World Health Organization

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"WHO" redirects here. World Health Organization_sentence_0

For other uses, see Who. World Health Organization_sentence_1

World Health Organization_table_infobox_0

World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization_table_caption_0
AbbreviationWorld Health Organization_header_cell_0_0_0 WHOWorld Health Organization_cell_0_0_1
PronunciationWorld Health Organization_header_cell_0_1_0 World Health Organization_cell_0_1_1
FormationWorld Health Organization_header_cell_0_2_0 7 April 1948; 72 years ago (1948-04-07)World Health Organization_cell_0_2_1
TypeWorld Health Organization_header_cell_0_3_0 United Nations specialised agencyWorld Health Organization_cell_0_3_1
Legal statusWorld Health Organization_header_cell_0_4_0 ActiveWorld Health Organization_cell_0_4_1
HeadquartersWorld Health Organization_header_cell_0_5_0 Geneva, SwitzerlandWorld Health Organization_cell_0_5_1
HeadWorld Health Organization_header_cell_0_6_0 Tedros Adhanom

(Director-General) Soumya Swaminathan (deputy Director-General) Jane Ellison (deputy Director-General)World Health Organization_cell_0_6_1

Parent organizationWorld Health Organization_header_cell_0_7_0 United Nations Economic and Social CouncilWorld Health Organization_cell_0_7_1
BudgetWorld Health Organization_header_cell_0_8_0 $4.422 billion (2018–2019)World Health Organization_cell_0_8_1
WebsiteWorld Health Organization_header_cell_0_9_0 World Health Organization_cell_0_9_1

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. World Health Organization_sentence_2

The WHO Constitution, which establishes the agency's governing structure and principles, states its main objective as "the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health." World Health Organization_sentence_3

It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, with six semi-autonomous regional offices and 150 field offices worldwide. World Health Organization_sentence_4

The WHO was established by constitution on 7 April 1948, which is commemorated as World Health Day. World Health Organization_sentence_5

The first meeting of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the agency's governing body, took place on 24 July 1948. World Health Organization_sentence_6

The WHO incorporated the assets, personnel, and duties of the League of Nations' Health Organisation and the Office International d'Hygiène Publique, including the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). World Health Organization_sentence_7

Its work began in earnest in 1951 following a significant infusion of financial and technical resources. World Health Organization_sentence_8

The WHO's broad mandate includes advocating for universal healthcare, monitoring public health risks, coordinating responses to health emergencies, and promoting human health and well being. World Health Organization_sentence_9

It provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards and guidelines, and collects data on global health issues through the World Health Survey. World Health Organization_sentence_10

Its flagship publication, the World Health Report, provides expert assessments of global health topics and health statistics on all nations. World Health Organization_sentence_11

The WHO also serves as a forum for summits and discussions on health issues. World Health Organization_sentence_12

The WHO has played a leading role in several public health achievements, most notably the eradication of smallpox, the near-eradication of polio, and the development of an Ebola vaccine. World Health Organization_sentence_13

Its current priorities include communicable diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; non-communicable diseases such as heart disease and cancer; healthy diet, nutrition, and food security; occupational health; and substance abuse. World Health Organization_sentence_14

The WHA, composed of representatives from all 194 member states, serves as the agency's supreme decision-making body. World Health Organization_sentence_15

It also elects and advises an Executive Board made up of 34 health specialists. World Health Organization_sentence_16

The WHA convenes annually and is responsible for selecting the Director-General, setting goals and priorities, and approving the WHO's budget and activities. World Health Organization_sentence_17

The current Director-General is Tedros Adhanom, former Health Minister and Foreign Minister of Ethiopia, who began his five-year term on 1 July 2017. World Health Organization_sentence_18

The WHO relies on contributions from member states (both assessed and voluntary) and private donors for funding. World Health Organization_sentence_19

As of 2018, it has a budget of over $4.2 billion, a large part of which comes from voluntary contributions from member states. World Health Organization_sentence_20

Contributions are assessed by a formula that includes GDP per capita. World Health Organization_sentence_21

In 2018–19, the US contributed 15.9% of the WHO's $5.6 billion budget (additionally, American philanthropist Bill Gates provides 9.4% of the funding through his foundation), the EU and its member states contributed 11%, while China contributed 0.2%. World Health Organization_sentence_22

The agency is part of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group. World Health Organization_sentence_23

History World Health Organization_section_0

Origins World Health Organization_section_1

The International Sanitary Conferences, originally held on 23 June 1851, were the first predecessors of the WHO. World Health Organization_sentence_24

A series of 14 conferences that lasted from 1851 to 1938, the International Sanitary Conferences worked to combat many diseases, chief among them cholera, yellow fever, and the bubonic plague. World Health Organization_sentence_25

The conferences were largely ineffective until the seventh, in 1892; when an International Sanitary Convention that dealt with cholera was passed. World Health Organization_sentence_26

Five years later, a convention for the plague was signed. World Health Organization_sentence_27

In part as a result of the successes of the Conferences, the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau (1902), and the Office International d'Hygiène Publique (1907) were soon founded. World Health Organization_sentence_28

When the League of Nations was formed in 1920, they established the Health Organization of the League of Nations. World Health Organization_sentence_29

After World War II, the United Nations absorbed all the other health organizations, to form the WHO. World Health Organization_sentence_30

Establishment World Health Organization_section_2

During the 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization, Szeming Sze, a delegate from the Republic of China, conferred with Norwegian and Brazilian delegates on creating an international health organization under the auspices of the new United Nations. World Health Organization_sentence_31

After failing to get a resolution passed on the subject, Alger Hiss, the Secretary General of the conference, recommended using a declaration to establish such an organization. World Health Organization_sentence_32

Sze and other delegates lobbied and a declaration passed calling for an international conference on health. World Health Organization_sentence_33

The use of the word "world", rather than "international", emphasized the truly global nature of what the organization was seeking to achieve. World Health Organization_sentence_34

The constitution of the World Health Organization was signed by all 51 countries of the United Nations, and by 10 other countries, on 22 July 1946. World Health Organization_sentence_35

It thus became the first specialized agency of the United Nations to which every member subscribed. World Health Organization_sentence_36

Its constitution formally came into force on the first World Health Day on 7 April 1948, when it was ratified by the 26th member state. World Health Organization_sentence_37

The first meeting of the World Health Assembly finished on 24 July 1948, having secured a budget of US$5 million (then GB£1,250,000) for the 1949 year. World Health Organization_sentence_38

Andrija Štampar was the Assembly's first president, and G. World Health Organization_sentence_39 Brock Chisholm was appointed Director-General of WHO, having served as Executive Secretary during the planning stages. World Health Organization_sentence_40

Its first priorities were to control the spread of malaria, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections, and to improve maternal and child health, nutrition and environmental hygiene. World Health Organization_sentence_41

Its first legislative act was concerning the compilation of accurate statistics on the spread and morbidity of disease. World Health Organization_sentence_42

The logo of the World Health Organization features the Rod of Asclepius as a symbol for healing. World Health Organization_sentence_43

Operational history of WHO World Health Organization_section_3

1948: The WHO established an epidemiological information service via telex, and by 1950 a mass tuberculosis inoculation drive using the BCG vaccine was under way. World Health Organization_sentence_44

1955: The malaria eradication programme was launched, although it was later altered in objective. World Health Organization_sentence_45

1955 saw the first report on diabetes mellitus and the creation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. World Health Organization_sentence_46

