of Saxony and Mecklenburg; the city's population would have been relocated to West Germany. West Berlin_sentence_93

Adenauer did not believe that the Soviets would accept the offer because East Germany would lose important industry, but hoped that making the proposal would reduce tensions between the western and eastern blocs, and perhaps hurt relations between the USSR and East Germany if they disagreed on accepting the offer. West Berlin_sentence_94

While the Kennedy administration seriously considered the idea, it did not make the proposal to the Soviet Union. West Berlin_sentence_95

NATO also took an increased interest in the specific issue related to West Berlin, and drafted plans to ensure to defend the city against an eventual attack from the East. West Berlin_sentence_96

A tripartite planning group known as LIVE OAK, working together with NATO, was entrusted with potential military responses to any crisis. West Berlin_sentence_97

On 26 June 1963, President Kennedy visited West Berlin and gave a public speech known for its famous phrase "Ich bin ein Berliner". West Berlin_sentence_98

The Four Power Agreement on Berlin (September 1971) and the Transit Agreement (May 1972) helped to significantly ease tensions over the status of West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_99

While many restrictions remained in place, it also made it easier for West Berliners to travel to East Germany and it simplified the regulations for Germans travelling along the autobahn transit routes. West Berlin_sentence_100

At the Brandenburg Gate in 1987, U.S. President Ronald Reagan provided a challenge to the then Soviet leader: West Berlin_sentence_101

On 9 November 1989, the Wall was opened, and the two parts of the city were once again physically—though at this point not legally—united. West Berlin_sentence_102

The Two Plus Four Treaty, signed by the two German states and the four wartime allies, paved the way for German reunification and an end to the Western Allies' occupation of West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_103

On 3 October 1990—the day Germany was officially reunified—East and West Berlin formally reunited as the city of Berlin, which then joined the enlarged Federal Republic as a city-state along the lines of the existing West German city-states of Bremen and Hamburg. West Berlin_sentence_104

Walter Momper, the mayor of West Berlin, became the first mayor of the reunified city in the interim. West Berlin_sentence_105

City-wide elections in December 1990 resulted in the first “all Berlin” mayor being elected to take office in January 1991, with the separate offices of mayors in East and West Berlin expiring by that time, and Eberhard Diepgen (a former mayor of West Berlin) became the first elected mayor of a reunited Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_106

Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin_section_5

West Berlin comprised the following boroughs (Bezirke): West Berlin_sentence_107

In the American Sector: West Berlin_sentence_108

West Berlin_unordered_list_0

In the British Sector: West Berlin_sentence_109

West Berlin_unordered_list_1

In the French Sector: West Berlin_sentence_110

West Berlin_unordered_list_2

Exclaves West Berlin_section_6

Main article: Exclaves of West Berlin in East Germany West Berlin_sentence_111

West Berlin's border was identical to the municipal boundary of Berlin as defined in the Greater Berlin Act of 1920 and amended in 1938, and the border between the Soviet sector and the French, British, and American sectors respectively, which followed the boundaries of Berlin administrative boroughs as defined in the same years. West Berlin_sentence_112

Another amendment was added in 1945 at the border between the British sector of Berlin (ceding West-Staaken) and the Soviet zone (ceding the Seeburg Salient) so that the Wehrmacht airfield at Berlin-Gatow became part of the British sector and the airfield at Berlin-Staaken became part of the Soviet sector. West Berlin_sentence_113

The resulting borderline was further complicated with a lot of geographical oddities, including a number of exclaves and enclaves that Greater Berlin had inside some neighbouring municipalities since 1920, all of which happened to become part of the British or American sectors after 1945, so that parts of West Berlin came to be surrounded by East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_114

Furthermore, the Gatow/Staaken exchange in August 1945 resulted in the geographically western half of Berlin-Staaken, which was located in the western outskirts of the city, becoming de jure Soviet occupied. West Berlin_sentence_115

However, the de facto administration remained with the Borough of Spandau in the British sector. West Berlin_sentence_116

Therefore, all inhabitants of Staaken could vote in West Berlin's city state elections in 1948 and 1950. West Berlin_sentence_117

On 1 February 1951, East German Volkspolizei surprised the people of western Staaken by occupying the area and ended its administration by the Spandau Borough; instead, western Staaken became an exclave of the Soviet occupied borough Berlin-Mitte in the city centre. West Berlin_sentence_118

However, on 1 June 1952, western Staaken's de facto administration was placed with neighbouring East German Falkensee in the East German district Nauen. West Berlin_sentence_119

This situation was undone on 3 October 1990, the day of German unification, when western Staaken was reincorporated into united Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_120

Post and telecommunications West Berlin_section_7

West Berlin had its own postal administration first called Deutsche Post Berlin (1947–1955) and then Deutsche Bundespost Berlin, separate from West Germany's Deutsche Bundespost, and issuing its own postage stamps until 1990. West Berlin_sentence_121

However, the separation was merely symbolic; in reality West Berlin's postal service was completely integrated with West Germany's, using the same postal code system. West Berlin_sentence_122

West Berlin was also integrated into the West German telephone network, using the same international dialling code as West Germany, +49, with the area code 030. West Berlin_sentence_123

As in West Germany, calls to East Berlin from West Berlin were made using the prefix 00372 (international access code 00, East German country code 37, area code 2). West Berlin_sentence_124

In order to reduce eastern tapping of telecommunications between West Berlin and West Germany, microwave radio relay connections were built, which transmitted telephone calls between antenna towers in West Germany and West Berlin by radio. West Berlin_sentence_125

Two such towers were built, one antenna in Berlin-Wannsee and later a second in Berlin-Frohnau, finished on 16 May 1980 with a height of 358 m (1,175 ft). West Berlin_sentence_126

This tower was demolished on 8 February 2009. West Berlin_sentence_127

Transport and transit travel West Berlin_section_8

West Berliners could travel to West Germany and all Western and non-aligned states at all times, except during the Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union (24 June 1948 to 12 May 1949) when there were restrictions on passenger flight capacity imposed by the airlift. West Berlin_sentence_128

