Whitespace character

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"Dot space" redirects here. Whitespace character_sentence_0

For the animated film, see Dot in Space. Whitespace character_sentence_1

"␣" redirects here. Whitespace character_sentence_2

It is not to be confused with . Whitespace character_sentence_3

In computer programming, whitespace is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography. Whitespace character_sentence_4

When rendered, a whitespace character does not correspond to a visible mark, but typically does occupy an area on a page. Whitespace character_sentence_5

For example, the common whitespace symbol U+0020   SPACE (also ASCII 32) represents a blank space punctuation character in text, used as a word divider in Western scripts. Whitespace character_sentence_6

Overview Whitespace character_section_0

With many keyboard layouts, a horizontal whitespace character may be entered through the use of a spacebar. Whitespace character_sentence_7

Horizontal whitespace may also be entered on many keyboards through the use of the Tab ↹ key, although the length of the space may vary. Whitespace character_sentence_8

Vertical whitespace is a bit more varied as to how it is encoded, but the most obvious in typing is the ↵ Enter result which creates a 'newline' code sequence in applications programs. Whitespace character_sentence_9

Older keyboards might instead say Return, abbreviating the typewriter keyboard meaning 'Carriage-Return' which generated an electromechanical return to the left stop (CR code in ASCII-hex &0D;) and a line feed or move to the next line (LF code in ASCII-hex &0A;); in some applications these were independently used to draw text cell based displays on monitors or for printing on tractor-guided printers—which might also contain reverse motions/positioning code sequences allowing text-based output devices to achieve more sophisticated output. Whitespace character_sentence_10

Many early computer games used such codes to draw a screen (e.g. Kingdom of Kroz), and word processing software would use this to produce printed effects such as bold, underline, and strikeout. Whitespace character_sentence_11

The term "whitespace" is based on the resulting appearance on ordinary paper. Whitespace character_sentence_12

However they are coded inside an application, whitespace can be processed the same as any other character code and programs can do the proper action as defined for the context in which they occur. Whitespace character_sentence_13

Definition and ambiguity Whitespace character_section_1

The most common whitespace characters may be typed via the space bar or the tab key. Whitespace character_sentence_14

Depending on context, a line-break generated by the return or enter key may be considered whitespace as well. Whitespace character_sentence_15

Unicode Whitespace character_section_2

The table below lists the twenty-five characters defined as whitespace ("WSpace=Y", "WS") characters in the Unicode Character Database. Whitespace character_sentence_16

Seventeen use a definition of whitespace consistent with the algorithm for bidirectional writing ("Bidirectional Character Type=WS") and are known as "Bidi-WS" characters. Whitespace character_sentence_17

The remaining characters may also be used, but are not of this "Bidi" type. Whitespace character_sentence_18

Note: Depending on the browser and fonts used to view the following table, not all spaces may be displayed properly. Whitespace character_sentence_19

Whitespace character_table_general_0

Unicode characters with White_Space propertyWhitespace character_header_cell_0_0_0
NameWhitespace character_header_cell_0_1_0 Code pointWhitespace character_header_cell_0_1_1 Width boxWhitespace character_header_cell_0_1_3 May break?Whitespace character_header_cell_0_1_4 In

IDN?Whitespace character_header_cell_0_1_5

ScriptWhitespace character_header_cell_0_1_6 BlockWhitespace character_header_cell_0_1_7 General

categoryWhitespace character_header_cell_0_1_8

NotesWhitespace character_header_cell_0_1_9
character tabulationWhitespace character_cell_0_2_0 U+0009Whitespace character_cell_0_2_1 9Whitespace character_cell_0_2_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_2_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_2_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_2_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_2_6 Basic LatinWhitespace character_cell_0_2_7 Other,

controlWhitespace character_cell_0_2_8

HT, Horizontal Tab. HTML/XML named entity: 	, LaTeX: '\tab'Whitespace character_cell_0_2_9
line feedWhitespace character_cell_0_3_0 U+000AWhitespace character_cell_0_3_1 10Whitespace character_cell_0_3_2 Is a line-breakWhitespace character_cell_0_3_3 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_3_6 Basic LatinWhitespace character_cell_0_3_7 Other,