1958: Viktor Zhdanov, Deputy Minister of Health for the USSR, called on the World Health Assembly to undertake a global initiative to eradicate smallpox, resulting in Resolution WHA11.54. World Health Organization_sentence_47

At this point, 2 million people were dying from smallpox every year. World Health Organization_sentence_48

1966: The WHO moved its headquarters from the Ariana wing at the Palace of Nations to a newly constructed HQ elsewhere in Geneva. World Health Organization_sentence_49

1967: The WHO intensified the global smallpox eradication by contributing $2.4 million annually to the effort and adopted a new disease surveillance method. World Health Organization_sentence_50

The initial problem the WHO team faced was inadequate reporting of smallpox cases. World Health Organization_sentence_51

WHO established a network of consultants who assisted countries in setting up surveillance and containment activities. World Health Organization_sentence_52

The WHO also helped contain the last European outbreak in Yugoslavia in 1972. World Health Organization_sentence_53

After over two decades of fighting smallpox, the WHO declared in 1979 that the disease had been eradicated – the first disease in history to be eliminated by human effort. World Health Organization_sentence_54

1967: The WHO launched the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases and the World Health Assembly voted to enact a resolution on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, with a focus on community-driven care. World Health Organization_sentence_55

1974: The Expanded Programme on Immunization and the control programme of onchocerciasis was started, an important partnership between the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the World Bank. World Health Organization_sentence_56

1977: The first list of essential medicines was drawn up, and a year later the ambitious goal of "Health For All" was declared. World Health Organization_sentence_57

1986: The WHO began its global programme on HIV/AIDS. World Health Organization_sentence_58

Two years later preventing discrimination against sufferers was attended to and in 1996 UNAIDS was formed. World Health Organization_sentence_59

1988: The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was established. World Health Organization_sentence_60

1998: WHO's Director-General highlighted gains in child survival, reduced infant mortality, increased life expectancy and reduced rates of "scourges" such as smallpox and polio on the fiftieth anniversary of WHO's founding. World Health Organization_sentence_61

He, did, however, accept that more had to be done to assist maternal health and that progress in this area had been slow. World Health Organization_sentence_62

2000: The Stop TB Partnership was created along with the UN's formulation of the Millennium Development Goals. World Health Organization_sentence_63

2001: The measles initiative was formed, and credited with reducing global deaths from the disease by 68% by 2007. World Health Organization_sentence_64

2002: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was drawn up to improve the resources available. World Health Organization_sentence_65

2006: The organization endorsed the world's first official HIV/AIDS Toolkit for Zimbabwe, which formed the basis for global prevention, treatment, and support the plan to fight the AIDS pandemic. World Health Organization_sentence_66

Policies and objectives World Health Organization_section_4

Overall focus World Health Organization_section_5

The WHO's Constitution states that its objective "is the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health". World Health Organization_sentence_67

The WHO fulfills this objective through its functions as defined in its Constitution: (a) To act as the directing and coordinating authority on international health work; (b) To establish and maintain effective collaboration with the United Nations, specialized agencies, governmental health administrations, professional groups and such other organizations as may be deemed appropriate; (c) To assist Governments, upon request, in strengthening health services; (d) To furnish appropriate technical assistance and, in emergencies, necessary aid upon the request or acceptance of Governments; (e) To provide or assist in providing, upon the request of the United Nations, health services and facilities to special groups, such as the peoples of trust territories; (f) To establish and maintain such administrative and technical services as may be required, including epidemiological and statistical services; (g) to stimulate and advance work to eradicate epidemic, endemic and other diseases; (h) To promote, in co-operation with other specialized agencies where necessary, the prevention of accidental injuries; (i) To promote, in co-operation with other specialized agencies where necessary, the improvement of nutrition, housing, sanitation, recreation, economic or working conditions and other aspects of environmental hygiene; (j) To promote co-operation among scientific and professional groups which contribute to the advancement of health; (k) To propose conventions, agreements and regulations, and make recommendations with respect to international health matters and to perform. World Health Organization_sentence_68

As of 2012, the WHO has defined its role in public health as follows: World Health Organization_sentence_69

World Health Organization_unordered_list_0

  • providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed;World Health Organization_item_0_0
  • shaping the research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation, and dissemination of valuable knowledge;World Health Organization_item_0_1
  • setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation;World Health Organization_item_0_2
  • articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options;World Health Organization_item_0_3
  • providing technical support, catalysing change, and building sustainable institutional capacity; andWorld Health Organization_item_0_4
  • monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends.World Health Organization_item_0_5
  • CRVS (civil registration and vital statistics) to provide monitoring of vital events (birth, death, wedding, divorce).World Health Organization_item_0_6

Communicable diseases World Health Organization_section_6

The 2012–2013 WHO budget identified five areas among which funding was distributed. World Health Organization_sentence_70

Two of those five areas related to communicable diseases: the first, to reduce the "health, social and economic burden" of communicable diseases in general; the second to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis in particular. World Health Organization_sentence_71

As of 2015, the World Health Organization has worked within the UNAIDS network and strives to involve sections of society other than health to help deal with the economic and social effects of HIV/AIDS. World Health Organization_sentence_72

In line with UNAIDS, WHO has set itself the interim task between 2009 and 2015 of reducing the number of those aged 15–24 years who are infected by 50%; reducing new HIV infections in children by 90%; and reducing HIV-related deaths by 25%. World Health Organization_sentence_73

During the 1970s, WHO had dropped its commitment to a global malaria eradication campaign as too ambitious, it retained a strong commitment to malaria control. World Health Organization_sentence_74

WHO's Global Malaria Programme works to keep track of malaria cases, and future problems in malaria control schemes. World Health Organization_sentence_75

As of 2012, the WHO was to report as to whether RTS,S/AS01, were a viable malaria vaccine. World Health Organization_sentence_76

For the time being, insecticide-treated mosquito nets and insecticide sprays are used to prevent the spread of malaria, as are antimalarial drugs – particularly to vulnerable people such as pregnant women and young children. World Health Organization_sentence_77

Between 1990 and 2010, WHO's help has contributed to a 40% decline in the number of deaths from tuberculosis, and since 2005, over 46 million people have been treated and an estimated 7 million lives saved through practices advocated by WHO. World Health Organization_sentence_78

These include engaging national governments and their financing, early diagnosis, standardising treatment, monitoring of the spread and effect of tuberculosis and stabilising the drug supply. World Health Organization_sentence_79

It has also recognized the vulnerability of victims of HIV/AIDS to tuberculosis. World Health Organization_sentence_80

In 1988, WHO launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to eradicate polio. World Health Organization_sentence_81

It has also been successful in helping to reduce cases by 99% since which partnered WHO with Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and smaller organizations. World Health Organization_sentence_82

As of 2011, it has been working to immunize young children and prevent the re-emergence of cases in countries declared "polio-free". World Health Organization_sentence_83

In 2017, a study was conducted where why Polio Vaccines may not be enough to eradicate the Virus & conduct new technology. World Health Organization_sentence_84

Polio is now on the verge of extinction, thanks to a Global Vaccination Drive. World Health Organization_sentence_85

the World Health Organization (WHO) stated the eradication programme has saved millions from deadly disease. World Health Organization_sentence_86

Non-communicable diseases World Health Organization_section_7

Another of the thirteen WHO priority areas is aimed at the prevention and reduction of "disease, disability and premature deaths from chronic noncommunicable diseases, mental disorders, violence and injuries, and visual impairment". World Health Organization_sentence_87

