World

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For the newspaper, see New York World. World_sentence_0

The world is the Earth and all life on it, including human civilisation. World_sentence_1

In a philosophical context, the "world" is the whole of the physical Universe, or an ontological world (the "world" of an individual). World_sentence_2

In a theological context, the world is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, spiritual, transcendent or sacred spheres. World_sentence_3

"End of the world" scenarios refer to the end of human history, often in religious contexts. World_sentence_4

The history of the world is commonly understood as the history of humanity spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilisation to the present. World_sentence_5

In terms such as world religion, world language, world government, and world war, the term world suggests an international or intercontinental scope without necessarily implying participation of every part of the world. World_sentence_6

The world population is the sum of all human populations at any time; similarly, the world economy is the sum of the economies of all societies or countries, especially in the context of globalisation. World_sentence_7

Terms such as "world championship", "gross world product", and "world flags" imply the sum or combination of all sovereign states. World_sentence_8

Etymology and usage World_section_0

The English word comes from the Old English weorold (-uld), weorld, worold (-uld, -eld), a compound of wer "man" and eld "age," which thus means roughly "Age of Man." World_sentence_9

The Old English is a reflex of the Common Germanic *wira-alđiz, also reflected in Old Saxon werold, Old Dutch werilt, Old High German weralt, Old Frisian warld and Old Norse verǫld (whence the Icelandic ). World_sentence_10

The corresponding word in Latin is mundus, literally "clean, elegant", itself a loan translation of Greek cosmos "orderly arrangement". World_sentence_11

While the Germanic word thus reflects a mythological notion of a "domain of Man" (compare Midgard), presumably as opposed to the divine sphere on the one hand and the chthonic sphere of the underworld on the other, the Greco-Latin term expresses a notion of creation as an act of establishing order out of chaos. World_sentence_12

"World" distinguishes the entire planet or population from any particular country or region: world affairs pertain not just to one place but to the whole world, and world history is a field of history that examines events from a global (rather than a national or a regional) perspective. World_sentence_13

Earth, on the other hand, refers to the planet as a physical entity, and distinguishes it from other planets and physical objects. World_sentence_14

"World" was also classically used to mean the material universe, or the cosmos: "The worlde is an apte frame of heauen and earthe, and all other naturall thinges contained in them". World_sentence_15

The earth was often described as "the center of the world". World_sentence_16

The term can also be used attributively, to mean "global", or "relating to the whole world", forming usages such as world community or world canonical texts. World_sentence_17

By extension, a world may refer to any planet or heavenly body, especially when it is thought of as inhabited, especially in the context of science fiction or futurology. World_sentence_18

World, in its original sense, when qualified, can also refer to a particular domain of human experience. World_sentence_19

World_unordered_list_0

Philosophy World_section_1

In philosophy, the term world has several possible meanings. World_sentence_20

In some contexts, it refers to everything that makes up reality or the physical universe. World_sentence_21

In others, it can mean have a specific ontological sense (see world disclosure). World_sentence_22

While clarifying the concept of world has arguably always been among the basic tasks of Western philosophy, this theme appears to have been raised explicitly only at the start of the twentieth century and has been the subject of continuous debate. World_sentence_23

The question of what the world is has by no means been settled. World_sentence_24

Parmenides World_section_2

The traditional interpretation of Parmenides' work is that he argued that the everyday perception of reality of the physical world (as described in doxa) is mistaken, and that the reality of the world is 'One Being' (as described in aletheia): an unchanging, ungenerated, indestructible whole. World_sentence_25

Plato World_section_3

In his Allegory of the cave, Plato distinguishes between forms and ideas and imagines two distinct worlds: the sensible world and the intelligible world. World_sentence_26

Hegel World_section_4

In Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's philosophy of history, the expression Weltgeschichte ist Weltgericht (World History is a tribunal that judges the World) is used to assert the view that History is what judges men, their actions and their opinions. World_sentence_27

Science is born from the desire to transform the World in relation to Man; its final end is technical application. World_sentence_28

Schopenhauer World_section_5

The World as Will and Representation is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. World_sentence_29

Schopenhauer saw the human will as our one window to the world behind the representation; the Kantian thing-in-itself. World_sentence_30

He believed, therefore, that we could gain knowledge about the thing-in-itself, something Kant said was impossible, since the rest of the relationship between representation and thing-in-itself could be understood by analogy to the relationship between human will and human body. World_sentence_31

Wittgenstein World_section_6

Two definitions that were both put forward in the 1920s, however, suggest the range of available opinion. World_sentence_32

"The world is everything that is the case," wrote Ludwig Wittgenstein in his influential Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, first published in 1921. World_sentence_33