controlWhitespace character_cell_0_3_8

LF, Line feed. HTML/XML named entity: 
Whitespace character_cell_0_3_9
line tabulationWhitespace character_cell_0_4_0 U+000BWhitespace character_cell_0_4_1 11Whitespace character_cell_0_4_2 Is a line-breakWhitespace character_cell_0_4_3 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_4_6 Basic LatinWhitespace character_cell_0_4_7 Other,

controlWhitespace character_cell_0_4_8

VT, Vertical TabWhitespace character_cell_0_4_9
form feedWhitespace character_cell_0_5_0 U+000CWhitespace character_cell_0_5_1 12Whitespace character_cell_0_5_2 Is a line-breakWhitespace character_cell_0_5_3 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_5_6 Basic LatinWhitespace character_cell_0_5_7 Other,

controlWhitespace character_cell_0_5_8

FF, Form feedWhitespace character_cell_0_5_9
carriage returnWhitespace character_cell_0_6_0 U+000DWhitespace character_cell_0_6_1 13Whitespace character_cell_0_6_2 Is a line-breakWhitespace character_cell_0_6_3 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_6_6 Basic LatinWhitespace character_cell_0_6_7 Other,

controlWhitespace character_cell_0_6_8

CR, Carriage returnWhitespace character_cell_0_6_9
spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_7_0 U+0020Whitespace character_cell_0_7_1 32Whitespace character_cell_0_7_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_7_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_7_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_7_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_7_6 Basic LatinWhitespace character_cell_0_7_7 Separator,

spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_7_8

Most common (normal ASCII space)Whitespace character_cell_0_7_9
next lineWhitespace character_cell_0_8_0 U+0085Whitespace character_cell_0_8_1 133Whitespace character_cell_0_8_2 Is a line-breakWhitespace character_cell_0_8_3 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_8_6 Latin-1

SupplementWhitespace character_cell_0_8_7


controlWhitespace character_cell_0_8_8

NEL, Next lineWhitespace character_cell_0_8_9
no-break spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_9_0 U+00A0Whitespace character_cell_0_9_1 160Whitespace character_cell_0_9_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_9_3 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_9_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_9_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_9_6 Latin-1

SupplementWhitespace character_cell_0_9_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_9_8

Non-breaking space: identical to U+0020, but not a point at which a line may be broken. HTML/XML named entity:  , LaTeX: '\ 'Whitespace character_cell_0_9_9
ogham space markWhitespace character_cell_0_10_0 U+1680Whitespace character_cell_0_10_1 5760Whitespace character_cell_0_10_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_10_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_10_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_10_5 OghamWhitespace character_cell_0_10_6 OghamWhitespace character_cell_0_10_7 Separator,

spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_10_8

Used for interword separation in Ogham text. Normally a vertical line in vertical text or a horizontal line in horizontal text, but may also be a blank space in "stemless" fonts. Requires an Ogham font.Whitespace character_cell_0_10_9
en quadWhitespace character_cell_0_11_0 U+2000Whitespace character_cell_0_11_1 8192Whitespace character_cell_0_11_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_11_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_11_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_11_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_11_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_11_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_11_8

Width of one en. U+2002 is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2002 is preferred.Whitespace character_cell_0_11_9
em quadWhitespace character_cell_0_12_0 U+2001Whitespace character_cell_0_12_1 8193Whitespace character_cell_0_12_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_12_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_12_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_12_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_12_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_12_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_12_8

Also known as "mutton quad". Width of one em. U+2003 is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2003 is preferred.Whitespace character_cell_0_12_9
en spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_13_0 U+2002Whitespace character_cell_0_13_1 8194Whitespace character_cell_0_13_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_13_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_13_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_13_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_13_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_13_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_13_8

Also known as "nut". Width of one en. U+2000 En Quad is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2002 is preferred. HTML/XML named entity:  , LaTeX: '\enspace'Whitespace character_cell_0_13_9
em spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_14_0 U+2003Whitespace character_cell_0_14_1 8195Whitespace character_cell_0_14_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_14_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_14_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_14_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_14_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_14_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_14_8

Also known as "mutton". Width of one em. U+2001 Em Quad is canonically equivalent to this character; U+2003 is preferred. HTML/XML named entity:  , LaTeX: '\quad'Whitespace character_cell_0_14_9
three-per-em spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_15_0 U+2004Whitespace character_cell_0_15_1 8196Whitespace character_cell_0_15_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_15_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_15_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_15_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_15_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_15_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_15_8

