Jin dynasty (266–420)

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The Jin dynasty ([tɕîn; Chinese: 晉朝; pinyin: Jìn Cháo) or the Jin Empire, sometimes distinguished as the Sima Jin (司馬晉) or the Two Jins (兩晉), was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420 AD. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_0

It was founded by Sima Yan, eldest son of Sima Zhao, who was made the King of Jin and posthumously declared one of the founders of the dynasty, along with Sima Zhao's elder brother Sima Shi and father Sima Yi. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_1

It followed the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD), which ended with the conquest (平吴之战) of Eastern Wu, culminating in the reunification of China. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_2

There are two main divisions in the history of the dynasty. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_3

The Western Jin (266–316) was established as a successor state to Cao Wei after Sima Yan usurped the throne and had its capital at Luoyang and later Chang'an (modern Xi'an, Shaanxi province); Western Jin reunited China in 280 but fairly shortly thereafter fell into a succession crisis, the War of the Eight Princes (八王之乱), and suffered from the invasions instigated by the Five Barbarians (五胡), who began to establish various new self-proclaimed states along the Yellow River valley in 304 and successfully occupied northern China after the Disaster of Yongjia in 311. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_4

These states then immediately began fighting each other, inaugurating the chaotic and bloody Sixteen Kingdoms era. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_5

After the fall of Chang'an in 316, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed, forcing survivors of the Jin monarch under Sima Rui to flee south of the Yangtze River to Jiankang (modern Nanjing) and establish the Eastern Jin (317–420). Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_6

The Eastern Jin dynasty, though under constant threats from the north, remained relatively stable for the next century, but was eventually usurped by general Liu Yu in 420 and replaced with the Liu Song (420–479). Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_7

The Western and Eastern Jin dynasties together make up the second of the Six Dynasties. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_8

History Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_0

See also: Timeline of the Jin dynasty (265–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_9

Background Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_1

Under the Wei, who dominated the northern parts of China during the Three Kingdoms period, the Sima clan—with its most accomplished individual being Sima Yi—rose to prominence, particularly after the 249 coup d'état; historically known as the Incident at the Gaoping Tombs. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_10

After Sima Yi's death, his eldest son, Sima Shi, kept a tight grip on the political scene, and after his own death, his younger brother, Sima Zhao, assisted his clans' interests by further suppressing rebellions and dissent, as well as recovering all of Shu and capturing Liu Shan in 263. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_11

His ambitions for the throne remain proverbial in Chinese, but he died in 265 before he could rise higher than a King of Jin, a title named for the Zhou-era marchland and duchy around Shaanxi's Jin River. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_12

(He was granted the title as his ancestral home was located in Wen County within Jin's former lands.) Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_13

Founding Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_2

See also: History of the Jin dynasty (265–420) and Military history of the Jin dynasty (266–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms (304–439) Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_14

The Jin dynasty was founded in AD 266 by Sima Yan, posthumously known as Emperor Wu (the "Martial Emperor of Jin"). Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_15

He forced Cao Huan's abdication but permitted him to live in honor as the Prince of Chenliu and buried him with imperial ceremony. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_16

The Jin dynasty conquered Eastern Wu in 280 and united the country. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_17

The period of unity was short-lived as the state was soon weakened by corruption, political turmoil, and internal conflicts. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_18

Sima Yan's son Zhong, posthumously known as Emperor Hui (the "Benevolent Emperor of Jin"), was developmentally disabled. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_19

Decline Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_3

Conflict over his succession in 290 expanded into the devastating War of the Eight Princes. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_20

The weakened dynasty was then engulfed by the Uprising of the Five Barbarians and lost control of northern China. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_21

Large numbers of Chinese fled south from the Central Plains; among other effects, these refugees and colonizers gave Quanzhou's Jin River its name as they settled its valley in Fujian. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_22

The Jin capital Luoyang was captured by Xiongnu King Liu Cong in 311. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_23

Sima Chi, posthumously known as Emperor Huai (the "Missing Emperor of Jin"), was captured and later executed. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_24