The Division of Noncommunicable Diseases for Promoting Health through the Life-course Sexual and Reproductive Health has published the magazine, Entre Nous, across Europe since 1983. there is also the Department for Management of Noncommunicable Diseases, Disability, Violence and Injury Prevention which Teri A. Reynolds is a part of. World Health Organization_sentence_88

Environmental health World Health Organization_section_8

The WHO estimates that 12.6 million people died as a result of living or working in an unhealthy environment in 2012 – this accounts for nearly 1 in 4 of total global deaths. World Health Organization_sentence_89

Environmental risk factors, such as air, water and soil pollution, chemical exposures, climate change, and ultraviolet radiation, contribute to more than 100 diseases and injuries. World Health Organization_sentence_90

This can result in a number of pollution-related diseases. World Health Organization_sentence_91

World Health Organization_unordered_list_1

  • 2018 (30 October – 1 November) : 1 WHO's first global conference on air pollution and health (Improving air quality, combatting climate change – saving lives) ; organized in collaboration with UN Environment, World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the secretariat of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)World Health Organization_item_1_7

Life course and life style World Health Organization_section_9

WHO works to "reduce morbidity and mortality and improve health during key stages of life, including pregnancy, childbirth, the neonatal period, childhood and adolescence, and improve sexual and reproductive health and promote active and healthy aging for all individuals". World Health Organization_sentence_92

It also tries to prevent or reduce risk factors for "health conditions associated with use of tobacco, alcohol, drugs and other psychoactive substances, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity and unsafe sex". World Health Organization_sentence_93

The WHO works to improve nutrition, food safety and food security and to ensure this has a positive effect on public health and sustainable development. World Health Organization_sentence_94

In April 2019, the WHO released new recommendations stating that children between the ages of two and five should spend no more than one hour per day engaging in sedentary behavior in front of a screen and that children under two should not be permitted any sedentary screen time. World Health Organization_sentence_95

Surgery and trauma care World Health Organization_section_10

The World Health Organization promotes road safety as a means to reduce traffic-related injuries. World Health Organization_sentence_96

It has also worked on global initiatives in surgery, including emergency and essential surgical care, trauma care, and safe surgery. World Health Organization_sentence_97

The WHO Surgical Safety Checklist is in current use worldwide in the effort to improve patient safety. World Health Organization_sentence_98

Emergency work World Health Organization_section_11

The World Health Organization's primary objective in natural and man-made emergencies is to coordinate with member states and other stakeholders to "reduce avoidable loss of life and the burden of disease and disability." World Health Organization_sentence_99

On 5 May 2014, WHO announced that the spread of polio was a world health emergency – outbreaks of the disease in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East were considered "extraordinary". World Health Organization_sentence_100

On 8 August 2014, WHO declared that the spread of Ebola was a public health emergency; an outbreak which was believed to have started in Guinea had spread to other nearby countries such as Liberia and Sierra Leone. World Health Organization_sentence_101

The situation in West Africa was considered very serious. World Health Organization_sentence_102

On 30 January 2020, the WHO declared the COVID-19 pandemic was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). World Health Organization_sentence_103

Health policy World Health Organization_section_12

WHO addresses government health policy with two aims: firstly, "to address the underlying social and economic determinants of health through policies and programmes that enhance health equity and integrate pro-poor, gender-responsive, and human rights-based approaches" and secondly "to promote a healthier environment, intensify primary prevention and influence public policies in all sectors so as to address the root causes of environmental threats to health". World Health Organization_sentence_104

The organization develops and promotes the use of evidence-based tools, norms and standards to support member states to inform health policy options. World Health Organization_sentence_105

It oversees the implementation of the International Health Regulations, and publishes a series of medical classifications; of these, three are over-reaching "reference classifications": the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD), the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI). World Health Organization_sentence_106

Other international policy frameworks produced by WHO include the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (adopted in 1981), Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (adopted in 2003) the Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel (adopted in 2010) as well as the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines and its pediatric counterpart. World Health Organization_sentence_107

In terms of health services, WHO looks to improve "governance, financing, staffing and management" and the availability and quality of evidence and research to guide policy. World Health Organization_sentence_108

It also strives to "ensure improved access, quality and use of medical products and technologies". World Health Organization_sentence_109

WHO – working with donor agencies and national governments – can improve their use of and their reporting about their use of research evidence. World Health Organization_sentence_110

Digital Health World Health Organization_section_13

On Digital Health topics, WHO has existing Inter-Agency collaboration with the International Telecommunication Union (the UN Specialized Agency for ICT), including the Be Health, Be Mobile initiate and the ITU-WHO Focus Group on Artificial Intelligence for Health. World Health Organization_sentence_111

Governance and support World Health Organization_section_14

The remaining two of WHO's thirteen identified policy areas relate to the role of WHO itself: World Health Organization_sentence_112

World Health Organization_unordered_list_2

  • "to provide leadership, strengthen governance and foster partnership and collaboration with countries, the United Nations system, and other stakeholders in order to fulfill the mandate of WHO in advancing the global health agenda"; andWorld Health Organization_item_2_8
  • "to develop and sustain WHO as a flexible, learning organization, enabling it to carry out its mandate more efficiently and effectively".World Health Organization_item_2_9

Partnerships World Health Organization_section_15

The WHO along with the World Bank constitute the core team responsible for administering the International Health Partnership (IHP+). World Health Organization_sentence_113

The IHP+ is a group of partner governments, development agencies, civil society, and others committed to improving the health of citizens in developing countries. World Health Organization_sentence_114

Partners work together to put international principles for aid effectiveness and development co-operation into practice in the health sector. World Health Organization_sentence_115

The organization relies on contributions from renowned scientists and professionals to inform its work, such as the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, the WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy, and the WHO Study Group on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice. World Health Organization_sentence_116

WHO runs the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, targeted at improving health policy and systems. World Health Organization_sentence_117

WHO also aims to improve access to health research and literature in developing countries such as through the HINARI network. World Health Organization_sentence_118

WHO collaborates with The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, UNITAID, and the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to spearhead and fund the development of HIV programs. World Health Organization_sentence_119

WHO created the Civil Society Reference Group on HIV, which brings together other networks that are involved in policymaking and the dissemination of guidelines. World Health Organization_sentence_120

WHO, a sector of the United Nations, partners with UNAIDS to contribute to the development of HIV responses in different areas of the world. World Health Organization_sentence_121

WHO facilitates technical partnerships through the Technical Advisory Committee on HIV, which they created to develop WHO guidelines and policies. World Health Organization_sentence_122

In 2014, WHO released the Global Atlas of Palliative Care at the End of Life in a joint publication with the Worldwide Hospice Palliative Care Alliance, an affiliated NGO working collaboratively with the WHO to promote palliative care in national and international health policy. World Health Organization_sentence_123

Public health education and action World Health Organization_section_16

Each year, the organization marks World Health Day and other observances focusing on a specific health promotion topic. World Health Organization_sentence_124

World Health Day falls on 7 April each year, timed to match the anniversary of WHO's founding. World Health Organization_sentence_125

Recent themes have been vector-borne diseases (2014), healthy ageing (2012) and drug resistance (2011). World Health Organization_sentence_126

The other official global public health campaigns marked by WHO are World Tuberculosis Day, World Immunization Week, World Malaria Day, World No Tobacco Day, World Blood Donor Day, World Hepatitis Day, and World AIDS Day. World Health Organization_sentence_127