Also known as "thick space". One third of an em wide. HTML/XML named entity:  Whitespace character_cell_0_15_9
four-per-em spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_16_0 U+2005Whitespace character_cell_0_16_1 8197Whitespace character_cell_0_16_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_16_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_16_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_16_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_16_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_16_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_16_8

Also known as "mid space". One fourth of an em wide. HTML/XML named entity:  Whitespace character_cell_0_16_9
six-per-em spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_17_0 U+2006Whitespace character_cell_0_17_1 8198Whitespace character_cell_0_17_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_17_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_17_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_17_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_17_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_17_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_17_8

One sixth of an em wide. In computer typography, sometimes equated to U+2009.Whitespace character_cell_0_17_9
figure spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_18_0 U+2007Whitespace character_cell_0_18_1 8199Whitespace character_cell_0_18_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_18_3 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_18_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_18_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_18_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_18_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_18_8

Figure space. In fonts with monospaced digits, equal to the width of one digit. HTML/XML named entity:  Whitespace character_cell_0_18_9
punctuation spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_19_0 U+2008Whitespace character_cell_0_19_1 8200Whitespace character_cell_0_19_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_19_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_19_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_19_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_19_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_19_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_19_8

As wide as the narrow punctuation in a font, i.e. the advance width of the period or comma. HTML/XML named entity:  Whitespace character_cell_0_19_9
thin spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_20_0 U+2009Whitespace character_cell_0_20_1 8201Whitespace character_cell_0_20_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_20_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_20_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_20_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_20_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_20_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_20_8

Thin space; one-fifth (sometimes one-sixth) of an em wide. Recommended for use as a thousands separator for measures made with SI units. Unlike U+2002 to U+2008, its width may get adjusted in typesetting. HTML/XML named entity:  ; LaTeX: '\,'Whitespace character_cell_0_20_9
hair spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_21_0 U+200AWhitespace character_cell_0_21_1 8202Whitespace character_cell_0_21_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_21_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_21_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_21_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_21_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_21_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_21_8

Thinner than a thin space. HTML/XML named entity:   (does not work in all browsers)Whitespace character_cell_0_21_9
line separatorWhitespace character_cell_0_22_0 U+2028Whitespace character_cell_0_22_1 8232Whitespace character_cell_0_22_2 Is a line-breakWhitespace character_cell_0_22_3 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_22_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_22_7


lineWhitespace character_cell_0_22_8

Whitespace character_cell_0_22_9
paragraph separatorWhitespace character_cell_0_23_0 U+2029Whitespace character_cell_0_23_1 8233Whitespace character_cell_0_23_2 Is a line-breakWhitespace character_cell_0_23_3 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_23_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_23_7


paragraphWhitespace character_cell_0_23_8

Whitespace character_cell_0_23_9
narrow no-break spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_24_0 U+202FWhitespace character_cell_0_24_1 8239Whitespace character_cell_0_24_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_24_3 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_24_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_24_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_24_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_24_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_24_8

Narrow no-break space. Similar in function to U+00A0 No-Break Space. When used with Mongolian, its width is usually one third of the normal space; in other context, its width sometimes resembles that of the Thin Space (U+2009).Whitespace character_cell_0_24_9
medium mathematical spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_25_0 U+205FWhitespace character_cell_0_25_1 8287Whitespace character_cell_0_25_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_25_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_25_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_25_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_25_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_25_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_25_8

MMSP. Used in mathematical formulae. Four-eighteenths of an em. In mathematical typography, the widths of spaces are usually given in integral multiples of an eighteenth of an em, and 4/18 em may be used in several situations, for example between the a and the + and between the + and the b in the expression a + b. HTML/XML named entity:  Whitespace character_cell_0_25_9
ideographic spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_26_0 U+3000Whitespace character_cell_0_26_1 12288Whitespace character_cell_0_26_2 Whitespace character_cell_0_26_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_0_26_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_0_26_5 CommonWhitespace character_cell_0_26_6 CJK Symbols

and PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_0_26_7


spaceWhitespace character_cell_0_26_8

As wide as a CJK character cell (fullwidth). Used, for example, in tai tou.Whitespace character_cell_0_26_9

