Wuthering Heights

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For other uses, see Wuthering Heights (disambiguation). Wuthering Heights_sentence_0

Wuthering Heights_table_infobox_0

Wuthering HeightsWuthering Heights_table_caption_0
AuthorWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_0_0 Emily BrontëWuthering Heights_cell_0_0_1
CountryWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_1_0 United KingdomWuthering Heights_cell_0_1_1
LanguageWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_2_0 EnglishWuthering Heights_cell_0_2_1
GenreWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_3_0 Tragedy, gothicWuthering Heights_cell_0_3_1
PublishedWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_4_0 December 1847Wuthering Heights_cell_0_4_1
PublisherWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_5_0 Thomas Cautley NewbyWuthering Heights_cell_0_5_1
ISBNWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_6_0 0-486-29256-8Wuthering Heights_cell_0_6_1
OCLCWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_7_0 Wuthering Heights_cell_0_7_1
Dewey DecimalWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_8_0 823.8Wuthering Heights_cell_0_8_1
LC ClassWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_9_0 PR4172 .W7 2007Wuthering Heights_cell_0_9_1
TextWuthering Heights_header_cell_0_10_0 onlineWuthering Heights_cell_0_10_1

Wuthering Heights is a novel by Emily Brontë published in 1847 under her pseudonym "Ellis Bell". Wuthering Heights_sentence_1

It is her only finished novel. Wuthering Heights_sentence_2

Wuthering Heights and Anne Brontë's Agnes Grey were accepted by publisher Thomas Newby before the success of her sister Charlotte's novel Jane Eyre. Wuthering Heights_sentence_3

After Emily's death, Charlotte edited a posthumous second edition in 1850. Wuthering Heights_sentence_4

Although Wuthering Heights is now a classic of English literature, contemporaneous reviews were deeply polarised; it was controversial because of its unusually stark depiction of mental and physical cruelty, and it challenged Victorian ideas about religion, morality, class and a woman's place in society. Wuthering Heights_sentence_5

Wuthering Heights was influenced by Romanticism including the novels of Walter Scott, gothic fiction, and Byron, and the moorland setting as a picturesque landscape is significant. Wuthering Heights_sentence_6

The novel has inspired many adaptations, including film, radio and television dramatisations; a musical; a ballet; operas; and a hit song. Wuthering Heights_sentence_7

Plot Wuthering Heights_section_0

Opening Wuthering Heights_section_1

In 1801, Lockwood, the new tenant at Thrushcross Grange in Yorkshire, pays a visit to his landlord, Heathcliff, at his remote moorland farmhouse, Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights_sentence_8

There he meets a reserved young woman (later identified as Cathy Linton); Joseph, a cantankerous servant; and Hareton, an uneducated young man who speaks like a servant. Wuthering Heights_sentence_9

Everyone is sullen and inhospitable. Wuthering Heights_sentence_10

Snowed in for the night, he reads some diary entries of a former inhabitant of his room, Catherine Earnshaw, and has a nightmare in which a ghostly Catherine begs to enter through the window. Wuthering Heights_sentence_11

Woken by Lockwood, Heathcliff is troubled. Wuthering Heights_sentence_12

Lockwood falls ill from his walk in the snow and becomes bedridden after he returns to Thrushcross Grange. Wuthering Heights_sentence_13

As he recovers, Lockwood's housekeeper Ellen (Nelly) Dean tells him the story of the strange family. Wuthering Heights_sentence_14

Nelly's tale Wuthering Heights_section_2

Thirty years earlier, the Earnshaws live at Wuthering Heights with their children, Hindley and Catherine, and a servant — Nelly herself. Wuthering Heights_sentence_15

Returning from a trip to Liverpool, Earnshaw brings a young orphan whom he names Heathcliff and treats as his favourite. Wuthering Heights_sentence_16

His own children he neglects, especially after his wife dies. Wuthering Heights_sentence_17