As part of the United Nations, the World Health Organization supports work towards the Millennium Development Goals. World Health Organization_sentence_128

Of the eight Millennium Development Goals, three – reducing child mortality by two-thirds, to reduce maternal deaths by three-quarters, and to halt and begin to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS – relate directly to WHO's scope; the other five inter-relate and affect world health. World Health Organization_sentence_129

Data handling and publications World Health Organization_section_17

The World Health Organization works to provide the needed health and well-being evidence through a variety of data collection platforms, including the World Health Survey covering almost 400,000 respondents from 70 countries, and the Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE) covering over 50,000 persons over 50 years old in 23 countries. World Health Organization_sentence_130

The Country Health Intelligence Portal (CHIP), has also been developed to provide an access point to information about the health services that are available in different countries. World Health Organization_sentence_131

The information gathered in this portal is used by the countries to set priorities for future strategies or plans, implement, monitor, and evaluate it. World Health Organization_sentence_132

The WHO has published various tools for measuring and monitoring the capacity of national health systems and health workforces. World Health Organization_sentence_133

The Global Health Observatory (GHO) has been the WHO's main portal which provides access to data and analyses for key health themes by monitoring health situations around the globe. World Health Organization_sentence_134

The WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS), the WHO Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL), and the Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) provide guidance for data collection. World Health Organization_sentence_135

Collaborative efforts between WHO and other agencies, such as through the Health Metrics Network, also aim to provide sufficient high-quality information to assist governmental decision making. World Health Organization_sentence_136

WHO promotes the development of capacities in member states to use and produce research that addresses their national needs, including through the Evidence-Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet). World Health Organization_sentence_137

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/AMRO) became the first region to develop and pass a policy on research for health approved in September 2009. World Health Organization_sentence_138

On 10 December 2013, a new WHO database, known as MiNDbank, went online. World Health Organization_sentence_139

The database was launched on Human Rights Day, and is part of WHO's QualityRights initiative, which aims to end human rights violations against people with mental health conditions. World Health Organization_sentence_140

The new database presents a great deal of information about mental health, substance abuse, disability, human rights, and the different policies, strategies, laws, and service standards being implemented in different countries. World Health Organization_sentence_141

It also contains important international documents and information. World Health Organization_sentence_142

The database allows visitors to access the health information of WHO member states and other partners. World Health Organization_sentence_143

Users can review policies, laws, and strategies and search for the best practices and success stories in the field of mental health. World Health Organization_sentence_144

The WHO regularly publishes a World Health Report, its leading publication, including an expert assessment of a specific global health topic. World Health Organization_sentence_145

Other publications of WHO include the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (overseen by EMRO), the Human Resources for Health (published in collaboration with BioMed Central), and the Pan American Journal of Public Health (overseen by PAHO/AMRO). World Health Organization_sentence_146

In 2016, the World Health Organization drafted a global health sector strategy on HIV. World Health Organization_sentence_147

In the draft, the World Health Organization outlines its commitment to ending the AIDS epidemic by the year 2030 with interim targets for the year 2020. World Health Organization_sentence_148

To make achievements towards these targets, the draft lists actions that countries and the WHO can take, such as a commitment to universal health coverage, medical accessibility, prevention and eradication of disease, and efforts to educate the public. World Health Organization_sentence_149

Some notable points made in the draft include addressing gender inequity where females are nearly twice as likely as men to get infected with HIV and tailoring resources to mobilized regions where the health system may be compromised due to natural disasters, etc. World Health Organization_sentence_150

Among the points made, it seems clear that although the prevalence of HIV transmission is declining, there is still a need for resources, health education, and global efforts to end this epidemic. World Health Organization_sentence_151

Structure World Health Organization_section_18

The World Health Organization is a member of the United Nations Development Group. World Health Organization_sentence_152

Membership World Health Organization_section_19

As of 2020, the WHO has 194 member states: all of the member states of the United Nations except for Liechtenstein, plus the Cook Islands and Niue. World Health Organization_sentence_153

(A state becomes a full member of WHO by ratifying the treaty known as the Constitution of the World Health Organization.) World Health Organization_sentence_154

As of 2013, it also had two associate members, Puerto Rico and Tokelau. World Health Organization_sentence_155

Several other countries have been granted observer status. World Health Organization_sentence_156

Palestine is an observer as a "national liberation movement" recognized by the League of Arab States under United Nations Resolution 3118. World Health Organization_sentence_157

The Holy See also attends as an observer, as does the Order of Malta. World Health Organization_sentence_158

The government of Taiwan was allowed to participate under the designation ‘Chinese Taipei’ as an observer from 2009–2016, but has not been invited again since. World Health Organization_sentence_159

In July 2020, United States President Donald Trump officially indicated his intent to withdraw the United States, initially to take effect on 6 July 2021. World Health Organization_sentence_160

However, it was afterwards acknowledged that the law which entered the United States into WHO in 1948 requires the United States Congress to approve the funds needed to formally withdraw. World Health Organization_sentence_161

Following the election of Joe Biden as President-elect in November 2020, the United States is expected to remain a member of the WHO. World Health Organization_sentence_162

Given the lengthy withdrawal process required, it is now very unlikely that efforts to leave the WHO will be completed before Biden’s inauguration in January 2021. World Health Organization_sentence_163

WHO member states appoint delegations to the World Health Assembly, the WHO's supreme decision-making body. World Health Organization_sentence_164

All UN member states are eligible for WHO membership, and, according to the WHO website, "other countries may be admitted as members when their application has been approved by a simple majority vote of the World Health Assembly". World Health Organization_sentence_165

The World Health Assembly is attended by delegations from all member states, and determines the policies of the organization. World Health Organization_sentence_166

The executive board is composed of members technically qualified in health and gives effect to the decisions and policies of the World Health Assembly. World Health Organization_sentence_167

In addition, the UN observer organizations International Committee of the Red Cross and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have entered into "official relations" with WHO and are invited as observers. World Health Organization_sentence_168

In the World Health Assembly, they are seated alongside the other NGOs. World Health Organization_sentence_169

World Health Assembly and Executive Board World Health Organization_section_20

The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the legislative and supreme body of WHO. World Health Organization_sentence_170

Based in Geneva, it typically meets yearly in May. World Health Organization_sentence_171

It appoints the Director-General every five years and votes on matters of policy and finance of WHO, including the proposed budget. World Health Organization_sentence_172

It also reviews reports of the Executive Board and decides whether there are areas of work requiring further examination. World Health Organization_sentence_173

The Assembly elects 34 members, technically qualified in the field of health, to the Executive Board for three-year terms. World Health Organization_sentence_174

The main functions of the Board are to carry out the decisions and policies of the Assembly, to advise it and to facilitate its work. World Health Organization_sentence_175

As of May 2020, the chairman of the executive board is Dr. Harsh Vardhan. World Health Organization_sentence_176

Director-General World Health Organization_section_21

Main article: Director-General of the World Health Organization World Health Organization_sentence_177

The head of the organization is the Director-General, elected by the World Health Assembly. World Health Organization_sentence_178

The term lasts for five years, and Directors-General are typically appointed in May, when the Assembly meets. World Health Organization_sentence_179

The current Director-General is Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, who was appointed on 1 July 2017. World Health Organization_sentence_180

Global institutions World Health Organization_section_22

Apart from regional, country and liaison offices, the World Health Assembly has also established other institutions for promoting and carrying on research. World Health Organization_sentence_181