Whitespace character_table_general_1

Related Unicode characters without White_Space propertyWhitespace character_header_cell_1_0_0
NameWhitespace character_header_cell_1_1_0 Code pointWhitespace character_header_cell_1_1_1 Width boxWhitespace character_header_cell_1_1_3 May break?Whitespace character_header_cell_1_1_4 In

IDN?Whitespace character_header_cell_1_1_5

ScriptWhitespace character_header_cell_1_1_6 BlockWhitespace character_header_cell_1_1_7 General

categoryWhitespace character_header_cell_1_1_8

NotesWhitespace character_header_cell_1_1_9
mongolian vowel separatorWhitespace character_cell_1_2_0 U+180EWhitespace character_cell_1_2_1 6158Whitespace character_cell_1_2_2 Whitespace character_cell_1_2_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_1_2_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_1_2_5 MongolianWhitespace character_cell_1_2_6 MongolianWhitespace character_cell_1_2_7 Other,

FormatWhitespace character_cell_1_2_8

MVS. A narrow space character, used in Mongolian to cause the final two characters of a word to take on different shapes. It is no longer classified as space character (i.e. in Zs category) in Unicode 6.3.0, even though it was in previous versions of the standard.Whitespace character_cell_1_2_9
zero width spaceWhitespace character_cell_1_3_0 U+200BWhitespace character_cell_1_3_1 8203Whitespace character_cell_1_3_2 Whitespace character_cell_1_3_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_1_3_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_1_3_5 ?Whitespace character_cell_1_3_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_1_3_7


FormatWhitespace character_cell_1_3_8

ZWSP, zero-width space. Used to indicate word boundaries to text processing systems when using scripts that do not use explicit spacing. It is similar to the soft hyphen, with the difference that the latter is used to indicate syllable boundaries, and should display a visible hyphen when the line breaks at it. HTML/XML named entity: ​Whitespace character_cell_1_3_9
zero width non-joinerWhitespace character_cell_1_4_0 U+200CWhitespace character_cell_1_4_1 8204Whitespace character_cell_1_4_2 Whitespace character_cell_1_4_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_1_4_4 Context-dependentWhitespace character_cell_1_4_5 ?Whitespace character_cell_1_4_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_1_4_7


FormatWhitespace character_cell_1_4_8

ZWNJ, zero-width non-joiner. When placed between two characters that would otherwise be connected, a ZWNJ causes them to be printed in their final and initial forms, respectively. HTML/XML named entity: ‌Whitespace character_cell_1_4_9
zero width joinerWhitespace character_cell_1_5_0 U+200DWhitespace character_cell_1_5_1 8205Whitespace character_cell_1_5_2 Whitespace character_cell_1_5_3 YesWhitespace character_cell_1_5_4 Context-dependentWhitespace character_cell_1_5_5 ?Whitespace character_cell_1_5_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_1_5_7


FormatWhitespace character_cell_1_5_8

ZWJ, zero-width joiner. When placed between two characters that would otherwise not be connected, a ZWJ causes them to be printed in their connected forms. Can also be used to display joining forms in isolation. Depending on whether a ligature or conjunct is expected by default, can either induce (as in emoji and in Sinhala) or suppress (as in Devanagari) substitution with a single glyph, whilst still permitting use of individual joining forms (unlike ZWNJ). HTML/XML named entity: ‍Whitespace character_cell_1_5_9
word joinerWhitespace character_cell_1_6_0 U+2060Whitespace character_cell_1_6_1 8288Whitespace character_cell_1_6_2 Whitespace character_cell_1_6_3 NoWhitespace character_cell_1_6_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_1_6_5 ?Whitespace character_cell_1_6_6 General

PunctuationWhitespace character_cell_1_6_7


FormatWhitespace character_cell_1_6_8

WJ, word joiner. Similar to U+200B, but not a point at which a line may be broken. HTML/XML named entity: ⁠Whitespace character_cell_1_6_9
zero width non-breaking spaceWhitespace character_cell_1_7_0 U+FEFFWhitespace character_cell_1_7_1 65279Whitespace character_cell_1_7_2 Whitespace character_cell_1_7_3 NoWhitespace character_cell_1_7_4 NoWhitespace character_cell_1_7_5 ?Whitespace character_cell_1_7_6 Arabic