Hindley beats Heathcliff, who gradually becomes close friends with Catherine. Wuthering Heights_sentence_18

Hindley departs for university, returning as the new master of Wuthering Heights on the death of his father three years later. Wuthering Heights_sentence_19

He and his new wife Frances allow Heathcliff to stay, but only as a servant. Wuthering Heights_sentence_20

Heathcliff and Catherine spy on Edgar Linton and his sister Isabella, children who live nearby at Thrushcross Grange. Wuthering Heights_sentence_21

Catherine is attacked by their dog, and the Lintons take her in, sending Heathcliff home. Wuthering Heights_sentence_22

When the Lintons visit, Hindley and Edgar make fun of Heathcliff and a fight ensues. Wuthering Heights_sentence_23

Heathcliff is locked in the attic and vows revenge. Wuthering Heights_sentence_24

Frances dies after giving birth to a son, Hareton. Wuthering Heights_sentence_25

Two years later, Catherine becomes engaged to Edgar. Wuthering Heights_sentence_26

She confesses to Nelly that she loves Heathcliff, and will try to help but cannot marry him because of his low social status. Wuthering Heights_sentence_27

Nelly warns her against the plan. Wuthering Heights_sentence_28

Heathcliff overhears part of the conversation and, misunderstanding Catherine's heart, flees the household. Wuthering Heights_sentence_29

Catherine falls ill, distraught. Wuthering Heights_sentence_30

Edgar and Catherine marry, and three years later Heathcliff unexpectedly returns — now a wealthy gentleman. Wuthering Heights_sentence_31

He encourages Isabella's infatuation with him as a means of revenge on Catherine. Wuthering Heights_sentence_32

Enraged by Heathcliff's constant presence at Thrushcross Grange, Edgar cuts off contact. Wuthering Heights_sentence_33

Catherine responds by locking herself in her room and refusing food; pregnant with Edgar's child, she never fully recovers. Wuthering Heights_sentence_34

At Wuthering Heights Heathcliff gambles with Hindley who mortgages the property to him to pay his debts. Wuthering Heights_sentence_35

Heathcliff elopes with Isabella, but the relationship fails and they soon return. Wuthering Heights_sentence_36

When Heathcliff discovers that Catherine is dying, he visits her in secret. Wuthering Heights_sentence_37

She dies shortly after giving birth to a daughter, Cathy, and Heathcliff rages, calling on her ghost to haunt him for as long as he lives. Wuthering Heights_sentence_38

Isabella flees south where she gives birth to Heathcliff's son, Linton. Wuthering Heights_sentence_39

Hindley dies six months later, leaving Heathcliff as master of Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights_sentence_40

Twelve years later, Isabella is dying and the still-sickly Linton is brought back to live with his uncle Edgar at the Grange, but Heathcliff insists that his son must instead live with him. Wuthering Heights_sentence_41

Cathy and Linton (respectively at the Grange and Wuthering Heights) gradually develop a relationship. Wuthering Heights_sentence_42

Heathcliff schemes to ensure that they marry, and on Edgar's death demands that the couple move in with him. Wuthering Heights_sentence_43

He becomes increasingly wild, and reveals that on the night Catherine died he dug up her grave, and ever since has been plagued by her ghost. Wuthering Heights_sentence_44

When Linton dies, Cathy has no option but to remain at Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights_sentence_45

Having reached the present day, Nelly's tale concludes. Wuthering Heights_sentence_46

Ending Wuthering Heights_section_3

Lockwood grows tired of the moors and moves away. Wuthering Heights_sentence_47

Eight months later he sees Nelly again and she reports that Cathy has been teaching the still-uneducated Hareton to read. Wuthering Heights_sentence_48

Heathcliff was seeing visions of the dead Catherine; he avoided the young people, saying that he could not bear to see Catherine's eyes, which they both shared, looking at him. Wuthering Heights_sentence_49

He had stopped eating, and some days later was found dead in Catherine's old room. Wuthering Heights_sentence_50