This definition would serve as the basis of logical positivism, with its assumption that there is exactly one world, consisting of the totality of facts, regardless of the interpretations that individual people may make of them. World_sentence_34

Heidegger World_section_7

Martin Heidegger, meanwhile, argued that "the surrounding world is different for each of us, and notwithstanding that we move about in a common world". World_sentence_35

The world, for Heidegger, was that into which we are always already "thrown" and with which we, as beings-in-the-world, must come to terms. World_sentence_36

His conception of "world disclosure" was most notably elaborated in his 1927 work Being and Time. World_sentence_37

Freud World_section_8

In response, Sigmund Freud proposed that we do not move about in a common world, but a common thought process. World_sentence_38

He believed that all the actions of a person are motivated by one thing: lust. World_sentence_39

This led to numerous theories about reactionary consciousness. World_sentence_40

Others World_section_9

Some philosophers, often inspired by David Lewis, argue that metaphysical concepts such as possibility, probability, and necessity are best analyzed by comparing the world to a range of possible worlds; a view commonly known as modal realism. World_sentence_41

Religion World_section_10

Mythological cosmologies often depict the world as centered on an axis mundi and delimited by a boundary such as a world ocean, a world serpent or similar. World_sentence_42

In some religions, worldliness (also called carnality) is that which relates to this world as opposed to other worlds or realms. World_sentence_43

Buddhism World_section_11

In Buddhism, the world means society, as distinct from the monastery. World_sentence_44

It refers to the material world, and to worldly gain such as wealth, reputation, jobs, and war. World_sentence_45

The spiritual world would be the path to enlightenment, and changes would be sought in what we could call the psychological realm. World_sentence_46

Christianity World_section_12

In Christianity, the term often connotes the concept of the fallen and corrupt world order of human society, in contrast to the World to Come. World_sentence_47

The world is frequently cited alongside the flesh and the Devil as a source of temptation that Christians should flee. World_sentence_48

Monks speak of striving to be "in this world, but not of this world" — as Jesus said — and the term "worldhood" has been distinguished from "monkhood", the former being the status of merchants, princes, and others who deal with "worldly" things. World_sentence_49

This view is clearly expressed by king Alfred the Great of England (d. 899) in his famous Preface to the Cura Pastoralis: World_sentence_50

Although Hebrew and Greek words meaning "world" are used in Scripture with the normal variety of senses, many examples of its use in this particular sense can be found in the teachings of Jesus according to the Gospel of John, e.g. 7:7, 8:23, 12:25, 14:17, 15:18-19, 17:6-25, 18:36. World_sentence_51

In contrast, a relatively newer concept is Catholic imagination. World_sentence_52

Contemptus mundi is the name given to the belief that the world, in all its vanity, is nothing more than a futile attempt to hide from God by stifling our desire for the good and the holy. World_sentence_53

This view has been criticised as a "pastoral of fear" by modern historian Jean Delumeau. World_sentence_54

During the Second Vatican Council, there was a novel attempt to develop a positive theological view of the World, which is illustrated by the pastoral optimism of the constitutions Gaudium et spes, Lumen gentium, Unitatis redintegratio and Dignitatis humanae. World_sentence_55

Eastern Christianity World_section_13

In Eastern Christian monasticism or asceticism, the world of mankind is driven by passions. World_sentence_56

Therefore, the passions of the World are simply called "the world". World_sentence_57

Each of these passions are a link to the world of mankind or order of human society. World_sentence_58

Each of these passions must be overcome in order for a person to receive salvation (Theosis). World_sentence_59

The process of Theosis is a personal relationship with God. World_sentence_60

This understanding is taught within the works of ascetics like Evagrius Ponticus, and the most seminal ascetic works read most widely by Eastern Christians, the Philokalia and The Ladder of Divine Ascent (the works of Evagrius and John Climacus are also contained within the Philokalia). World_sentence_61

At the highest level of world transcendence is hesychasm which culminates into the Vision of God. World_sentence_62

Orbis Catholicus World_section_14

Orbis Catholicus is a Latin phrase meaning Catholic world, per the expression Urbi et Orbi, and refers to that area of Christendom under papal supremacy. World_sentence_63

It is somewhat similar to the phrases secular world, Jewish world and Islamic world. World_sentence_64

Islam World_section_15

Main article: Dunya World_sentence_65

Dunya derives from the root word "dana" that means to bring near. World_sentence_66

In that sense, "dunya" is "what is brought near". World_sentence_67

Hinduism World_section_16

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent. World_sentence_68

It includes a number of Indian religious traditions with a loose sense of interconnection, as different from Jainism and Buddhism, and (since medieval and modern times) Islam and Christianity. World_sentence_69

Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world. World_sentence_70

See also World_section_17

World_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World.