Presentation Forms-BWhitespace character_cell_1_7_7


FormatWhitespace character_cell_1_7_8

Zero-width non-breaking space. Used primarily as a Byte Order Mark. Use as an indication of non-breaking is deprecated as of Unicode 3.2; see U+2060 instead.Whitespace character_cell_1_7_9

Whitespace character_table_general_2

Substitutes Whitespace character_section_3

Unicode also provides some visible characters that can be used to represent various whitespace characters, in contexts where a visible symbol must be displayed: Whitespace character_sentence_20

Whitespace character_table_general_3

Unicode space-illustrating characters (visible)Whitespace character_table_caption_3
CodeWhitespace character_header_cell_3_0_0 DecimalWhitespace character_header_cell_3_0_1 NameWhitespace character_header_cell_3_0_2 BlockWhitespace character_header_cell_3_0_3 DisplayWhitespace character_header_cell_3_0_4 DescriptionWhitespace character_header_cell_3_0_5
U+00B7Whitespace character_cell_3_1_0 183Whitespace character_cell_3_1_1 Middle dotWhitespace character_cell_3_1_2 Latin-1 SupplementWhitespace character_cell_3_1_3 ·Whitespace character_cell_3_1_4 Interpunct

Named entity: ·Whitespace character_cell_3_1_5

U+21A1Whitespace character_cell_3_2_0 8609Whitespace character_cell_3_2_1 Downwards two headed arrowWhitespace character_cell_3_2_2 ArrowsWhitespace character_cell_3_2_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_2_4 ECMA-17 / ISO 2047 symbol for form feed (page break)Whitespace character_cell_3_2_5
U+2261Whitespace character_cell_3_3_0 8810Whitespace character_cell_3_3_1 Identical toWhitespace character_cell_3_3_2 Mathematical

OperatorsWhitespace character_cell_3_3_3

Whitespace character_cell_3_3_4 Amongst other uses, is the ECMA-17 / ISO 2047 symbol for line feedWhitespace character_cell_3_3_5
U+237DWhitespace character_cell_3_4_0 9085Whitespace character_cell_3_4_1 Shouldered open boxWhitespace character_cell_3_4_2 Miscellaneous TechnicalWhitespace character_cell_3_4_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_4_4 Used to indicate a NBSPWhitespace character_cell_3_4_5
U+23CEWhitespace character_cell_3_5_0 9166Whitespace character_cell_3_5_1 Return symbolWhitespace character_cell_3_5_2 Miscellaneous TechnicalWhitespace character_cell_3_5_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_5_4 Symbol for a return key, which enters a line breakWhitespace character_cell_3_5_5
U+2409Whitespace character_cell_3_6_0 9225Whitespace character_cell_3_6_1 Symbol for horizontal tabulationWhitespace character_cell_3_6_2 Control PicturesWhitespace character_cell_3_6_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_6_4 Substitutes for a tab characterWhitespace character_cell_3_6_5
U+240AWhitespace character_cell_3_7_0 9226Whitespace character_cell_3_7_1 Symbol for line feedWhitespace character_cell_3_7_2 Control PicturesWhitespace character_cell_3_7_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_7_4 Substitutes for a line feedWhitespace character_cell_3_7_5
U+240BWhitespace character_cell_3_8_0 9227Whitespace character_cell_3_8_1 Symbol for vertical tabulationWhitespace character_cell_3_8_2 Control PicturesWhitespace character_cell_3_8_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_8_4 Substitutes for a vertical tab (line tab)Whitespace character_cell_3_8_5
U+240CWhitespace character_cell_3_9_0 9228Whitespace character_cell_3_9_1 Symbol for form feedWhitespace character_cell_3_9_2 Control PicturesWhitespace character_cell_3_9_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_9_4 Substitutes for a form feed (page break)Whitespace character_cell_3_9_5
U+240DWhitespace character_cell_3_10_0 9229Whitespace character_cell_3_10_1 Symbol for carriage returnWhitespace character_cell_3_10_2 Control PicturesWhitespace character_cell_3_10_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_10_4 Substitutes for a carriage returnWhitespace character_cell_3_10_5
U+2420Whitespace character_cell_3_11_0 9248Whitespace character_cell_3_11_1 Symbol for spaceWhitespace character_cell_3_11_2 Control PicturesWhitespace character_cell_3_11_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_11_4 Substitutes for an ASCII spaceWhitespace character_cell_3_11_5
U+2422Whitespace character_cell_3_12_0 9250Whitespace character_cell_3_12_1 Blank symbolWhitespace character_cell_3_12_2 Control PicturesWhitespace character_cell_3_12_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_12_4 aka "substitute blank", used in BCDIC, EBCDIC, ASCII-1963 etc. as a symbol for the word separatorWhitespace character_cell_3_12_5
U+2423Whitespace character_cell_3_13_0 9251Whitespace character_cell_3_13_1 Open boxWhitespace character_cell_3_13_2 Control PicturesWhitespace character_cell_3_13_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_13_4 Used in block letter handwriting at least since the 1980s when it is necessary to explicitly indicate the number of space characters (e.g. when programming with pen and paper). Used in a textbook (published 1982, 1984,1985, 1988 by Springer-Verlag) on Modula-2, a programming language where space codes require explicit indication. Also used in the keypad of the Texas Instruments' TI-8x series of graphing calculators.