Travelling to and from West Berlin by road or train always required passing through East German border checks, since West Berlin was an enclave surrounded by East Germany and East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_129

On 2 October 1967, six years after the Wall was constructed, tram tracks in West Berlin were lifted because the authorities wanted to promote car usage, meaning that the tram system remaining today runs almost entirely within the former East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_130

Road traffic West Berlin_section_9

There were no dedicated walled-off-road corridors between West Germany and West Berlin under West German jurisdiction, and travellers needed to pass through East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_131

A valid passport was required for citizens of West Germany and other western nationals to be produced at East German border checks. West Berlin_sentence_132

West Berliners could get admission only through their identity cards (see above). West Berlin_sentence_133

For travel from West Berlin to Denmark, Sweden and West Germany via dedicated East German transit routes (German: Transitstrecke), East German border guards issued a transit visa for a fee of 5 Western Deutsche Mark. West Berlin_sentence_134

For journeys between West Berlin and Poland or Czechoslovakia through East Germany, each traveller was also required to present a valid visa for the destination country. West Berlin_sentence_135

The transit routes for road travel connecting West Berlin to other destinations usually consisted of autobahns and other highways, marked by Transit signs. West Berlin_sentence_136

Transit travellers (German: Transitreisende) were prohibited to leave the transit routes, and occasional traffic checkpoints would check for violators. West Berlin_sentence_137

There were four transit routes between West Berlin and West Germany: West Berlin_sentence_138

West Berlin_unordered_list_3

The latter three routes used autobahns built during the Nazi era. West Berlin_sentence_139

They left West Berlin at Checkpoint Dreilinden, also called Checkpoint Bravo (W)/Potsdam-Drewitz (E). West Berlin_sentence_140

Transit routes to Poland were via today's A 11 to Nadrensee-Pomellen (East Germany, GDR)/Kołbaskowo (Kolbitzow) (PL), eastwards via today's A 12 to Frankfurt upon Oder (GDR)/Słubice (PL), or southeastwards via today's A 13 and A 15 to Forst in Lusatia/Baršć (GDR)/Zasieki (Berge) (PL). West Berlin_sentence_141

Additional routes led to Denmark and Sweden by ferry between Warnemünde (GDR) and Gedser (DK) and by ferry between Sassnitz (GDR) and Rønne (DK) or Trelleborg (S). West Berlin_sentence_142

Routes to Czechoslovakia were via Schmilka (GDR)/Hřensko (Herrnskretschen) (ČSSR) and via Fürstenau (a part of today's Geising) (GDR)/Cínovec (Cinvald/Böhmisch Zinnwald) (ČSSR). West Berlin_sentence_143

The transit routes were also used for East German domestic traffic. West Berlin_sentence_144

This meant that transit passengers could potentially meet with East Germans and East Berliners at restaurants at motorway rest stops. West Berlin_sentence_145

Since such meetings were deemed illegal by the East German government, border guards would calculate the travel duration from the time of entry and exit of the transit route. West Berlin_sentence_146

Excessive time spent for transit travel could arouse their suspicion and prompt questioning or additional checking by the border guards. West Berlin_sentence_147

Western coaches could stop only at dedicated service areas, since the East German government was concerned that East Germans might potentially use coaches to escape into the West. West Berlin_sentence_148

On 1 September 1951 East Germany, because of a shortage in foreign currencies, started to levy road tolls on cars using the transit routes. West Berlin_sentence_149

At first the toll amounted to 10 Ostmark per passenger car and 10 to 50 for trucks, depending on size. West Berlin_sentence_150

Ostmarks had to be exchanged at Deutsche Mark a rate of 1:1. West Berlin_sentence_151

On 30 March 1955, East Germany raised the toll for passenger cars to 30 Deutsche Marks, but after West German protests, in June of the same year it changed it back to the previous rate. West Berlin_sentence_152

Following a new agreement between East and West Germany, starting from 1 January 1980 the Federal Government in Bonn paid an annual lump sum (German: Transitpauschale) of 50 million Deutsche Marks to the Eastern government, so that transit passengers no longer had to pay tolls individually. West Berlin_sentence_153

Railway West Berlin_section_10

Four transit train connections—earlier also called interzonal train (German: Interzonenzug)—connected West Berlin with Hamburg via Schwanheide (E)/Büchen (W) in the North, with Hanover via Marienborn (E)/Helmstedt (W) in the West, with Frankfurt upon Main via Gerstungen (E)/Hönebach (W) in the Southwest, and with Nuremberg via Probstzella (E)/Ludwigsstadt (W) in the South of West Germany. West Berlin_sentence_154

These transit trains did not service domestic passengers of East Germany and made stops in East Germany almost exclusively for East German border guards upon entering and leaving the country. West Berlin_sentence_155

Until the construction of the Berlin Wall, interzonal trains would also stop once on their way within East Germany for travellers having a visa for entering or leaving East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_156

Train travel from West Berlin to Czechoslovakia, Denmark (by ferry), Poland and Sweden (by ferry) required a visa to enter East Berlin or East Germany to allow transfer to an international train—which also carried domestic passengers—bound for an international destination. West Berlin_sentence_157

One railway connection between West Berlin and Oebisfelde (E)/Wolfsburg (W) was reserved for freight trains only. West Berlin_sentence_158

In July and August 1945, the three Western Allies and the Soviet Union decided that the railways, previously serviced by the Deutsche Reichsbahn (German Reich Railways), should continue to be operated by one railway administration to service all four sectors. West Berlin_sentence_159

So West Berlin had – with the exception of a few small private railway lines – no separate railway administration. West Berlin_sentence_160

Furthermore, the operation of the Reichsbahn's Berlin S-Bahn electric metropolitan transport network, consisting of commuter trains, was also maintained. West Berlin_sentence_161

After the founding of East Germany on 7 October 1949 it gained responsibility for the Reichsbahn in its territory. West Berlin_sentence_162