World Health Organization_unordered_list_3

Regional offices World Health Organization_section_23

The regional divisions of WHO were created between 1949 and 1952, and are based on article 44 of the WHO's constitution, which allowed the WHO to "establish a [single] regional organization to meet the special needs of [each defined] area". World Health Organization_sentence_182

Many decisions are made at the regional level, including important discussions over WHO's budget, and in deciding the members of the next assembly, which are designated by the regions. World Health Organization_sentence_183

Each region has a regional committee, which generally meets once a year, normally in the autumn. World Health Organization_sentence_184

Representatives attend from each member or associative member in each region, including those states that are not full members. World Health Organization_sentence_185

For example, Palestine attends meetings of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office. World Health Organization_sentence_186

Each region also has a regional office. World Health Organization_sentence_187

Each regional office is headed by a director, who is elected by the Regional Committee. World Health Organization_sentence_188

The Board must approve such appointments, although as of 2004, it had never over-ruled the preference of a regional committee. World Health Organization_sentence_189

The exact role of the board in the process has been a subject of debate, but the practical effect has always been small. World Health Organization_sentence_190

Since 1999, Regional directors serve for a once-renewable five-year term, and typically take their position on 1 February. World Health Organization_sentence_191

Each regional committee of the WHO consists of all the Health Department heads, in all the governments of the countries that constitute the Region. World Health Organization_sentence_192

Aside from electing the regional director, the regional committee is also in charge of setting the guidelines for the implementation, within the region, of the health and other policies adopted by the World Health Assembly. World Health Organization_sentence_193

The regional committee also serves as a progress review board for the actions of WHO within the Region. World Health Organization_sentence_194

The regional director is effectively the head of WHO for his or her region. World Health Organization_sentence_195

The RD manages and/or supervises a staff of health and other experts at the regional offices and in specialized centres. World Health Organization_sentence_196

The RD is also the direct supervising authority – concomitantly with the WHO Director-General – of all the heads of WHO country offices, known as WHO Representatives, within the region. World Health Organization_sentence_197

World Health Organization_table_general_1

Regional offices of WHOWorld Health Organization_table_caption_1
RegionWorld Health Organization_header_cell_1_0_0 HeadquartersWorld Health Organization_header_cell_1_0_1 NotesWorld Health Organization_header_cell_1_0_2 WebsiteWorld Health Organization_header_cell_1_0_3
AfricaWorld Health Organization_cell_1_1_0 Brazzaville, Republic of the CongoWorld Health Organization_cell_1_1_1 AFRO includes most of Africa, with the exception of Egypt, Sudan, Djibouti, Tunisia, Libya, Somalia and Morocco (all fall under EMRO). The Regional Director is Dr. Matshidiso Moeti, a Motswana national. (Tenure: – present).World Health Organization_cell_1_1_2 World Health Organization_cell_1_1_3
EuropeWorld Health Organization_cell_1_2_0 Copenhagen, DenmarkWorld Health Organization_cell_1_2_1 EURO includes all of Europe (except Liechtenstein) Israel, and all of the former USSR. The Regional Director is Dr. Zsuzsanna Jakab, a Hungarian national (Tenure: 2010 – present).World Health Organization_cell_1_2_2 World Health Organization_cell_1_2_3
South-East AsiaWorld Health Organization_cell_1_3_0 New Delhi, IndiaWorld Health Organization_cell_1_3_1 North Korea is served by SEARO. The Regional Director is Dr. Poonam Khetrapal Singh, an Indian national (Tenure: 2014 – present).World Health Organization_cell_1_3_2 World Health Organization_cell_1_3_3
Eastern MediterraneanWorld Health Organization_cell_1_4_0 Cairo, EgyptWorld Health Organization_cell_1_4_1 The Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office serves the countries of Africa that are not included in AFRO, as well as all countries in the Middle East except for Israel. Pakistan is served by EMRO. The Regional Director is Dr. Ahmed Al-Mandhari, an Omani national (Tenure: 2018 – present).World Health Organization_cell_1_4_2 World Health Organization_cell_1_4_3
Western PacificWorld Health Organization_cell_1_5_0 Manila, the PhilippinesWorld Health Organization_cell_1_5_1 WPRO covers all the Asian countries not served by SEARO and EMRO, and all the countries in Oceania. South Korea is served by WPRO. The Regional Director is Dr. Shin Young-soo, a South Korean national (Tenure: 2009 – present).World Health Organization_cell_1_5_2 World Health Organization_cell_1_5_3
The AmericasWorld Health Organization_cell_1_6_0 Washington, D.C., United StatesWorld Health Organization_cell_1_6_1 Also known as the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and covers the Americas. The WHO Regional Director is Dr. Carissa F. Etienne, a Dominican national (Tenure: 2013 – present).World Health Organization_cell_1_6_2 World Health Organization_cell_1_6_3

Employees World Health Organization_section_24

The WHO employs 7,000 people in 149 countries and regions to carry out its principles. World Health Organization_sentence_198

In support of the principle of a tobacco-free work environment, the WHO does not recruit cigarette smokers. World Health Organization_sentence_199

The organization has previously instigated the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2003. World Health Organization_sentence_200

Goodwill Ambassadors World Health Organization_section_25

The WHO operates "Goodwill Ambassadors"; members of the arts, sports, or other fields of public life aimed at drawing attention to WHO's initiatives and projects. World Health Organization_sentence_201

There are currently five Goodwill Ambassadors (Jet Li, Nancy Brinker, Peng Liyuan, Yohei Sasakawa and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra) and a further ambassador associated with a partnership project (Craig David). World Health Organization_sentence_202

Country and liaison offices World Health Organization_section_26

The World Health Organization operates 150 country offices in six different regions. World Health Organization_sentence_203

It also operates several liaison offices, including those with the European Union, United Nations and a single office covering the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. World Health Organization_sentence_204

It also operates the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon, France, and the WHO Centre for Health Development in Kobe, Japan. World Health Organization_sentence_205

Additional offices include those in Pristina; the West Bank and Gaza; the US-Mexico Border Field Office in El Paso; the Office of the Caribbean Program Coordination in Barbados; and the Northern Micronesia office. World Health Organization_sentence_206

There will generally be one WHO country office in the capital, occasionally accompanied by satellite-offices in the provinces or sub-regions of the country in question. World Health Organization_sentence_207

The country office is headed by a WHO Representative (WR). World Health Organization_sentence_208

As of 2010, the only WHO Representative outside Europe to be a national of that country was for the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ("Libya"); all other staff were international. World Health Organization_sentence_209

WHO Representatives in the Region termed the Americas are referred to as PAHO/WHO Representatives. World Health Organization_sentence_210

In Europe, WHO Representatives also serve as Head of Country Office, and are nationals with the exception of Serbia; there are also Heads of Country Office in Albania, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. World Health Organization_sentence_211

The WR is member of the UN system country team which is coordinated by the UN System Resident Coordinator. World Health Organization_sentence_212

The country office consists of the WR, and several health and other experts, both foreign and local, as well as the necessary support staff. World Health Organization_sentence_213

The main functions of WHO country offices include being the primary adviser of that country's government in matters of health and pharmaceutical policies. World Health Organization_sentence_214

Financing and partnerships World Health Organization_section_27

Present World Health Organization_section_28

The WHO is financed by contributions from member states and outside donors. World Health Organization_sentence_215