In the present, Lockwood learns that Cathy and Hareton plan to marry and move to the Grange. Wuthering Heights_sentence_51

Joseph is left to take care of the declining Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights_sentence_52

Nelly says that the locals have seen the ghosts of Catherine and Heathcliff wandering abroad together, and hopes they are at peace. Wuthering Heights_sentence_53

Timeline Wuthering Heights_section_4

Characters Wuthering Heights_section_5

Wuthering Heights_unordered_list_0

  • Heathcliff: An orphan found in Liverpool is taken by Mr Earnshaw to Wuthering Heights, where he is reluctantly cared for by the family and spoiled by his adopted father. He and Catherine grow close, and their love is the central theme of the first volume. His revenge against the man she chooses to marry and its consequences are the central theme of the second volume. Heathcliff has been considered a Byronic hero, but critics have pointed out that he reinvents himself at various points, making his character hard to fit into any single type. He has an ambiguous position in society, and his lack of status is underlined by the fact that "Heathcliff" is both his given name and his surname. The character of Heathcliff may have been inspired by Branwell Brontë. An alcoholic and an opium addict, he would have indeed terrorised Emily and her sister Charlotte during frequent crises of delirium tremens that affected him a few years before his death. Even though Heathcliff has no alcohol or drug problems, the influence of Branwell's character is likely. Hindley Earnshaw, an alcoholic, often seized with madness, also owes something to Branwell. Heathcliff is of dark skin-tone, being described in the book as a "dark-skinned gypsy" and "a little Lascar" – a 19th-century term for Indian sailors. Earnshaw calls him "as dark almost as if it came from the devil", and Nelly Dean speculating fancifully regarding his origins thus: “Who knows but your father was Emperor of China, and your mother an Indian queen?”Wuthering Heights_item_0_0