East Germany continued to run its railways under the official name Deutsche Reichsbahn, which thus maintained responsibility for almost all railway transport in all four sectors of Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_163

The GDR-controlled 'Bahnpolizei', the Reichsbahn's railway police, were authorised to patrol station premises and other railway property in the whole city including West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_164

The legal necessity of keeping the term 'Deutsche Reichsbahn' explains the surprising use of the word 'Reich' (with its Imperial and Nazi connotations) in the name of an official organisation of the communist GDR. West Berlin_sentence_165

After the Berlin Blockade transit trains (German: Transitzüge) would leave and enter West Berlin only via one line through Berlin-Wannsee railway station (W) and Potsdam Griebnitzsee railway station (E). West Berlin_sentence_166

All transit trains would start or end in East Berlin, passing through West Berlin with only one stop in the Western Berlin Zoologischer Garten railway station, which became West Berlin's main railway station. West Berlin_sentence_167

Until 1952, the Reichsbahn also permitted stops at other stations on the way through the Western sectors. West Berlin_sentence_168

After easing of tensions between East and West Germany, starting on 30 May 1976 transit trains going westwards, southwestwards, or southwards stopped once again at Wannsee. West Berlin_sentence_169

For transit trains going northwestwards, a shorter line was reopened on 26 September 1976 with an additional stop at the then Berlin-Spandau railway station, entering East Germany at Staaken. West Berlin_sentence_170

Many Reichsbahn employees working in West Berlin were West Berliners. West Berlin_sentence_171

Their East German employer, whose proceeds from ticket sales for Western Deutsche Marks contributed to East Germany's foreign revenues, tried to hold down wage social security contributions in Western Deutsche Mark. West Berlin_sentence_172

Therefore, West Berlin employees of the Reichsbahn were paid partly in Eastern German currency. West Berlin_sentence_173

They could spend this money in East Germany and take their purchases to West Berlin, which other Westerners could not do to the same extent. West Berlin_sentence_174

West Berlin employees were trained in East Germany and employed under East German labour laws. West Berlin_sentence_175

West Berliners employed by the Reichsbahn were not included in the Western health insurance system either. West Berlin_sentence_176

The Reichsbahn ran its own hospital for them in West Berlin, the building of which is now used as the headquarters of Bombardier Transportation. West Berlin_sentence_177

For certain patients, the Reichsbahn would facilitate treatment in a hospital in East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_178

In medical emergencies, the employees could use West Berlin doctors and hospitals, which would then be paid for by the Reichsbahn. West Berlin_sentence_179

The GDR used the western stations to distribute propaganda and display posters with slogans like "Americans Go Home." West Berlin_sentence_180

On 1 May, May Day, a state holiday in East and West, S-Bahn trains were sometimes decorated with the East German banner and a red flag. West Berlin_sentence_181

Waterways West Berlin_section_11

Two waterways via the rivers and canals Havel and Mittellandkanal were open for inland navigation, but only freight vessels were allowed to cross from West Berlin into East German waters. West Berlin_sentence_182

The Havel crossed at the East German border in Nedlitz (a part of Potsdam-Bornstedt), continuing through the Elbe-Havel Canal and then either taking the Elbe northwestwards crossing the border again at Cumlosen (E)/Schnackenburg (W) or westwards following the Mittellandkanal to Buchhorst (Oebisfelde) (E)/Rühen (W). West Berlin_sentence_183

Western freight vessels could stop only at dedicated service areas, because the East German government wanted to prevent any East Germans from boarding them. West Berlin_sentence_184

Through these waterways, West Berlin was linked to the western European inland navigation network, connecting to seaports like Hamburg and Rotterdam, as well as to industrial areas such as the Ruhr Area, Mannheim, Basel, Belgium, and eastern France. West Berlin_sentence_185

In July and August 1945, the Western Allies and the Soviet Union decided that the operation and maintenance of the waterways and locks, which were previously run by the national German directorate for inland navigation (German: ), should be continued and reconstructed in all four sectors. West Berlin_sentence_186

So, except for the originally city-owned Neukölln Ship Canal and some canals built later (e.g. Westhafen Canal) and locks, West Berlin had no separate inland navigation authority, but the East Berlin-based authority operated most waterways and locks, their lockmasters employed by the East. West Berlin_sentence_187

Because of their negligent maintenance, the western Allies later transferred their control to the Senate of Berlin (West). West Berlin_sentence_188

The western entrance to the Teltowkanal, connecting several industrial areas of West Berlin for heavy freight transport, was blocked by East Germany in Potsdam-Klein Glienicke. West Berlin_sentence_189

Therefore, vessels going to the Teltowkanal had to take a detour via the river Spree through West and East Berlin's city centre to enter the canal from the East. West Berlin_sentence_190

On 20 November 1981, East Germany reopened the western entrance, which required two more vessel border checkpoints – Dreilinden and Kleinmachnow – because the waterway crossed the border between East Germany and West Berlin four times. West Berlin_sentence_191

Another transit waterway connected West Berlin via the East German vessel checkpoint at Hennigsdorf and the Oder-Havel Canal with the Oder river and Polish Szczecin (Stettin). West Berlin_sentence_192

Air traffic West Berlin_section_12

Air traffic was the only connection between West Berlin and the Western world that was not directly under East German control. West Berlin_sentence_193

On 4 July 1948, British European Airways opened the first regular service for civilians between West Berlin and Hamburg. West Berlin_sentence_194

Tickets were originally sold for pounds sterling only. West Berlin_sentence_195

West Berliners and West Germans who had earlier fled East Germany or East Berlin, and thus could face imprisonment on entering East Germany or East Berlin, could only take flights for travel to and from West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_196

To enable individuals threatened by East German imprisonment to fly to and from West Berlin the West German government subsidised the flights. West Berlin_sentence_197

Flights between West Germany and West Berlin were under Allied control by the quadripartite Berlin Air Safety Center. West Berlin_sentence_198

According to permanent agreements, three air corridors to West Germany were provided, which were open only for British, French, or U.S. military planes or civilian planes registered with companies in those countries. West Berlin_sentence_199