Named entity: ␣Whitespace character_cell_3_13_5

U+2424Whitespace character_cell_3_14_0 9252Whitespace character_cell_3_14_1 Symbol for newlineWhitespace character_cell_3_14_2 Control PicturesWhitespace character_cell_3_14_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_14_4 Substitutes for a line breakWhitespace character_cell_3_14_5
U+25B3Whitespace character_cell_3_15_0 9651Whitespace character_cell_3_15_1 White up-pointing triangleWhitespace character_cell_3_15_2 Geometric ShapesWhitespace character_cell_3_15_3 Whitespace character_cell_3_15_4 Amongst other uses, is the ECMA-17 / ISO 2047 symbol for the ASCII spaceWhitespace character_cell_3_15_5
U+2A5BWhitespace character_cell_3_16_0 10843Whitespace character_cell_3_16_1 Logical Or with middle stemWhitespace character_cell_3_16_2 Supplemental

Mathematical OperatorsWhitespace character_cell_3_16_3

Whitespace character_cell_3_16_4 Amongst other uses, is the ECMA-17 / ISO 2047 symbol for vertical tab (line tab)Whitespace character_cell_3_16_5
U+2AAAWhitespace character_cell_3_17_0 10922Whitespace character_cell_3_17_1 Smaller thanWhitespace character_cell_3_17_2 Supplemental

Mathematical OperatorsWhitespace character_cell_3_17_3

Whitespace character_cell_3_17_4 Amongst other uses, is the ECMA-17 / ISO 2047 symbol for carriage returnWhitespace character_cell_3_17_5
U+2AABWhitespace character_cell_3_18_0 10923Whitespace character_cell_3_18_1 Larger thanWhitespace character_cell_3_18_2 Supplemental

Mathematical OperatorsWhitespace character_cell_3_18_3

Whitespace character_cell_3_18_4 Amongst other uses, is the ECMA-17 / ISO 2047 symbol for the tab characterWhitespace character_cell_3_18_5

Whitespace character_description_list_0

Whitespace character_unordered_list_1

  • The Cambridge Z88 provided a special "exact space" (code point 160 aka 0xA0) (invokable by key shortcut ⌑+SPACE,) displayed as "..." by the operating system's display driver. It was therefore also known as "dot space" in conjunction with BBC BASIC.Whitespace character_item_1_0
  • Under code point 224 (0xE0) the computer also provided a special three-character-cells-wide SPACE symbol "SPC" (analogous to Unicode's single-cell-wide U+2420).Whitespace character_item_1_1