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  • Catherine Earnshaw: First introduced to the reader after her death, through Lockwood's discovery of her diary and carvings. The description of her life is confined almost entirely to the first volume. She seems unsure whether she is, or wants to become, more like Heathcliff, or aspires to be more like Edgar. Some critics have argued that her decision to marry Edgar Linton is allegorically a rejection of nature and a surrender to culture, a choice with unfortunate, fateful consequences for all the other characters. She dies hours after giving birth to her daughter.Wuthering Heights_item_1_1
  • Edgar Linton: Introduced as a child in the Linton family, he resides at Thrushcross Grange. Edgar's style and manners are in sharp contrast to those of Heathcliff, who instantly dislikes him, and of Catherine, who is drawn to him. Catherine marries him instead of Heathcliff because of his higher social status, with disastrous results to all characters in the story. He dotes on his wife and later his daughter.Wuthering Heights_item_1_2
  • Nelly Dean: The main narrator of the novel, Nelly is a servant to three generations of the Earnshaws and two of the Linton family. Humbly born, she regards herself nevertheless as Hindley's foster-sister (they are the same age and her mother is his nurse). She lives and works among the rough inhabitants of Wuthering Heights but is well-read, and she also experiences the more genteel manners of Thrushcross Grange. She is referred to as Ellen, her given name, to show respect, and as Nelly among those close to her. Critics have discussed how far her actions as an apparent bystander affect the other characters and how much her narrative can be relied on.Wuthering Heights_item_1_3
  • Isabella Linton: Is seen only in relation to other characters. She views Heathcliff romantically, despite Catherine's warnings, and becomes an unwitting participant in his plot for revenge against Edgar. Heathcliff marries her but treats her abusively. While pregnant, she escapes to London and gives birth to a son, Linton. She entrusts her son to her brother Edgar when she dies.Wuthering Heights_item_1_4
  • Hindley Earnshaw: Catherine's elder brother, Hindley, despises Heathcliff immediately and bullies him throughout their childhood before his father sends him away to college. Hindley returns with his wife, Frances, after Mr Earnshaw dies. He is more mature, but his hatred of Heathcliff remains the same. After Frances's death, Hindley reverts to destructive behaviour, neglects his son, and ruins the Earnshaw family by drinking and gambling to excess. Heathcliff beats Hindley up at one point after Hindley fails in his attempt to kill Heathcliff with a pistol. He dies less than a year after Catherine, and leaves his son with nothing.Wuthering Heights_item_1_5
  • Hareton Earnshaw: The son of Hindley and Frances, raised at first by Nelly but soon by Heathcliff. Joseph works to instill a sense of pride in the Earnshaw heritage (even though Hareton will not inherit Earnshaw property, because Hindley has mortgaged it to Heathcliff). Heathcliff, in contrast, teaches him vulgarities as a way of avenging himself on Hindley. Hareton speaks with an accent similar to Joseph's, and occupies a position similar to that of a servant at Wuthering Heights, unaware that he has been done out of his inheritance. He can only read his name. In appearance, he reminds Heathcliff of his aunt, Catherine.Wuthering Heights_item_1_6
  • Cathy Linton: The daughter of Catherine and Edgar Linton, a spirited and strong-willed girl unaware of her parents' history. Edgar is very protective of her and as a result she is eager to discover what lies beyond the confines of the Grange. Although one of the more sympathetic characters of the novel, she is also somewhat snobbish towards Hareton and his lack of education. She falls in love with and marries Linton Heathcliff.Wuthering Heights_item_1_7
  • Linton Heathcliff: The son of Heathcliff and Isabella. A weak child, his early years are spent with his mother in the south of England. He learns of his father's identity and existence only after his mother dies, when he is twelve. In his selfishness and capacity for cruelty he resembles Heathcliff; physically, he resembles his mother. He marries Cathy Linton because his father, who terrifies him, directs him to do so, and soon after he dies from a wasting illness associated with tuberculosis.Wuthering Heights_item_1_8
  • Joseph: A servant at Wuthering Heights for 60 years who is a rigid, self-righteous Christian but lacks any trace of genuine kindness or humanity. He speaks a broad Yorkshire dialect and hates nearly everyone in the novel.Wuthering Heights_item_1_9
  • Mr Lockwood: The first narrator, he rents Thrushcross Grange to escape society, but in the end decides society is preferable. He narrates the book until Chapter 4, when the main narrator, Nelly, picks up the tale.Wuthering Heights_item_1_10
  • Frances: Hindley's ailing wife and mother of Hareton Earnshaw. She is described as somewhat silly and is obviously from a humble family. Frances dies not long after the birth of her son.Wuthering Heights_item_1_11
  • Mr and Mrs Earnshaw: Catherine's and Hindley's father, Mr Earnshaw is the master of Wuthering Heights at the beginning of Nelly's story and is described as an irascible but loving and kind-hearted man. He favours his adopted son, Heathcliff, which causes trouble in the family. In contrast, his wife mistrusts Heathcliff from their first encounter.Wuthering Heights_item_1_12
  • Mr and Mrs Linton: Edgar's and Isabella's parents, they educate their children in a well-behaved and sophisticated way. Mr Linton also serves as the magistrate of Gimmerton, as his son does in later years.Wuthering Heights_item_1_13
  • Dr Kenneth: The longtime doctor of Gimmerton and a friend of Hindley's who is present at the cases of illness during the novel. Although not much of his character is known, he seems to be a rough but honest person.Wuthering Heights_item_1_14
  • Zillah: A servant to Heathcliff at Wuthering Heights during the period following Catherine's death. Although she is kind to Lockwood, she doesn't like or help Cathy at Wuthering Heights because of Cathy's arrogance and Heathcliff's instructions.Wuthering Heights_item_1_15
  • Mr Green: Edgar's corruptible lawyer who should have changed Edgar's will to prevent Heathcliff from gaining Thrushcross Grange. Instead, Green changes sides and helps Heathcliff to inherit the Grange as his property.Wuthering Heights_item_1_16