The airspace controlled by the Berlin Air Safety Center comprised a radius of 20 miles (32.12 km) around the seat of the center in the Kammergericht building in Berlin-Schöneberg – thus covering most of East and West Berlin and the three corridors, of the same width – one northwestwards to Hamburg (Fuhlsbüttel Airport), one westwards to Hanover, and one southwestwards to Frankfurt upon Main (Rhein-Main Air Base). West Berlin_sentence_200

The airspace expanding to a width of 20 miles (32 km) over the German–German border was subject to the control by the Berlin Air Safety Center. West Berlin_sentence_201

The West German airline Lufthansa and most other international airlines were not permitted to fly to West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_202

Flights by Lufthansa or the East German airline Interflug servicing connections between East and West Germany (such as between Düsseldorf and Hamburg in West Germany and the East German city of Leipzig) began in August 1989, but these routes had to go through Czechoslovak or Danish airspace. West Berlin_sentence_203

Traffic between West Berlin and East Germany West Berlin_section_13

Until 1953, travelling from West Berlin into East Germany (German Democratic Republic (GDR)) fell under Interzonal traffic regulations overseen by the three Allied military governments (the Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SVAG), the Control Commission for Germany – British Element, and the Office of Military Government/United States (OMGUS)). West Berlin_sentence_204

On 27 May 1952, East Germany closed its border with West Germany and its 115-kilometre (71 mi)-long border with West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_205

From then on West Berliners required a permit to enter East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_206

East German border checkpoints were established in East German suburbs of West Berlin, and most streets were gradually closed for interzonal travel into East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_207

The last checkpoint to remain open was located at the Glienicker Brücke near Potsdam, until it was also closed by East Germany on 3 July 1953. West Berlin_sentence_208

The checkpoint at Staaken's Heerstraße remained open only for transit traffic to West Germany. West Berlin_sentence_209

This caused hardship for many West Berlin residents, especially those who had friends and family in East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_210

However, East Germans could still enter West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_211

A number of cemeteries located in East Germany were also affected by the closure. West Berlin_sentence_212

Many church congregations in Berlin owned cemeteries outside the city, so many West Berlin congregations had cemeteries that were located in East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_213

For example, the Friedhof vor Charlottenburg (in Cemetery in front/outside of Charlottenburg) was located in the East German suburb of Dallgow, yet belonged to Catholic congregations in Berlin-Charlottenburg. West Berlin_sentence_214

So many West Berliners wishing to visit the grave of a relative or friend on cemeteries located in East Germany were now unable to do so. West Berlin_sentence_215

Until 1961, East Germany sparsely issued permits to West Berliners to visit the cemeteries on the Catholic feast of All Saints on 1 November and on the Protestant Day of Repentance and Prayer. West Berlin_sentence_216

In 1948–1952, the Reichsbahn connected the western suburbs of West Berlin to its S-Bahn network. West Berlin_sentence_217

Train routes servicing these suburbs formerly went through West Berlin stations, but ceased to make stops in the western stations or terminated service before entering West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_218

Private West Berlin railway lines like the Neukölln–Mittenwalde railway (Neukölln-Mittenwalder Eisenbahn, NME), connecting the East German Mittenwalde with West Berlin-Neukölln and the Bötzowbahn between West Berlin-Spandau and East German Hennigsdorf, were disrupted at the border between West Berlin and East Germany on 26 October 1948 and August 1950, respectively. West Berlin_sentence_219

Tramways and bus routes that connected West Berlin with its East German suburbs and were operated by West Berlin's public transport operator Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe Gesellschaft (BVG West) ceased operation on 14 October 1950, after West Berlin tram and bus drivers had been repeatedly stopped and arrested by East German police for having western currency on them, considered a crime in the East. West Berlin_sentence_220

The BVG (West) terminated route sections that extended into East Germany, like the southern end of tram line 47 to Schönefeld, the southwestern end of tram line 96 to Kleinmachnow, as well as two bus lines to Glienicke at the Nordbahn, north, and to Falkensee, northwest of West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_221

The East German section of tram line 96 continued operating with eastern personnel and cars, obliging the eastern passengers – rarely westerners who needed special permits to enter East Germany – to change from eastern into western trains crossing the border by foot, until it was closed by the Wall. West Berlin_sentence_222

The Reichsbahn shut down all of its West Berlin terminal stations and redirected its trains to stations in East Berlin, starting with Berlin Görlitzer Bahnhof – closed on 29 April 1951 – before serving rail traffic with Görlitz and the southeast of East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_223

On 28 August 1951, trains usually serving Berlin Lehrter Bahnhof were redirected to stations in East Berlin, while trains from West Germany were redirected to the Western Berlin Zoologischer Garten. West Berlin_sentence_224

The Reichsbahn also closed down both Berlin Anhalter Bahnhof and Berlin Nordbahnhof, on 18 May 1952. West Berlin_sentence_225

On 28 August 1951, the Reichsbahn opened a new connection – from Spandau via Berlin Jungfernheide station – for the S-Bahn lines connecting East German suburbs to the west of West Berlin (namely Falkensee, Staaken) with East Berlin, thus circumventing the centre of West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_226

In June 1953, the Reichsbahn further cut off West Berlin from its East German suburbs by the introduction of additional express S-Bahn trains (German: Durchläufer). West Berlin_sentence_227

These routes originated from several East German suburbs bordering West Berlin (such as Falkensee, Potsdam, Oranienburg, Staaken, and Velten), crossing West Berlin non-stop until reaching its destinations in East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_228

However, the regular S-Bahn connections with West Berlin's East German suburbs, stopping at every Western station, continued. West Berlin_sentence_229

From 17 June to 9 July 1953, East Germany blocked off any traffic between East and West due to the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_230

From 4 October 1953, all S-Bahn trains crossing the border between East Germany and Berlin had to pass a border checkpoint in East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_231

Travellers from East Germany were checked before entering any part of Berlin, to identify individuals intending to escape into West Berlin or smuggling rationed or rare goods into West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_232