As of 2020, the biggest contributor is the United States, which gives over $400 million annually. World Health Organization_sentence_216

U.S. contributions to the WHO are funded through the U.S. World Health Organization_sentence_217 State Department’s account for Contributions to International Organizations (CIO). World Health Organization_sentence_218

In 2018 the largest contributors ($150+ each) were the United States, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, United Kingdom, Germany and GAVI Alliance. World Health Organization_sentence_219

In April 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump, supported by a group of members of his party, announced that his administration would halt funding to the WHO. World Health Organization_sentence_220

Funds previously earmarked for the WHO were to be held for 60–90 days pending an investigation into WHO's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in respect to the organization's purported relationship with China. World Health Organization_sentence_221

The announcement was immediately criticized by world leaders including António Guterres, the secretary general of the United Nations; Heiko Maas, the German foreign minister; and Moussa Faki Mahamat, African Union chairman. World Health Organization_sentence_222

On 16 May, U.S. President Donald Trump and his administration agreed to pay up to what China pays in Assessed contributions, which is less than about one-tenth of its previous funding. World Health Organization_sentence_223

China paid Biennium 2018–2019, for Assessed contributions US$75,796K, Specified voluntary contributions US$10,184K, Total US$85,980K. World Health Organization_sentence_224

World Health Organization_table_general_2

Top 10 contributors (Biennium 2018–2019 updated until Q4-2019) M$World Health Organization_table_caption_2
No.World Health Organization_header_cell_2_0_0 ContributorWorld Health Organization_header_cell_2_0_1 Assessed contributionsWorld Health Organization_header_cell_2_0_2 Voluntary contributions specifiedWorld Health Organization_header_cell_2_0_3 Core voluntary contributionsWorld Health Organization_header_cell_2_0_4 Total

(Biennium)World Health Organization_header_cell_2_0_5

ShareWorld Health Organization_header_cell_2_0_6 SourceWorld Health Organization_header_cell_2_0_7
1World Health Organization_cell_2_1_0 United States of AmericaWorld Health Organization_cell_2_1_1 237World Health Organization_cell_2_1_2 656World Health Organization_cell_2_1_3 World Health Organization_cell_2_1_4 893World Health Organization_cell_2_1_5 15.9%World Health Organization_cell_2_1_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_1_7
2World Health Organization_cell_2_2_0 Bill & Melinda Gates FoundationWorld Health Organization_cell_2_2_1 World Health Organization_cell_2_2_2 531World Health Organization_cell_2_2_3 World Health Organization_cell_2_2_4 531World Health Organization_cell_2_2_5 9.4%World Health Organization_cell_2_2_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_2_7
3World Health Organization_cell_2_3_0 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandWorld Health Organization_cell_2_3_1 43World Health Organization_cell_2_3_2 335World Health Organization_cell_2_3_3 57World Health Organization_cell_2_3_4 435World Health Organization_cell_2_3_5 7.7%World Health Organization_cell_2_3_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_3_7
4World Health Organization_cell_2_4_0 GAVI AllianceWorld Health Organization_cell_2_4_1 World Health Organization_cell_2_4_2 371World Health Organization_cell_2_4_3 World Health Organization_cell_2_4_4 371World Health Organization_cell_2_4_5 6.6%World Health Organization_cell_2_4_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_4_7
5World Health Organization_cell_2_5_0 GermanyWorld Health Organization_cell_2_5_1 61World Health Organization_cell_2_5_2 231World Health Organization_cell_2_5_3 World Health Organization_cell_2_5_4 292World Health Organization_cell_2_5_5 5.2%World Health Organization_cell_2_5_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_5_7
6World Health Organization_cell_2_6_0 JapanWorld Health Organization_cell_2_6_1 93World Health Organization_cell_2_6_2 122World Health Organization_cell_2_6_3 World Health Organization_cell_2_6_4 214World Health Organization_cell_2_6_5 3.8%World Health Organization_cell_2_6_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_6_7
7World Health Organization_cell_2_7_0 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)World Health Organization_cell_2_7_1 World Health Organization_cell_2_7_2 192World Health Organization_cell_2_7_3 World Health Organization_cell_2_7_4 192World Health Organization_cell_2_7_5 3.4%World Health Organization_cell_2_7_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_7_7
8World Health Organization_cell_2_8_0 Rotary InternationalWorld Health Organization_cell_2_8_1 World Health Organization_cell_2_8_2 143World Health Organization_cell_2_8_3 World Health Organization_cell_2_8_4 143World Health Organization_cell_2_8_5 2.5%World Health Organization_cell_2_8_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_8_7
9World Health Organization_cell_2_9_0 World BankWorld Health Organization_cell_2_9_1 World Health Organization_cell_2_9_2 133World Health Organization_cell_2_9_3 World Health Organization_cell_2_9_4 133World Health Organization_cell_2_9_5 2.4%World Health Organization_cell_2_9_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_9_7
10World Health Organization_cell_2_10_0 European CommissionWorld Health Organization_cell_2_10_1 World Health Organization_cell_2_10_2 131World Health Organization_cell_2_10_3 World Health Organization_cell_2_10_4 131World Health Organization_cell_2_10_5 2.3%World Health Organization_cell_2_10_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_10_7
OthersWorld Health Organization_cell_2_11_0 524World Health Organization_cell_2_11_2 1,484World Health Organization_cell_2_11_3 103World Health Organization_cell_2_11_4 2,289World Health Organization_cell_2_11_5 40.7%World Health Organization_cell_2_11_6 World Health Organization_cell_2_11_7
TotalWorld Health Organization_header_cell_2_12_0 957World Health Organization_header_cell_2_12_2 4,328World Health Organization_header_cell_2_12_3 161World Health Organization_header_cell_2_12_4 5,624World Health Organization_header_cell_2_12_5 100.0%World Health Organization_header_cell_2_12_6 World Health Organization_header_cell_2_12_7

World Health Organization_unordered_list_4

  • Assessed contributions are the dues Member States pay depending on the states' wealth and populationWorld Health Organization_item_4_11
  • Voluntary contributions specified are funds for specific programme areas provided by Member States or other partnersWorld Health Organization_item_4_12
  • Core voluntary contributions are funds for flexible uses provided by Member States or other partnersWorld Health Organization_item_4_13

Past World Health Organization_section_29

At the beginning of the 21st century, the WHO's work involved increasing collaboration with external bodies. World Health Organization_sentence_225

As of 2002, a total of 473 non-governmental organizations (NGO) had some form of partnership with WHO. World Health Organization_sentence_226

There were 189 partnerships with international NGOs in formal "official relations" – the rest being considered informal in character. World Health Organization_sentence_227

Partners include the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. World Health Organization_sentence_228

As of 2012, the largest annual assessed contributions from member states came from the United States ($110 million), Japan ($58 million), Germany ($37 million), United Kingdom ($31 million) and France ($31 million). World Health Organization_sentence_229

The combined 2012–2013 budget proposed a total expenditure of $3,959 million, of which $944 million (24%) will come from assessed contributions. World Health Organization_sentence_230

This represented a significant fall in outlay compared to the previous 2009–2010 budget, adjusting to take account of previous underspends. World Health Organization_sentence_231

Assessed contributions were kept the same. World Health Organization_sentence_232

Voluntary contributions will account for $3,015 million (76%), of which $800 million is regarded as highly or moderately flexible funding, with the remainder tied to particular programmes or objectives. World Health Organization_sentence_233

