William Laud

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William Laud_table_infobox_0

The Most Reverend and Right Honourable

William LaudWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_0_0

ChurchWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_1_0 Church of EnglandWilliam Laud_cell_0_1_1
DioceseWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_2_0 CanterburyWilliam Laud_cell_0_2_1
In officeWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_3_0 1633–1645William Laud_cell_0_3_1
PredecessorWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_4_0 George AbbotWilliam Laud_cell_0_4_1
SuccessorWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_5_0 William JuxonWilliam Laud_cell_0_5_1
OrdersWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_6_0
OrdinationWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_7_0 5 April 1601William Laud_cell_0_7_1
ConsecrationWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_8_0 18 November 1621

by George MontaigneWilliam Laud_cell_0_8_1

Personal detailsWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_9_0
BornWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_10_0 7 October 1573

Reading, Berkshire, EnglandWilliam Laud_cell_0_10_1

DiedWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_11_0 10 January 1645(1645-01-10) (aged 71)

Tower Hill, London, EnglandWilliam Laud_cell_0_11_1

EducationWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_12_0 Reading SchoolWilliam Laud_cell_0_12_1
Alma materWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_13_0 St John's College, OxfordWilliam Laud_cell_0_13_1
SignatureWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_14_0 William Laud_cell_0_14_1
SainthoodWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_15_0
Feast dayWilliam Laud_header_cell_0_16_0 10 JanuaryWilliam Laud_cell_0_16_1

William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was a clergyman in the Church of England, appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by Charles I in 1633. William Laud_sentence_0

A key advocate of Charles's religious reforms, he was arrested by Parliament in 1640, and executed towards the end of the First English Civil War in January 1645. William Laud_sentence_1

A firm believer in Episcopalianism, or rule by bishops, Laudianism refers to liturgical practices designed to enforce uniformity within the Church of England, as outlined by Charles. William Laud_sentence_2

Often highly ritualistic, these were precursors to what are now known as High Church views. William Laud_sentence_3

In theology, Laud was accused of Arminianism, favoring doctrines of the historic Church prior to the Reformation and defending the continuity of the English Church with the primitive and medieval Church, and opposing Calvinism. William Laud_sentence_4

On all three grounds, he was regarded by Puritan clerics and laymen as a formidable and dangerous opponent. William Laud_sentence_5

His use of the Star Chamber to persecute opponents like William Prynne made him deeply unpopular. William Laud_sentence_6

Laud favoured scholars, was a major collector of manuscripts, and pursued ecumenical contacts with the Greek Orthodox Church. William Laud_sentence_7

The pun "give great praise to the Lord, and little Laud to the devil" is a joke attributed to Archibald Armstrong, Charles's court jester; Laud was known to be touchy about his diminutive stature. William Laud_sentence_8

Early life William Laud_section_0

Laud was born at Reading, Berkshire on 7 October 1573, the only son of William Laud, a clothier, and Lucy, born Webbe, widow of John Robinson, another clothier of the town, and sister of Sir William Webbe, Lord Mayor of London. William Laud_sentence_9

He was educated at Reading School, and on 17 October 1589 matriculated at St John's College, Oxford, where he was taught by Dr Thomas Holland. William Laud_sentence_10

In 1593 he became a fellow of the college. William Laud_sentence_11

He graduated B.A. in 1594, M.A. in 1598, and D.D. William Laud_sentence_12

in 1608. William Laud_sentence_13

When Laud was going through his exercises as candidate for the degree of Bachelor in Divinity, in 1604, he contended “that there could be no true churches without diocesan episcopacy.” For this the young aspirant was sharply and publicly rebuked by Dr Holland, who presided on the occasion; and who severely reprehended the future Primate of All England as "one who sought to sow discord among brethren, and between the Church of England and the Reformed Churches abroad." William Laud_sentence_14

While he was an undergraduate, Laud's tutor was John Buckeridge, who became president of St John's College in 1605. William Laud_sentence_15

Laud was ordained deacon on 4 January 1601 and priest on 5 April in the same year. William Laud_sentence_16

On 4 May 1603, he was one of the University proctors for the year. William Laud_sentence_17

Under James I William Laud_section_1

When Buckeridge left St John's in 1611, Laud succeeded him as President, but only after a hard patronage struggle reaching high circles at court. William Laud_sentence_18

The rival candidate, John Rawlinson, was chaplain to Lord Ellesmere, who was both Chancellor of the university and Lord Chancellor of England. William Laud_sentence_19

Laud was chaplain to Richard Neile, who was Clerk of the Closet. William Laud_sentence_20

Eventually King James brushed aside irregularities in the election, settling matters in Laud's favour. William Laud_sentence_21

Laud became Dean of Gloucester in 1616. William Laud_sentence_22

At Gloucester Cathedral he began ceremonial innovations with the communion table. William Laud_sentence_23

By local custom, the table stood in the middle of the choir, as was then usual in a parish church, rather than at the east end as was typical of cathedrals. William Laud_sentence_24

Laud believed he had the king's blessing to renovate and improve the run-down building, but he offended his bishop, Miles Smith. William Laud_sentence_25