S-Bahn trains were checked at Hoppegarten, Mahlow, and Zepernick in East Germany bordering East Berlin and in Hohen Neuendorf, Potsdam-Griebnitzsee, and Staaken-Albrechtshof in East Germany bordering West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_233

On 4 June 1954, the Bahnhof Hennigsdorf Süd station located next to West Berlin was opened solely for border controls, also to monitor West Berliners entering or leaving East Berlin, which they could still do freely, while they were not allowed to cross into East Germany proper without a special permit. West Berlin_sentence_234

In 1951, the Reichsbahn began construction work on the Berlin outer-circle railway line. West Berlin_sentence_235

This circular line connected all train routes heading for West Berlin and accommodated all domestic GDR traffic, thus directing railway traffic into East Berlin while by-passing West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_236

Commuters in the East German suburbs around West Berlin now boarded Sputnik express trains, which took them into East Berlin without crossing any western sectors. West Berlin_sentence_237

With the completion of the outer-circle railway, there was no further need for express S-Bahn trains crossing the West Berlin border and thus their service ended on 4 May 1958, while stopping S-Bahn trains continued service. West Berlin_sentence_238

However, while East Germans could get off in West Berlin, West Berliners needed the hard-to get permits to enter East Germany by S-Bahn. West Berlin_sentence_239

With the construction of the Berlin Wall on 13 August 1961, any remaining railway traffic between West Berlin and its East German suburbs ended. West Berlin_sentence_240

Rail traffic between East and West Berlin was sharply reduced and restricted to a small number of checkpoints under GDR control. West Berlin_sentence_241

East Berliners and East Germans were then unable to freely enter and leave West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_242

However, international visitors could obtain visas for East Berlin upon crossing one of the checkpoints at the Wall. West Berlin_sentence_243

Following the policy of détente of the Federal Government under Chancellor Willy Brandt, West Berliners could again apply for visas to visit East Germany, which were granted more freely than in the period until 1961. West Berlin_sentence_244

On 4 June 1972, West Berlin's public transport operator BVG could open its first bus line into the East German suburbs since 1950 (line E to Potsdam via Checkpoint Bravo as it was known to the US military). West Berlin_sentence_245

This route was open only to persons bearing all the necessary East German permits and visas. West Berlin_sentence_246

For visits to East Germany, West Berliners could use four checkpoints along the East German border around West Berlin: The two road transit checkpoints Dreilinden (W)/Drewitz (E) and Berlin-Heiligensee (W)/Stolpe (E) as well as the old transit checkpoint at Heerstraße (W)/Staaken (E) and the checkpoint at Waltersdorfer Chaussee (W)/Schönefeld (E), which was also open for travellers boarding international flights at Schönefeld Airport. West Berlin_sentence_247

Traffic between East and West Berlin West Berlin_section_14

While East and West Berlin became formally separate jurisdictions in September 1948, and while there were travel restrictions in all other directions for more than a decade, freedom of movement existed between the western sectors and the eastern sector of the city. West Berlin_sentence_248

However, time and again Soviet and later East German authorities imposed temporary restrictions for certain persons, certain routes, and certain means of transport. West Berlin_sentence_249

Gradually the eastern authorities disconnected and separated the two parts of the city. West Berlin_sentence_250

While the Soviets blocked all transport to West Berlin (Berlin Blockade between 24 June 1948 to 12 May 1949), they increased food supplies in East Berlin in order to gain the compliance of West Berliners who at that time still had free access to East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_251

West Berliners buying food in East Berlin were regarded as approving of the Soviet attempt to get rid of the Western Allies in West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_252

This was seen as support by the communists and as treason by most Westerners. West Berlin_sentence_253

Until that time all over Germany food and other necessary supplies had been available only with ration stamps issued by one's municipality. West Berlin_sentence_254

This was so in East Berlin until the Communist putsch in Berlin's city government in September 1948 – the unitary City Council of Greater Berlin (German: Magistrat von Groß Berlin) for East and West. West Berlin_sentence_255

By July 1948 a mere 19,000 West Berliners out of a total of almost 2 million covered their food requirements in East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_256

Thus, 99% of West Berliners preferred to live on shorter supplies than before the Blockade, to show support for the Western Allies' position. West Berlin_sentence_257

In West Germany rationing of most products ended with the introduction of the Western Deutsche Mark on 21 June 1948. West Berlin_sentence_258

The new currency was also introduced in West Berlin on 24 June and this, at least officially, was the justification for the Soviet Blockade due to which rationing in West Berlin had to continue. West Berlin_sentence_259

However, in the course of the Berlin Air Lift some supplies were increased beyond the pre-Blockade level and therefore rationing of certain goods in West Berlin was stopped. West Berlin_sentence_260

While West Berliners were officially welcome to buy food in East Berlin, the Soviets tried to prevent them from buying other essential supplies, particularly coal and other fuel. West Berlin_sentence_261

For this reason, on 9 November 1948, they opened checkpoints on 70 streets entering West Berlin and closed the others for horse carriages, lorries and cars, later (16 March 1949) the Soviets erected roadblocks on the closed streets. West Berlin_sentence_262

From 15 November 1948 West Berlin ration stamps were no longer accepted in East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_263

All the same, the Soviets started a campaign with the slogan The smart West Berliner buys at the HO (German: Der kluge West-Berliner kauft in der HO), the HO being the Soviet zone chain of shops. West Berlin_sentence_264

They also opened so-called "Free Shops" in the Eastern Sector, offering supplies without ration stamps, but denominated at extremely high prices in Eastern Deutsche Marks. West Berlin_sentence_265

Ordinary East and West Berliners could only afford to buy there if they had income in Western Deutsche Mark and bartered the needed Eastern Deutsche Mark on the spontaneous currency markets, which developed in the British sector at the Zoo station. West Berlin_sentence_266

Their demand and supply determined a barter ratio in favour of the Western Deutsche Mark with more than 2 Eastern Deutsche Marks offered for one Western Deutsche Mark. West Berlin_sentence_267