Non-space blanks Whitespace character_section_4

Whitespace character_unordered_list_2

  • The Braille Patterns Unicode block contains U+2800 ⠀ BRAILLE PATTERN BLANK (HTML ⠀), a Braille pattern with no dots raised. Some fonts display the character as a fixed-width blank, however the Unicode standard explicitly states that it does not act as a space.Whitespace character_item_2_2
  • Unicode's coverage of the Korean alphabet includes several code points which represent the absence of a written letter, and thus do not display a glyph:Whitespace character_item_2_3
    • Unicode includes a Hangul Filler character in the Hangul Compatibility Jamo block (U+3164 ㅤ HANGUL FILLER (HTML ㅤ)). This is classified as a letter, but displayed as an empty space, like a Hangul block containing no jamo. It is used in KS X 1001 Hangul combining sequences to introduce them or denote the absence of a letter in a position, but not in Unicode's combining jamo system.Whitespace character_item_2_4
    • Unicode's combining jamo system uses similar Hangul Choseong Filler and Hangul Jungseong Filler characters to denote the absence of a letter in initial or medial position within a syllable block, which are included in the Hangul Jamo block (U+115F ᅟ HANGUL CHOSEONG FILLER (HTML ᅟ), U+1160 ᅠ HANGUL JUNGSEONG FILLER (HTML ᅠ)).Whitespace character_item_2_5
    • Additionally, a Halfwidth Hangul Filler is included in the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms (U+FFA0 ᅠ HALFWIDTH HANGUL FILLER (HTML ᅠ)), which is used when mapping from encodings which include characters from both Johab (or Wansung) and N-byte Hangul (or its EBCDIC counterpart), such as IBM-933, which includes both Johab and EBCDIC fillers.Whitespace character_item_2_6

Whitespace and digital typography Whitespace character_section_5

On-screen display Whitespace character_section_6

Text editors, word processors, and desktop publishing software differ in how they represent whitespace on the screen, and how they represent spaces at the ends of lines longer than the screen or column width. Whitespace character_sentence_21

In some cases, spaces are shown simply as blank space; in other cases they may be represented by an interpunct or other symbols. Whitespace character_sentence_22

Many different characters (described below) could be used to produce spaces, and non-character functions (such as margins and tab settings) can also affect whitespace. Whitespace character_sentence_23

Variable-width general-purpose space Whitespace character_section_7

In computer character encodings, there is a normal general-purpose space (Unicode character U+0020) whose width will vary according to the design of the typeface. Whitespace character_sentence_24

Typical values range from 1/5 em to 1/3 em (in digital typography an em is equal to the nominal size of the font, so for a 10-point font the space will probably be between 2 and 3.3 points). Whitespace character_sentence_25

Sophisticated fonts may have differently sized spaces for bold, italic, and small-caps faces, and often compositors will manually adjust the width of the space depending on the size and prominence of the text. Whitespace character_sentence_26

In addition to this general-purpose space, it is possible to encode a space of a specific width. Whitespace character_sentence_27

See the table below for a complete list. Whitespace character_sentence_28

Hair spaces around dashes Whitespace character_section_8

Em dashes used as parenthetical dividers, and en dashes when used as word joiners, are usually set continuous with the text. Whitespace character_sentence_29

However, such a dash can optionally be surrounded with a hair space, U+200A, or thin space, U+2009. Whitespace character_sentence_30

The hair space can be written in HTML by using the numeric character references   or  , or the named entity  , but is not universally supported in browsers yet, as of 2016. Whitespace character_sentence_31

The thin space is named entity   and numeric references   or  . Whitespace character_sentence_32

These spaces are much thinner than a normal space (except in a monospaced (non-proportional) font), with the hair space being the thinner of the two. Whitespace character_sentence_33

Whitespace character_table_general_4

Normal space versus hair and thin spaces (as rendered by your browser)Whitespace character_table_caption_4
Normal space with em dashWhitespace character_header_cell_4_0_0 left — rightWhitespace character_cell_4_0_1
Thin space with em dashWhitespace character_header_cell_4_1_0 left — rightWhitespace character_cell_4_1_1
Hair space with em dashWhitespace character_header_cell_4_2_0 left — rightWhitespace character_cell_4_2_1
No space with em dashWhitespace character_header_cell_4_3_0 left—rightWhitespace character_cell_4_3_1

Formatting values of quantities Whitespace character_section_9

The International System of Units (SI) prescribes inserting a space between a number and a unit of measurement and between units in compound units. Whitespace character_sentence_34

A thin space should be used as thousands separator. Whitespace character_sentence_35

See unit symbols and numbers. Whitespace character_sentence_36

Computing applications Whitespace character_section_10

Programming languages Whitespace character_section_11

In programming language syntax, spaces are frequently used to explicitly separate tokens. Whitespace character_sentence_37