His successor Sima Ye, posthumously known as Emperor Min (the "Suffering Emperor of Jin"), was captured at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an) in 316 and also later executed. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_25

Eastern Jin Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_4

The remnants of the Jin court fled to the south-east, reestablishing their government at Jiankang (present-day Nanjing). Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_26

Sima Rui, the prince of Langya, was enthroned in 318, posthumously becoming known as Emperor Yuan (the "First Emperor of the Eastern Jin"). Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_27

The rival northern states, who denied the legitimacy of his succession, sometimes referred to his state as "Langya". Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_28

At first, the southerners were resistant to the new ruler from the north. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_29

The circumstances obliged the Emperors of Eastern Jin to depend on both local and northern aristocrat clans. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_30

This was also the pinnacle of menfa (門閥, "gentry clans") politics : Several powerful immigrant elite clans controlled national affairs, such as Wang (王) clans of Langya and Taiyuan, Xie (謝) clan of Chenliu, Huan (桓) clan of Qiao Commandery, and Yu (庾) clan of Yingchuan, while the emperors' authority were limited. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_31

There was a prevalent remark that "Wang Dao and the emperor Sima Rui, they dominate the nation together" (王與馬,共天下) among the people. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_32

It is said that when Emperor Yuan was holding court, he even invited Dao to sit by himself accepting jointly the congratulations from ministers, but Dao declined it. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_33

The local aristocrat clans were at odds with the immigrants. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_34

As such, tensions increased; they loomed large in Jin's domestic politics. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_35

Two of the most prominent local clans: Zhou (周) clan of Yixing and Shen (沈) clan of Wuxing's ruin was a bitter blow from which they never quite recovered. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_36

Moreover, there was a conflict among the immigrant clans' interests; it was a faction that led to a virtual balance which somewhat benefited the emperor's ruling. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_37

Although there was a stated goal of recovering the "lost northern lands", paranoia within the royal family and a constant string of disruptions to the throne caused the loss of support among many officials. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_38

Military crises—including the rebellions of the generals Wang Dun and Su Jun, but also lesser fangzhen (, "military command") revolts—plagued the Eastern Jin throughout its 104 years of existence. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_39

Special "commanderies of immigrants" and "white registers" were created for the massive amounts of Han Chinese from the north who moved to the south during the Eastern Jin dynasty. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_40

The southern Chinese aristocracy was formed from the offspring of these migrants. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_41

Celestial Masters and the nobility of northern China subdued the nobility of southern China during the Eastern Jin and Western Jin in Jiangnan in particular. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_42

Southern China overtook the north in population after the depopulation of the north and the migration of northern Chinese to southern China. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_43

Different waves of migration of aristocratic Chinese from northern China to the south at different times resulted in distinct groups of lineages. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_44

The Eastern Jin recovered its unity in the face of the 383 invasion by the Former Qin. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_45

The short-lived cooperation among Huan Chong (brother of General Huan Wen) and Prime Minister Xie An helped provide a major victory at the Fei River. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_46

A large amount of Former Qin territory was then taken or retaken. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_47

Demise Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_5

Later, Huan Xuan, Huan Wen's son, usurped the throne and founded the dynasty of Huan Chu. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_48

He, in turn, was toppled by Liu Yu, who instated Sima Dezong, posthumously known as Emperor An (the "Peaceful Emperor of Jin"). Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_49

Meanwhile, as civilian administration suffered, there were further revolts led by Sun En and Lu Xun; Western Shu became an independent kingdom under Qiao Zong. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_50

Liu Yu had Sima Dezong strangled and replaced by his brother Sima Dewen, posthumously known as Emperor Gong (the "Respectful Emperor of Jin"), in 419. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_51

Sima Dewen abdicated in 420 in favor of Liu Yu, who declared himself the ruler of the Song; Sima was asphyxiated with a blanket the following year. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_52

In the north, Northern Liang, the last of the Sixteen Kingdoms, was conquered by the Northern Wei in 439, ushering in the Northern dynasties period. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_53