Controversies World Health Organization_section_30

IAEA – Agreement WHA 12–40 World Health Organization_section_31

In 1959, the WHO signed Agreement WHA 12–40 with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). World Health Organization_sentence_234

A selective reading of this document (clause 3) can result in the understanding that the IAEA is able to prevent the WHO from conducting research or work on some areas. World Health Organization_sentence_235

The agreement states that the WHO recognizes the IAEA as having responsibility for peaceful nuclear energy without prejudice to the roles of the WHO of promoting health. World Health Organization_sentence_236

The following paragraph adds: World Health Organization_sentence_237

The nature of this statement has led some groups and activists including Women in Europe for a Common Future to claim that the WHO is restricted in its ability to investigate the effects on human health of radiation caused by the use of nuclear power and the continuing effects of nuclear disasters in Chernobyl and Fukushima. World Health Organization_sentence_238

They believe WHO must regain what they see as independence. World Health Organization_sentence_239

IndependentWHO held a weekly vigil from 2007–2017 in front of WHO headquarters. World Health Organization_sentence_240

However, as pointed out by Foreman in clause 2 it states: World Health Organization_sentence_241

The key text is highlighted in bold, the agreement in clause 2 states that the WHO is free to perform any health-related work. World Health Organization_sentence_242

Thus showing how the views of Alexei Yablokov and the other anti-nuclear activists who are opposed to the WHO's agreement with the IAEA is based on a very selective reading of the document. World Health Organization_sentence_243

Roman Catholic Church and AIDS World Health Organization_section_32

Main article: Roman Catholic Church and AIDS World Health Organization_sentence_244

In 2003, the WHO denounced the Roman Curia's health department's opposition to the use of condoms, saying: "These incorrect statements about condoms and HIV are dangerous when we are facing a global pandemic which has already killed more than 20 million people, and currently affects at least 42 million." World Health Organization_sentence_245

As of 2009, the Catholic Church remains opposed to increasing the use of contraception to combat HIV/AIDS. World Health Organization_sentence_246

At the time, the World Health Assembly President, Guyana's Health Minister Leslie Ramsammy, condemned Pope Benedict's opposition to contraception, saying he was trying to "create confusion" and "impede" proven strategies in the battle against the disease. World Health Organization_sentence_247

2009 swine flu pandemic World Health Organization_section_33

Main article: 2009 flu pandemic World Health Organization_sentence_248

In 2007, the WHO organized work on pandemic influenza vaccine development through clinical trials in collaboration with many experts and health officials. World Health Organization_sentence_249

A pandemic involving the H1N1 influenza virus was declared by the then Director-General Margaret Chan in April 2009. World Health Organization_sentence_250

Margret Chan declared in 2010 that the H1N1 has moved into the post-pandemic period. World Health Organization_sentence_251

By the post-pandemic period critics claimed the WHO had exaggerated the danger, spreading "fear and confusion" rather than "immediate information". World Health Organization_sentence_252

Industry experts countered that the 2009 pandemic had led to "unprecedented collaboration between global health authorities, scientists and manufacturers, resulting in the most comprehensive pandemic response ever undertaken, with a number of vaccines approved for use three months after the pandemic declaration. World Health Organization_sentence_253

This response was only possible because of the extensive preparations undertaken during the last decade". World Health Organization_sentence_254

2013–2016 Ebola outbreak and reform efforts World Health Organization_section_34

Following the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the organization was heavily criticized for its bureaucracy, insufficient financing, regional structure, and staffing profile. World Health Organization_sentence_255

An internal WHO report on the Ebola response pointed to underfunding and the lack of "core capacity" in health systems in developing countries as the primary weaknesses of the existing system. World Health Organization_sentence_256

At the annual World Health Assembly in 2015, Director-General Margaret Chan announced a $100 million Contingency Fund for rapid response to future emergencies, of which it had received $26.9 million by April 2016 (for 2017 disbursement). World Health Organization_sentence_257

WHO has budgeted an additional $494 million for its Health Emergencies Programme in 2016–17, for which it had received $140 million by April 2016. World Health Organization_sentence_258

The program was aimed at rebuilding WHO capacity for direct action, which critics said had been lost due to budget cuts in the previous decade that had left the organization in an advisory role dependent on member states for on-the-ground activities. World Health Organization_sentence_259

In comparison, billions of dollars have been spent by developed countries on the 2013–2016 Ebola epidemic and 2015–16 Zika epidemic. World Health Organization_sentence_260

FCTC implementation database World Health Organization_section_35

The WHO has a Framework Convention on Tobacco implementation database which is one of the few mechanisms to help enforce compliance with the FCTC. World Health Organization_sentence_261

However, there have been reports of numerous discrepancies between it and national implementation reports on which it was built. World Health Organization_sentence_262

As researchers Hoffman and Rizvi report "As of July 4, 2012, 361 (32·7%) of 1104 countries' responses were misreported: 33 (3·0%) were clear errors (e.g., database indicated 'yes' when report indicated 'no'), 270 (24·5%) were missing despite countries having submitted responses, and 58 (5·3%) were, in our opinion, misinterpreted by WHO staff". World Health Organization_sentence_263

IARC controversies World Health Organization_section_36

Further information: International Agency for Research on Cancer World Health Organization_sentence_264

The WHO sub-department, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), has been criticized for the way it analyses the tendency of certain substances and activities to cause cancer and for having a politically motivated bias when it selects studies for its analysis. World Health Organization_sentence_265

Ed Yong, a British science journalist, has criticized the agency and its "confusing" category system for misleading the public. World Health Organization_sentence_266

Marcel Kuntz, a French director of research at the French National Centre for Scientific Research, criticized the agency for its classification of potentially carcinogenic substances. World Health Organization_sentence_267

He claimed that this classification did not take into account the extent of exposure: for example, red meat is qualified as probably carcinogenic, but the quantity of consumed red meat at which it could become dangerous is not specified. World Health Organization_sentence_268

Controversies have erupted multiple times when the IARC has classified many things as Class 2a (probable carcinogens) or 2b (possible carcinogen), including cell phone signals, glyphosate, drinking hot beverages, and working as a barber. World Health Organization_sentence_269

Taiwanese membership and participation World Health Organization_section_37

Between 2009 and 2016 Taiwan was allowed to attend WHO meetings and events as an observer but was forced to stop due to renewed pressure from China. World Health Organization_sentence_270

Political pressure from China has led to Taiwan being barred from membership of the WHO and other UN-affiliated organizations, and in 2017 to 2020 the WHO refused to allow Taiwanese delegates to attend the WHO annual assembly. World Health Organization_sentence_271

According to Taiwanese publication The News Lens, on multiple occasions Taiwanese journalists have been denied access to report on the assembly. World Health Organization_sentence_272

In May 2018, the WHO denied access to its annual assembly by Taiwanese media, reportedly due to demands from China. World Health Organization_sentence_273

Later in May 172 members of the United States House of Representatives wrote to the Director-General of the World Health Organization to argue for Taiwan's inclusion as an observer at the WHA. World Health Organization_sentence_274

The United States, Japan, Germany, and Australia all support Taiwan's inclusion in WHO. World Health Organization_sentence_275

Pressure to allow Taiwan to participate in WHO increased as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic with Taiwan's exclusion from emergency meetings concerning the outbreak bringing a rare united front from Taiwan's diverse political parties. World Health Organization_sentence_276