In most languages multiple whitespace characters are treated the same as a single whitespace character (outside of quoted strings); such languages are called free-form. Whitespace character_sentence_38

In a few languages, including Haskell, occam, ABC, and Python, whitespace and indentation are used for syntactical purposes. Whitespace character_sentence_39

In the satirical language called Whitespace, whitespace characters are the only valid characters for programming, while any other characters are ignored. Whitespace character_sentence_40

Excessive use of whitespace, especially trailing whitespace at the end of lines, is considered a nuisance. Whitespace character_sentence_41

However correct use of whitespace can make the code easier to read and help group related logic. Whitespace character_sentence_42

Most languages only recognize ASCII characters as whitespace, or in some cases Unicode newlines as well, but not most of the characters listed above. Whitespace character_sentence_43

The C language defines whitespace characters to be "space, horizontal tab, new-line, vertical tab, and form-feed". Whitespace character_sentence_44

The HTTP network protocol requires different types of whitespace to be used in different parts of the protocol, such as: only the space character in the status line, CRLF at the end of a line, and "linear whitespace" in header values. Whitespace character_sentence_45

Command line user interfaces Whitespace character_section_12

In commands processed by command processors, e.g., in scripts and typed in, the space character can cause problems as it has two possible functions: as part of a command or parameter, or as a parameter or name separator. Whitespace character_sentence_46

Ambiguity can be prevented either by prohibiting embedded spaces, or by enclosing a name with embedded spaces between quote characters. Whitespace character_sentence_47

Markup languages Whitespace character_section_13

Some markup languages, such as SGML, preserve whitespace as written. Whitespace character_sentence_48

Web markup languages such as XML and HTML treat whitespace characters specially, including space characters, for programmers' convenience. Whitespace character_sentence_49

One or more space characters read by conforming display-time processors of those markup languages are collapsed to 0 or 1 space, depending on their semantic context. Whitespace character_sentence_50

For example, double (or more) spaces within text are collapsed to a single space, and spaces which appear on either side of the "=" that separates an attribute name from its value have no effect on the interpretation of the document. Whitespace character_sentence_51

Element end tags can contain trailing spaces, and empty-element tags in XML can contain spaces before the "/>". Whitespace character_sentence_52

In these languages, unnecessary whitespace increases the file size, and so may slow network transfers. Whitespace character_sentence_53

On the other hand, unnecessary whitespace can also inconspicuously mark code, similar to, but less obvious than comments in code. Whitespace character_sentence_54

This can be desirable to prove an infringement of license or copyright that was committed by copying and pasting. Whitespace character_sentence_55

In XML attribute values, sequences of whitespace characters are treated as a single space when the document is read by a parser. Whitespace character_sentence_56

Whitespace in XML element content is not changed in this way by the parser, but an application receiving information from the parser may choose to apply similar rules to element content. Whitespace character_sentence_57

An XML document author can use the xml:space="preserve" attribute on an element to instruct the parser to discourage the downstream application from altering whitespace in that element's content. Whitespace character_sentence_58

In most HTML elements, a sequence of whitespace characters is treated as a single inter-word separator, which may manifest as a single space character when rendering text in a language that normally inserts such space between words. Whitespace character_sentence_59

Conforming HTML renderers are required to apply a more literal treatment of whitespace within a few prescribed elements, such as the pre tag and any element for which CSS has been used to apply pre-like whitespace processing. Whitespace character_sentence_60

In such elements, space characters will not be "collapsed" into inter-word separators. Whitespace character_sentence_61

In both XML and HTML, the non-breaking space character, along with other non-"standard" spaces, is not treated as collapsible "whitespace", so it is not subject to the rules above. Whitespace character_sentence_62

File names Whitespace character_section_14

Such usage is similar to multiword file names written for operating systems and applications that are confused by embedded space codes—such file names instead use an underscore (_) as a word separator, as_in_this_phrase. Whitespace character_sentence_63

Another such symbol was U+2422 ␢ BLANK SYMBOL. Whitespace character_sentence_64

This was used in the early years of computer programming when writing on coding forms. Whitespace character_sentence_65

Keypunch operators immediately recognized the symbol as an "explicit space". Whitespace character_sentence_66

It was used in BCDIC, EBCDIC, and ASCII-1963. Whitespace character_sentence_67

See also Whitespace character_section_15

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitespace character.