The Xianbei Northern Wei accepted the Jin refugees Sima Fei () and Sima Chuzhi (). Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_54

They both married Xianbei princesses. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_55

Sima Fei's wife was named Huayang (), who was a daughter of Emperor Xiaowen; Sima Chuzhi's son was Sima Jinlong (司馬金龍), who married a Northern Liang princess who was a daughter of Xiongnu King Juqu Mujian. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_56

More than fifty percent of Tuoba Xianbei princesses of the Northern Wei were married to southern Han Chinese men from the imperial families and aristocrats from southern China of the Southern dynasties who defected and moved north to join the Northern Wei. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_57

Much later, Sima Guang (1019–1086), who served as prime minister to the Song, claimed descent from the Jin dynasty (specifically, Sima Fu, brother of Sima Yi). Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_58

Government and demography Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_6

Menfa politics Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_7

Qiaoren and baiji Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_8

The uprising of the five barbarians led to one in eight northerners migrating to the south. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_59

These immigrants were called "qiaoren (僑人, literally the lodged people)", accounting for one sixth of the then people living in the south. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_60

Considering most property of these refugees had been lost or exhausted as they arrived, they were privileged to be free from diao (調), a special poll tax that was paid via the silk or cotton cloth in ancient China, and other services. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_61

Their registers which were bound in white papers were called baiji (白籍). Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_62

The ordinary ones which were bound in yellow papers were called huangji (黃籍) in comparison. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_63

When the situation settled down, the preferential treatment not only was a heavy burden for the nation, but also aroused dissatisfaction from the natives. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_64

Hence, tu duan was an increasingly important issue for the Eastern Jin. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_65

Lodged administrative divisions Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_9

The Eastern Jin court established the lodged administrative divisions which served as strongholds of the qiaoren. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_66

More effective administration for them was a realistic starting point for that. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_67

Consisting of three levels: qiaozhou (僑州, the lodged province), qiaojun (僑郡, the lodged commandery), and qiaoxian (僑縣, the lodged county), these lodged administrative divisions were merely nominal without possessing actual domain, or rather, they were local government in exile; what could scarcely be denied was their significance in Jin's legitimacy for the northern territory as somewhat an announcement. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_68

Furthermore, it was also an action done to appease the refugees' homesickness, which was evoking their desire to resume what had been lost. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_69

During the rule of Emperor Yuan, Emperor Ming, and Emperor Cheng, the lodged administrative divisions were concentrated in the area south of the Huai River and the Lower Yangtze Plain. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_70

At first there was the lodged Langya Commandery within lodged Fei County in Jiankang, but when it began is not exactly known. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_71

Then the lodged Huaide County was also established in Jiankang, around 320. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_72

According to the Book of Song: Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_73

The lodged Pei, Qinghe, Xiapi, Dongguang, Pingchang, Jiyin, Puyang, Guangping, Taishan, Jiyang, and Lu commanderies were established when Emperor Ming ruled. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_74

The rebellions and invasions occurring in Jianghuai area led to more refugees switching to settle in the south of the Yangtze River, where the lodged Huainan Commandery was established afterwards. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_75

However, carrying these out was more complex than the policy was formulated. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_76

Several actual counties were under the jurisdiction of the lodged commanderies. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_77

A few lodged administrative divisions are still retained in China nowadays. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_78

For instance, Dangtu County was originally located in the area of Bengbu, however, the lodged Dangtu County was established in where it is now, and the latter replaced the former, inheriting its place name. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_79

Tu duan policy Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_10

The tu duan (土斷) is the abbreviation for yi tu duan (以土斷, means classifying people according to their present habitation to register). Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_80

It was a policy to ensure the ancient hukou system working since the Western Jin. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_81

These terms were first recorded in the biographies of Wei Guan and Li Chong included in the Book of Jin: Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_82

Hence, it was perhaps initially proposed by these two persons, but was only seriously implemented during the Eastern Jin and the Southern dynasties. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_83