After the Blockade, when holders of Western Deutsche Marks could buy as much they could afford, up to five and six east marks were offered for one west mark. West Berlin_sentence_268

In the East, however, the Soviets had arbitrarily decreed a rate of 1 for 1 and exchanging at other rates was criminalised. West Berlin_sentence_269

On 12 May 1949 the Blockade ended and all roadblocks and checkpoints between East and West Berlin were removed. West Berlin_sentence_270

The Berlin Airlift, however, continued until 30 September 1949 in order to build up supplies in West Berlin (the so-called Senate Reserve), in readiness for another possible blockade, thus ensuring that an airlift could then be restarted with ease. West Berlin_sentence_271

On 2 May 1949 power stations in East Berlin started again to supply West Berlin with sufficient electricity. West Berlin_sentence_272

Before then, electricity supplies had to be reduced to just a few hours a day after the normal supplies had been interrupted at the start of the Blockade. West Berlin_sentence_273

However, the Western Allies and the West Berlin City Council decided to be self-sufficient in terms of electricity generation capacity, to be independent of Eastern supplies and not to be held to ransom by the eastern authorities. West Berlin_sentence_274

On 1 December 1949 the new powerhouse West (German: Kraftwerk West, in 1953 renamed after the former Governing Mayor of West Berlin into Kraftwerk Reuter West) went online and West Berlin's electricity board declared independence from Eastern supplies. West Berlin_sentence_275

However, for a time Eastern electricity continued to be supplied albeit intermittently. West Berlin_sentence_276

Supply was interrupted from 1 July until the end of 1950 and then started again until 4 March 1952, when the East finally switched it off. West Berlin_sentence_277

From then on West Berlin turned into an 'electricity island' within a pan-European electricity grid that had developed from the 1920s, because electricity transfers between East and West Germany never fully ceased. West Berlin_sentence_278

The 'electricity island' situation was noticed most in situations of particularly high demand; in other areas of Europe peaks in demand could be met by tapping into electricity supplies from neighbouring areas, but in West Berlin this was not an option and for certain users the lights would go out. West Berlin_sentence_279

In 1952 West Berliners were restricted entry to East Germany proper by means of a hard-to-obtain East German permit. West Berlin_sentence_280

Free entry to East Berlin remained possible until 1961 and the building of the Wall. West Berlin_sentence_281

Berlin's underground (Untergrundbahn, U-Bahn) and Berlin's S-Bahn (a metropolitan public transit network), rebuilt after the war, continued to span all occupation sectors. West Berlin_sentence_282

Many people lived in one half of the city and had family, friends, and jobs in the other. West Berlin_sentence_283

However, the East continuously reduced the means of public transport between East and West, with private cars being a very rare privilege in the East and still a luxury in the West. West Berlin_sentence_284

Starting on 15 January 1953 the tram network was interrupted. West Berlin_sentence_285

East Berlin's public transport operator Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG-East, BVB as of 1 January 1969) staffed all trams, whose lines crossed the sectorial border, with women drivers, who were not permitted as drivers by the BVG (West), West Berlin's public transport operator. West Berlin_sentence_286

Instead of changing the Western rules, so that the Easterly intended interruption of the cross-border tram traffic would not happen, the BVG (West) insisted on male drivers. West Berlin_sentence_287

So cross-border tram traffic ended on 16 January. West Berlin_sentence_288

In East German propaganda this was a point for the East, arguing that the West did not allow drivers coming with their trams from the East to continue along their line into the West, but remaining silent on the fact that the end of cross-border tram traffic was most welcome to the East. West Berlin_sentence_289

The underground and the S-Bahn networks, except the above-mentioned traverse S-Bahn trains, continued to provide services between East and West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_290

However, occasionally the East Berlin police – in the streets and on cross-border trains in East Berlin – identified suspicious behaviour (such as carrying heavy loads westwards) and watched out for unwelcome Westerners. West Berlin_sentence_291

Occasionally, West Germans were banned from entering East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_292

This was the case between 29 August and 1 September 1960, when ex prisoners of war and deportees, homecomers (German: Heimkehrer), from all around West Germany and West Berlin met for a convention in that city. West Berlin_sentence_293

The homecomers released mostly from a long detention in the Soviet Union were unwelcome in East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_294

As they could not be recognised through their identification papers, all West Germans were banned from East Berlin during those days. West Berlin_sentence_295

West Berliners were allowed, since the quadripartite Allied status quo provided for their free movement around all four sectors. West Berlin_sentence_296

From 8 September 1960 on, the East subjected all West Germans to apply for a permit before entering East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_297

As the communist government in the East gained tighter control, and the economic recovery in the West significantly outperformed the East, more than a hundred thousand East Germans and East Berliners left East Germany and East Berlin for the West every year. West Berlin_sentence_298

East Germany closed the borders between East and West Germany and sealed off the border with West Berlin in 1952; but because of the quadripartite Allied status of the city, the 46-kilometre (29 mi)-long sectorial border between East and West Berlin remained open. West Berlin_sentence_299

As there was freedom of movement between West Berlin and West Germany, Easterners could use the city as a transit point to West Germany, usually travelling there by air. West Berlin_sentence_300

To stop this drain of people defecting, the East German government built the Berlin Wall, thus physically closing off West Berlin from East Berlin and East Germany, on 13 August 1961. West Berlin_sentence_301

All Eastern streets, bridges, paths, windows, doors, gates, and sewers opening to West Berlin were systematically sealed off by walls, concrete elements, barbed wire, and/or bars. West Berlin_sentence_302

The Wall was directed against the Easterners, who by its construction were no longer allowed to leave the East, except with an Eastern permit, not usually granted. West Berlin_sentence_303

Westerners were still granted visas on entering East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_304

Initially eight street checkpoints were opened, and one checkpoint in the Berlin Friedrichstraße railway station, which was reached by one line of the Western underground (today's U 6), two Western S-Bahn lines, one under and one above ground (approximately today's S 2 and S 3, however, lines changed significantly from 1990 onwards), and transit trains between West Germany and West Berlin started and ended there. West Berlin_sentence_305