Taiwan's main opposition party, the KMT, expressed their anger at being excluded arguing that disease respects neither politics nor geography. World Health Organization_sentence_277

China once again dismissed concerns over Taiwanese inclusion with the Foreign Minister claiming that no-one cares more about the health and wellbeing of the Taiwanese people than China's central government. World Health Organization_sentence_278

During the outbreak Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau voiced his support for Taiwan's participation in WHO, as did Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. World Health Organization_sentence_279

In January 2020 the European Union, a WHO observer, backed Taiwan's participation in WHO meetings related to the coronavirus pandemic as well as their general participation. World Health Organization_sentence_280

In a 2020 interview, assistant director-general Bruce Aylward appeared to dodge a question from RTHK reporter Yvonne Tong about Taiwan's response to the pandemic and inclusion in the WHO, blaming internet connection issues. World Health Organization_sentence_281

When the video chat was restarted, he was asked another question about Taiwan. World Health Organization_sentence_282

He responded by indicating that they had already discussed China and formally ended the interview. World Health Organization_sentence_283

This incident led to accusations about China's political influence over the international organization. World Health Organization_sentence_284

Taiwan’s effective response to the 2019–20 COVID-19 pandemic has bolstered its case for WHO membership. World Health Organization_sentence_285

Taiwan’s response to the outbreak has been praised by a number of experts. World Health Organization_sentence_286

In early May 2020, Foreign Minister Winston Peters expressed support for Taiwan's bid to rejoin the WHO during a media conference. World Health Organization_sentence_287

The New Zealand Government subsequently supporting Taiwan's bid to join the WHO, putting NZ alongside Australia and the United States who have taken similar positions. World Health Organization_sentence_288

On 9 May, Congressmen Eliot Engel, the Democratic chairman of the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Michael McCaul, the House Committee's ranking Republican member, Senator Jim Risch, the Republican chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, and Senator Bob Menendez, the Senate Committee's ranking Democratic member, submitted a joint letter to nearly 60 "like-minded" countries including Canada, Thailand, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and Australia, urging them to support Taiwan's participation in the World Health Organization. World Health Organization_sentence_289

In November 2020, the word "Taiwan" was blocked in comments on a livestream on the WHO's Facebook page. World Health Organization_sentence_290

Travel expenses World Health Organization_section_38

According to The Associated Press, the WHO routinely spends about $200 million a year on travel expenses, more than it spends to tackle mental health problems, HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria combined. World Health Organization_sentence_291

In 2016, Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO from January 2007 to June 2017, stayed in a $1000-per-night hotel room while visiting West Africa. World Health Organization_sentence_292

Robert Mugabe's role as a goodwill ambassador World Health Organization_section_39

On 21 October 2017, the Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus appointed the then Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe as a WHO Goodwill Ambassador to help promote the fight against non-communicable diseases. World Health Organization_sentence_293

The appointment address praised Mugabe for his commitment to public health in Zimbabwe. World Health Organization_sentence_294

The appointment attracted widespread condemnation and criticism in WHO member states and international organizations due to Robert Mugabe's poor record on human rights and presiding over a decline in Zimbabwe's public health. World Health Organization_sentence_295

Due to the outcry, the following day the appointment was revoked. World Health Organization_sentence_296

2019–20 COVID-19 pandemic World Health Organization_section_40

Main article: World Health Organization's response to the COVID-19 pandemic World Health Organization_sentence_297

The WHO faced criticism from the United States' Trump administration while "guid[ing] the world in how to tackle the deadly" COVID-19 pandemic. World Health Organization_sentence_298

The WHO created an Incident Management Support Team on 1 January 2020, one day after Chinese health authorities notified the organization of a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown etiology. World Health Organization_sentence_299

On 5 January the WHO notified all member states of the outbreak, and in subsequent days provided guidance to all countries on how to respond, and confirmed the first infection outside China. World Health Organization_sentence_300

The organization warned of limited human-to-human transmission on 14 January, and confirmed human-to-human transmission one week later. World Health Organization_sentence_301

On 30 January the WHO declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, considered a "call to action" and "last resort" measure for the international community and a pandemic on March 11. World Health Organization_sentence_302

The WHO's recommendations were followed by many countries including Germany, Singapore and South Korea, but not by the United States. World Health Organization_sentence_303

The WHO subsequently established a program to deliver testing, protective, and medical supplies to low-income countries to help them manage the crisis. World Health Organization_sentence_304

While organizing the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic and overseeing "more than 35 emergency operations" for cholera, measles and other epidemics internationally, the WHO has been criticized for praising China's public health response to the crisis while seeking to maintain a "diplomatic balancing act" between the United States and China. World Health Organization_sentence_305

Commentators including John Mackenzie of the WHO's emergency committee and Anne Schuchat of the US CDC have stated that China's official tally of cases and deaths may be an underestimation. World Health Organization_sentence_306

David Heymann, professor of infectious disease epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said in response that "China has been very transparent and open in sharing its data... and they opened up all of their files with the WHO." World Health Organization_sentence_307

Opposition from the Trump Administration World Health Organization_section_41

On 14 April 2020, United States President Donald Trump pledged to halt United States funding to the WHO while reviewing its role in "severely mismanaging and covering up the spread of the coronavirus." World Health Organization_sentence_308

The United States had paid half of its annual assessed fees to the WHO as of 31 March 2020; it would ordinarily pay its remaining fees in September 2020. World Health Organization_sentence_309

World leaders and health experts largely condemned President Trump's announcement, which came amid criticism of his response to the outbreak in the United States. World Health Organization_sentence_310

WHO called the announcement "regrettable" and defended its actions in alerting the world to the emergence of COVID-19. World Health Organization_sentence_311

Trump critics also said that such a suspension would be illegal, though legal experts speaking to Politifact said its legality could depend on the particular way in which the suspension was executed. World Health Organization_sentence_312

On 8 May 2020, the United States blocked a vote on a U.N. Security Council resolution aimed at promoting nonviolent international cooperation during the pandemic, and mentioning the WHO. World Health Organization_sentence_313

On 18 May 2020, Trump threatened to permanently terminate all American funding of WHO and consider ending U.S. membership. World Health Organization_sentence_314

On 29 May 2020, President Trump announced plans to withdraw the U.S. from the WHO, though it was unclear whether he had the authority to do so. World Health Organization_sentence_315

On 7 July 2020, President Trump formally notified the UN of his intent to withdraw the United States from the WHO. World Health Organization_sentence_316

Traditional medicine World Health Organization_section_42

WHO has been moving toward acceptance and integration of traditional medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). World Health Organization_sentence_317

In 2022, the new International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, ICD-11, will attempt to enable classifications from traditional medicine to be integrated with classifications from evidence-based medicine. World Health Organization_sentence_318

Though Chinese authorities have pushed for the change, this and other support of the WHO for traditional medicine has been criticized by the medical and scientific community, due to lack of evidence and the risk of endangering wildlife hunted for traditional remedies. World Health Organization_sentence_319

A WHO spokesman said that the inclusion was "not an endorsement of the scientific validity of any Traditional Medicine practice or the efficacy of any Traditional Medicine intervention." World Health Organization_sentence_320

World headquarters World Health Organization_section_43

The seat of the organization is in Geneva, Switzerland. World Health Organization_sentence_321

It was designed by Swiss architect Jean Tschumi and inaugurated in 1966. World Health Organization_sentence_322

In 2017, the organization launched an international competition to redesign and extend its headquarters. World Health Organization_sentence_323


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