Society and culture Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_11

Material culture Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_12

The Jin dynasty is well known for the quality of its greenish celadon porcelain wares, which immediately followed the development of proto-celadon. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_84

Jar designs often incorporated animal, as well as Buddhist, figures. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_85

Examples of Yue ware are also known from the Jin dynasty. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_86

Jin dynasty (266–420)_unordered_list_0

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Religion Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_13

Taoism was polarized in the Jin dynasty. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_87

The Jin emperors repressed Taoists harshly, but also tried to exploit it, given the way it had been used near the end of the Han era in the poor peasants' revolts. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_88

Amidst the political turmoil of the era, many successful merchants, small landowners, and other moderately comfortable persons found great solace in Taoist teachings and a number of major clans and military officers also took up the faith. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_89

Ge Hong emphasized loyalty to the emperor as a Taoist virtue; he even taught that rebels could never be Taoist immortals, which made Taoism more palatable to the imperial hierarchy. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_90

As a result, popular Taoist religions were considered heterodoxy while the official schools of the court were supported, but the popular schools like Tianshi Taoism were still secretly held dear and promulgated amongst ordinary people. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_91

Disunity, disintegration, and chaos also made Buddhism more popular, in part due to the focus on addressing suffering. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_92

The Jin dynasty marked a critical era for Mahayana in China. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_93

Dharmarakṣa’s 286 translation of the Lotus Sutra was the most important one before Kumārajīva’s 5th-century translation. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_94

It was said that there were 1,768 Buddhist temples in the Eastern Jin. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_95

Furthermore, Taoism advanced chemistry and medicine in China, whereas the contribution of Mahayana was concentrated in philosophy and literature. Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_96

List of emperors and eras Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_14

See also: Emperor's family tree and Family tree of Sima Yi Jin dynasty (266–420)_sentence_97

Jin dynasty (266–420)_table_general_0

Posthumous namesJin dynasty (266–420)_header_cell_0_0_0 Family name and given namesJin dynasty (266–420)_header_cell_0_0_1 Durations of reignsJin dynasty (266–420)_header_cell_0_0_2 Era names and their according range of yearsJin dynasty (266–420)_header_cell_0_0_3
Western Jin dynasty 266–316Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_1_0
WuJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_2_0 Sima YanJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_2_1 266–290Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_2_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_2_3
HuiJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_3_0 Sima ZhongJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_3_1 290–307Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_3_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_3_3
noneJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_4_0 Sima LunJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_4_1 301Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_4_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_4_3
HuaiJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_5_0 Sima ChiJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_5_1 307–311Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_5_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_5_3
MinJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_6_0 Sima YeJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_6_1 313–316Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_6_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_6_3
Eastern Jin dynasty 317–420Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_7_0
YuanJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_8_0 Sima RuiJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_8_1 317–323Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_8_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_8_3
MingJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_9_0 Sima ShaoJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_9_1 323–325Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_9_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_9_3
ChengJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_10_0 Sima YanJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_10_1 325–342Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_10_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_10_3
KangJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_11_0 Sima YueJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_11_1 342–344Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_11_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_11_3
MuJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_12_0 Sima DanJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_12_1 344–361Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_12_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_12_3
AiJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_13_0 Sima PiJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_13_1 361–365Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_13_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_13_3
noneJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_14_0 Sima YiJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_14_1 365–372Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_14_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_14_3
JianwenJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_15_0 Sima YuJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_15_1 372Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_15_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_15_3
XiaowuJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_16_0 Sima YaoJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_16_1 372–396Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_16_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_16_3
AnJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_17_0 Sima DezongJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_17_1 396–419Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_17_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_17_3
GongJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_18_0 Sima DewenJin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_18_1 419–420Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_18_2 Jin dynasty (266–420)_cell_0_18_3

Major events Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_15

Jin dynasty (266–420)_unordered_list_1

See also Jin dynasty (266–420)_section_16

Jin dynasty (266–420)_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jin dynasty (266–420).