The eight street checkpoints were – from North to South along the Wall – on Bornholmer Straße, Chausseestraße, Invalidenstraße, Berlin Friedrichstraße station, Friedrichstraße (Checkpoint Charlie in US military denomination, since this crossing was to their sector), Heinrich-Heine-Straße, Oberbaumbrücke, and Sonnenallee. West Berlin_sentence_306

When the construction of the Wall started after midnight early on 13 August, West Berlin's Governing Mayor Willy Brandt was on a West German federal election campaigning tour in West Germany. West Berlin_sentence_307

Arriving by train in Hanover at 4 am he was informed about the Wall and flew to West Berlin's Tempelhof Central Airport. West Berlin_sentence_308

Over the course of the day he protested along with many other West Berliners on Potsdamer Platz and at the Brandenburg Gate. West Berlin_sentence_309

On 14 August, under the pretext that Western demonstrations required it, the East closed the checkpoint at the Brandenburg Gate 'until further notice', a situation that was to last until 22 December 1989, when it was finally reopened. West Berlin_sentence_310

On 26 August 1961 East Germany generally banned West Berliners from entering the Eastern sector. West Berlin_sentence_311

West Germans and other nationals, however, could still get visas on entering East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_312

Since intra-city phone lines had been cut by the East already in May 1952 (see below) the only remaining way of communication with family or friends on the other side was by mail or at meeting in a motorway restaurant on a transit route, because the transit traffic remained unaffected throughout. West Berlin_sentence_313

On 18 May 1962 East Germany opened the so-called Tränenpalast checkpoint hall (Palace of Tears) at Berlin Friedrichstraße station, where Easterners had to say a sometimes tearful farewell to returning Westerners as well as the few Easterners who had managed to get a permit to visit the West. West Berlin_sentence_314

Until June 1963 the East deepened its border zone around West Berlin in East Germany and East Berlin by clearing existing buildings and vegetation to create an open field of view, sealed off by the Berlin Wall towards the West and a second wall or fence of similar characteristics to the East, observed by armed men in towers, with orders to shoot at escapees. West Berlin_sentence_315

Finally, in 1963, West Berliners were again allowed to visit East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_316

On this occasion a further checkpoint for pedestrians only was opened on the Oberbaumbrücke. West Berlin_sentence_317

West Berliners were granted visas for a one-day visit between 17 December 1963 and 5 January the following year. West Berlin_sentence_318

1.2 million out of a total 1.9 million West Berliners visited East Berlin during this period. West Berlin_sentence_319

In 1964, 1965, and 1966 East Berlin was opened again to West Berliners, but each time only for a limited period. West Berlin_sentence_320

East Germany assigned different legal statuses to East Germans, East Berliners, West Germans, and West Berliners, as well as citizens from other countries in the world. West Berlin_sentence_321

Until 1990 East Germany designated each Border crossings in East Berlin for certain categories of persons, with only one street checkpoint being open simultaneously for West Berliners and West Germans (Bornholmer Straße) and Berlin Friedrichstraße railway station being open for all travellers. West Berlin_sentence_322

On 9 September 1964, the East German Council of Ministers (government) decided to allow Eastern pensioners to visit family in West Germany or West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_323

According to the specified regulations valid from 2 November on Eastern pensioners could apply, and were usually allowed, to travel into the West to visit relatives once a year for a maximum of four weeks. West Berlin_sentence_324

If pensioners decided not to return, the government did not miss them as manpower, unlike younger Easterners, who were subject to a system of labour and employment, which demanded that almost everybody work in the Eastern command production system. West Berlin_sentence_325

On 2 December 1964 East Germany, always short of hard currency, decreed that every Western visitor had to buy a minimum of 5 Eastern Mark der Deutschen Notenbank per day (MDN, 1964–1968 the official name of the East German mark, to distinguish it from the West Deutsche Mark) at the still held arbitrary compulsory rate of 1:1. West Berlin_sentence_326

The 5 marks had to be spent, as exporting Eastern currency was illegal, which is why importing it after having bargained for it at the currency market at Zoo station was also illegal. West Berlin_sentence_327

Western pensioners and children were spared from the compulsory exchange (officially in German: , i.e. minimum exchange). West Berlin_sentence_328

Not long after East Germany held the first cash harvest from the new compulsory exchange rules by allowing West Berliners to visit East Berlin once more for a day during the Christmas season. West Berlin_sentence_329

The following year, 1965, East Germany opened the travelling season for West Berliners on 18 December. West Berlin_sentence_330

In 1966 it opened for a second harvest of Western money between the Easter (10 April) and Pentecost (29 May) holidays and later again at Christmas. West Berlin_sentence_331

The situation only changed fundamentally after 11 December 1971 when, representing the two German states, Egon Bahr from the West and Michael Kohl from the East signed the Transit Agreement. West Berlin_sentence_332

This was followed by a similar agreement for West Berliners, once more allowing regular visits to East Germany and East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_333

After ratification of the Agreement and specifying the relevant regulations, West Berliners could apply for the first time again for visas for any chosen date to East Berlin or East Germany from 3 October 1972 onwards. West Berlin_sentence_334

If granted, a one-day-visa entitled them to leave the East until 2 am the following day. West Berlin_sentence_335

West Berliners were now spared the visa fee of 5 Western Deutsche Marks, not to be confused with the compulsory exchange amounting to the same sum, but yielding in return 5 Eastern marks. West Berlin_sentence_336

This financial relief did not last long, because on 15 November 1973 East Germany doubled the compulsory exchange to 10 Eastern marks, payable in West German Deutsche Marks at par. West Berlin_sentence_337

One-day-visas for East Berlin were now issued in a quickened procedure; visas for longer stays and visas for East Germany proper needed a prior application, which could be a lengthy procedure. West Berlin_sentence_338