Family relationships map Wuthering Heights_section_6

Publication history Wuthering Heights_section_7

1847 edition Wuthering Heights_section_8

The original text, as published by Thomas Cautley Newby in 1847, is available online in two parts. Wuthering Heights_sentence_54

The novel was first published together with Anne Brontë's Agnes Grey in a three-volume format: Wuthering Heights occupied the first two volumes, while Agnes Grey made up the third. Wuthering Heights_sentence_55

1850 edition Wuthering Heights_section_9

In 1850, when a second edition of Wuthering Heights was due, Charlotte Brontë edited the original text, altering punctuation, correcting spelling errors and making Joseph's thick Yorkshire dialect less opaque. Wuthering Heights_sentence_56

Writing to her publisher, W S Williams, she mentioned that "It seems to me advisable to modify the orthography of the old servant Joseph's speeches; for though, as it stands, it exactly renders the Yorkshire dialect to a Yorkshire ear, yet I am sure Southerns must find it unintelligible; and thus one of the most graphic characters in the book is lost on them." Wuthering Heights_sentence_57

An essay written by Irene Wiltshire on dialect and speech in the novel examines some of the changes Charlotte made. Wuthering Heights_sentence_58

Critical response Wuthering Heights_section_10

Early reviews (1847–1848) Wuthering Heights_section_11

Early reviews of Wuthering Heights were mixed in their assessment. Wuthering Heights_sentence_59

While most critics at the time recognised the power and imagination of the novel, they were also baffled by the storyline and found the characters prone to savagery and selfishness. Wuthering Heights_sentence_60

Published in 1847, at a time when the background of the author was deemed to have an important impact on the story itself, many critics were also intrigued by the authorship of the novels. Wuthering Heights_sentence_61

Henry Chorley of the Athenæum said that it was a "disagreeable story" and that the "Bells" (Brontës) "seem to affect painful and exceptional subjects". Wuthering Heights_sentence_62

The Atlas review called it a "strange, inartistic story," but commented that every chapter seems to contain a "sort of rugged power." Wuthering Heights_sentence_63

Atlas summarised the novel by writing: "We know nothing in the whole range of our fictitious literature which presents such shocking pictures of the worst forms of humanity. Wuthering Heights_sentence_64

There is not in the entire dramatis persona, a single character which is not utterly hateful or thoroughly contemptible ... Wuthering Heights_sentence_65

Even the female characters excite something of loathing and much of contempt. Wuthering Heights_sentence_66

Beautiful and loveable in their childhood, they all, to use a vulgar expression, "turn out badly"." Wuthering Heights_sentence_67

Graham's Lady Magazine wrote "How a human being could have attempted such a book as the present without committing suicide before he had finished a dozen chapters, is a mystery. Wuthering Heights_sentence_68

It is a compound of vulgar depravity and unnatural horrors." Wuthering Heights_sentence_69

The American Whig Review wrote "Respecting a book so original as this, and written with so much power of imagination, it is natural that there should be many opinions. Wuthering Heights_sentence_70

Indeed, its power is so predominant that it is not easy after a hasty reading to analyze one's impressions so as to speak of its merits and demerits with confidence. Wuthering Heights_sentence_71

We have been taken and carried through a new region, a melancholy waste, with here and there patches of beauty; have been brought in contact with fierce passions, with extremes of love and hate, and with sorrow that none but those who have suffered can understand. Wuthering Heights_sentence_72

This has not been accomplished with ease, but with an ill-mannered contempt for the decencies of language, and in a style which might resemble that of a Yorkshire farmer who should have endeavored to eradicate his provincialism by taking lessons of a London footman. Wuthering Heights_sentence_73

We have had many sad bruises and tumbles in our journey, yet it was interesting, and at length we are safely arrived at a happy conclusion." Wuthering Heights_sentence_74

Douglas Jerrold's Weekly Newspaper wrote "Wuthering Heights is a strange sort of book,—baffling all regular criticism; yet, it is impossible to begin and not finish it; and quite as impossible to lay it aside afterwards and say nothing about. Wuthering Heights_sentence_75