Neile was Laud's consistent patron. William Laud_sentence_26

Neile sought, but could not obtain, Laud's appointment as Dean of Westminster, a post that John Williams retained. William Laud_sentence_27

But at the end of 1621, and despite the king's view of Laud as a troublemaker, Laud received the relatively unimportant see as Bishop of St David's. William Laud_sentence_28

Laud became a confidant of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, at the end of the reign. William Laud_sentence_29

The Buckingham household employed John Percy (alias Fisher), a Jesuit, as chaplain, and the king wished to counter well-founded rumours that Percy was making Catholic converts there. William Laud_sentence_30

In a three-day series of private debates with Percy in 1622, Laud was introduced to argue the Protestant case on the final day; pamphlets followed. William Laud_sentence_31

He then displaced John Preston as religious adviser to the Duke, a change that became clear around December 1624. William Laud_sentence_32

Historians believe Laud, who never married, had homosexual leanings, which he nevertheless seems to have managed discreetly. William Laud_sentence_33

His private diary does contain evidence of erotic dreams he had about Buckingham and other men. William Laud_sentence_34

Under Charles I William Laud_section_2

1625 to 1628 William Laud_section_3

Laud ascended rapidly to a position of influence in the period 1626 to 1628, advancing not alone but with a group of like-minded clerics who obtained bishoprics. William Laud_sentence_35

In 1626 he was translated from St David's to be Bishop of Bath and Wells and in September that year he took the court position of Dean of the Chapel Royal, vacant by the death of Lancelot Andrewes. William Laud_sentence_36

A few days later, Buckingham told him outright that he was to succeed as Archbishop of Canterbury, when George Abbot died. William Laud_sentence_37

He immediately changed the Chapel services to privilege prayer over preaching, since King Charles's views were the opposite of his father's. William Laud_sentence_38

Bishop of London, and "Thorough" William Laud_section_4

In July 1628 Laud was translated from Bath and Wells to become Bishop of London, in moves that followed on from the death of Andrewes. William Laud_sentence_39

After this breakthrough in church politics, it becomes meaningful to define "Laudians" or "Lauders" as his followers. William Laud_sentence_40

On the political stage, the personal rule of Charles I began in 1629 and Laud shortly became a key part of it, in alliance with Thomas Wentworth. William Laud_sentence_41

Historian Mark Perry argues that by 1626 in private consultations with the king and Buckingham, and in his public role in the House of Lords, Laud was a highly effective parliamentarian and a key adviser and policy-maker. William Laud_sentence_42

Laud distrusted parliamentary bargaining, and was always determined to resist all encroachments upon the royal prerogative, especially in matters of taxation. William Laud_sentence_43

His strong positions were the focus of attack during his trial in 1644. William Laud_sentence_44

When Wentworth was posted to Ireland in 1632, Laud brought his personal correspondence from him rapidly to the king's attention. William Laud_sentence_45

It is in this correspondence, in 1633, that the term "Thorough" appears. William Laud_sentence_46

In practical terms it meant the pursuit of ambitious policy objectives, on behalf of the king, disregarding special interests, and, particularly, legalistic prevarications. William Laud_sentence_47

There were opponents at court: Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland, Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington and Queen Henrietta Maria. William Laud_sentence_48

Cottington observed that Laud could not keep his temper in Council meetings, and by 1637 Laud found he could not follow Wentworth in imagining their push for rigid policies would succeed. William Laud_sentence_49

Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud_section_5

Trial and execution William Laud_section_6

Further information: Trial of Archbishop Laud William Laud_sentence_50

The Long Parliament of 1640 accused Laud of treason and, in the Grand Remonstrance of 1641, called for his imprisonment. William Laud_sentence_51

Laud was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he remained throughout the early stages of the English Civil War. William Laud_sentence_52

Apart from a few personal enemies like William Prynne (and possibly Archbishop Williams), Parliament showed little anxiety to proceed against Laud; given his age (68 in 1641), most members would probably have preferred to leave him to die of natural causes. William Laud_sentence_53

In the spring of 1644 he was brought to trial which ended without a verdict: as with Strafford, it proved impossible to point to any specific action seen as treasonable. William Laud_sentence_54

Parliament took up the issue and eventually passed a bill of attainder, under which Laud was beheaded on Tower Hill on 10 January 1645, notwithstanding being granted a royal pardon. William Laud_sentence_55

Laud was buried in the chapel of St John's College, Oxford, his alma mater. William Laud_sentence_56

Legacy William Laud_section_7

Laud is remembered in the Anglican Communion with a commemoration on 10 January. William Laud_sentence_57

His collected works in seven volumes were published between 1847 and 1860 in the Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology. William Laud_sentence_58

Emeritus Professor at Cambridge, Patrick Collinson, an expert in Elizabethan Puritans, in 1980 published this rebuke of Laud in his book on the decades until 1625: "the greatest calamity ever visited upon the English Church". William Laud_sentence_59

In September 2016, following King's School, Gloucester, Reading School named their newest students' division Laud House after him. William Laud_sentence_60

See also William Laud_section_8

William Laud_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William Laud.