To ease the application for West Berliners seeking such Eastern visas, the GDR Foreign Ministry was later allowed to open Offices for the Affairs of Visits and Travelling (German: Büros für Besuchs- und Reiseangelegenheiten) in West Berlin, but were not allowed to show any official symbols of East Germany. West Berlin_sentence_339

The Eastern officials working commuted every morning and evening between East and West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_340

Their uniforms showed no official symbols except the name Büro für Besuchs- und Reiseangelegenheiten. West Berlin_sentence_341

They accepted visa applications and handed out confirmed visas issued in the East to the West Berlin applicants. West Berlin_sentence_342

A shed formerly housing one such Büro für Besuchs- und Reiseangelegenheiten can be found on Waterlooufer 5–7 in Berlin-Kreuzberg, close to Hallesches Tor underground station. West Berlin_sentence_343

The disagreement about Berlin's status was one of the most important debates of the Cold War. West Berlin_sentence_344

Another form of traffic between East and West Berlin was the transfer of West Berlin's sewage into East Berlin and East Germany through the sewer pipes built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. West Berlin_sentence_345

The sewage flowed into the East because most of the pre-war premises for sewage treatment, mostly sewage farms, happened to be in the East after the division of the city. West Berlin_sentence_346

Sewer pipes, however, once discovered as a way to flee the East, were blocked by bars. West Berlin_sentence_347

West Berlin paid for the treatment of its sewage in Western Deutsche Marks which were desperately needed by the East German government. West Berlin_sentence_348

Since the methods used in the East did not meet Western standards, West Berlin increased the capacity of modern sewage treatment within its own territory, so that the amount of its sewage treated in the East had been considerably reduced by the time the Wall came down. West Berlin_sentence_349

The situation with refuse was similar. West Berlin_sentence_350

The removal, burning or disposal of the ever-growing amount of West Berlin's rubbish became a costly problem, but here too an agreement was found, since West Berlin would pay in Western Deutsche Marks. West Berlin_sentence_351

On 11 December 1974 East Germany and West Berlin's garbage utility company BSR signed a contract to dispose of refuse on a dump right beside the Wall in East German Groß-Ziethen (today a part of Schönefeld). West Berlin_sentence_352

An extra checkpoint, solely open for Western bin lorries (garbage trucks), was opened there. West Berlin_sentence_353

Later on, a second dump, further away, was opened in Vorketzin, a part of Ketzin. West Berlin_sentence_354

As for the S-Bahn, operated throughout Berlin by the East German Reichsbahn, the construction of the Wall meant a serious disruption of its integrated network, especially of the Berlin's circular S-Bahn line around all of the Western and Eastern inner city. West Berlin_sentence_355

The lines were separated and those mostly located in West Berlin were continued, but only accessible from West Berlin with all access in East Berlin closed. West Berlin_sentence_356

However, even before the Wall had been built, West Berliners increasingly refrained from using the S-Bahn, since boycotts against it were issued, the argument being that every S-Bahn ticket bought provided the GDR government with valuable Western Deutsche Marks. West Berlin_sentence_357

Usage dropped further as the Western public transport operator BVG (West) offered parallel bus lines and expanded its network of underground lines. West Berlin_sentence_358

After the construction of the Wall usage dropped so much that running the S-Bahn lines in West Berlin turned into a loss-making exercise: wages and maintenance – however badly it was carried out – cost more than income from ticket sales. West Berlin_sentence_359

Finally, the Reichsbahn agreed to surrender operation of the S-Bahn in West Berlin, as had been determined by all Allies in 1945, and on 29 December 1983 the Allies, the Senate of Berlin (West; i.e. the city state government) and the Reichsbahn signed an agreement to change the operator from Reichsbahn to BVG (West) which took effect on 9 January 1984. West Berlin_sentence_360

On 9 November 1989 East Germany opened the borders for East Germans and East Berliners, who could then freely enter West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_361

West Berlin itself had never restricted their entry. West Berlin_sentence_362

For West Berliners and West Germans the opening of the border for free entry lasted longer. West Berlin_sentence_363

The regulation concerning one-day-visas on entering the East and the compulsory minimum exchange of 25 Western Deutsche Marks by 1989, continued. West Berlin_sentence_364

However, more checkpoints were opened. West Berlin_sentence_365

Finally on 22 December 1989 East Germany granted West Berliners and West Germans free entry without charge at the existing checkpoints, demanding only valid papers. West Berlin_sentence_366

Eastern controls were slowly eased into spot checks and finally abolished on 30 June 1990, the day East and West introduced the union concerning currency, economy and social security (German: ). West Berlin_sentence_367

Traffic between different parts of West Berlin crossing the East West Berlin_section_15

When the Wall was built in 1961, three metro lines starting in northern parts of West Berlin passed through tunnels under the Eastern city centre and ended again in southern parts of West Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_368

The lines concerned were today's underground lines U 6 and U 8 and the S-Bahn line S 2 (today partly also used by other lines). West Berlin_sentence_369

On the sealing off of West Berlin from East Berlin by the Berlin Wall the entrances of the stations on these lines located in East Berlin were shut. West Berlin_sentence_370

However, western trains were allowed to continue to pass through without stopping. West Berlin_sentence_371

Passengers of these trains experienced the empty and barely lit ghost stations where time had stood still since 13 August 1961. West Berlin_sentence_372

West Berlin's public transport operator BVG (West) paid the east an annual charge in Western Deutsche Marks for its underground lines to use the tunnels under East Berlin. West Berlin_sentence_373

U 6 and S 2 also had one subterranean stop at the Eastern Berlin Friedrichstraße railway station, the only station beneath East Berlin where western U Bahn trains were still allowed to stop. West Berlin_sentence_374

Passengers could change there between U 6, S 2 and the elevated S 3 (then starting and ending in Friedrichstraße) or for the transit trains to West Germany, buy duty-free tobacco and liquor for Western marks in GDR-run Intershop kiosks, or enter East Berlin through a checkpoint right in the station. West Berlin_sentence_375

See also West Berlin_section_16

West Berlin_unordered_list_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West Berlin.