In Wuthering Heights the reader is shocked, disgusted, almost sickened by details of cruelty, inhumanity, and the most diabolical hate and vengeance, and anon come passages of powerful testimony to the supreme power of love – even over demons in the human form. Wuthering Heights_sentence_76

The women in the book are of a strange fiendish-angelic nature, tantalising, and terrible, and the men are indescribable out of the book itself. Wuthering Heights_sentence_77

Yet, towards the close of the story occurs the following pretty, soft picture, which comes like the rainbow after a storm ... We strongly recommend all our readers who love novelty to get this story, for we can promise them that they never have read anything like it before. Wuthering Heights_sentence_78

It is very puzzling and very interesting, and if we had space we would willingly devote a little more time to the analysis of this remarkable story, but we must leave it to our readers to decide what sort of book it is." Wuthering Heights_sentence_79

New Monthly Magazine wrote "Wuthering Heights, by Ellis Bell, is a terrific story, associated with an equally fearful and repulsive spot ... Our novel reading experience does not enable us to refer to anything to be compared with the personages we are introduced to at this desolate spot – a perfect misanthropist's heaven." Wuthering Heights_sentence_80

Tait's Edinburgh Magazine wrote "This novel contains undoubtedly powerful writing, and yet it seems to be thrown away. Wuthering Heights_sentence_81

Mr Ellis Bell, before constructing the novel, should have known that forced marriages, under threats and in confinement are illegal, and parties instrumental thereto can be punished. Wuthering Heights_sentence_82

And second, that wills made by young ladies' minors are invalid. Wuthering Heights_sentence_83

The volumes are powerfully written records of wickedness and they have a moral – they show what Satan could do with the law of Entail." Wuthering Heights_sentence_84

Examiner wrote "This is a strange book. Wuthering Heights_sentence_85

It is not without evidences of considerable power: but, as a whole, it is wild, confused, disjointed, and improbable; and the people who make up the drama, which is tragic enough in its consequences, are savages ruder than those who lived before the days of Homer." Wuthering Heights_sentence_86

Literary World wrote "In the whole story not a single trait of character is elicited which can command our admiration, not one of the fine feelings of our nature seems to have formed a part in the composition of its principal actors. Wuthering Heights_sentence_87

In spite of the disgusting coarsness of much of the dialogue, and the improbabilities of much of the plot, we are spellbound." Wuthering Heights_sentence_88

G.H. Wuthering Heights_sentence_89 Lewes, in Leader, shortly after Emily's death, wrote: "Curious enough is to read Wuthering Heights and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, and remember that the writers were two retiring, solitary, consumptive girls! Wuthering Heights_sentence_90

Books, coarse even for men, coarse in language and coarse in conception, the coarseness apparently of violence and uncultivated men – turn out to be the productions of two girls living almost alone, filling their loneliness with quiet studies, and writing their books from a sense of duty, hating the pictures they drew, yet drawing them with austere conscientiousness! Wuthering Heights_sentence_91

There is matter here for the moralist or critic to speculate on". Wuthering Heights_sentence_92

The English poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, although an admirer of the book, referred to it as "A fiend of a book – an incredible monster  [...] The action is laid in hell, – only it seems places and people have English names there." Wuthering Heights_sentence_93

Setting Wuthering Heights_section_12

The first description of Wuthering Heights, an old house high on moorland in Yorkshire, is provided by the tenant Lockwood: Wuthering Heights_sentence_94

Wuthering Heights is associated with Heathcliff "who represents the savage forces in human beings which civilization attempts vainly to eliminate"; this wild place stands in contrast with the nearby "'civilized' household of Thrushcross Grange". Wuthering Heights_sentence_95

Inspiration for locations Wuthering Heights_section_13

There are several theories about which real building or buildings (if any) may have inspired Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights_sentence_96

One common candidate is Top Withens, a ruined farmhouse in an isolated area near the Haworth Parsonage, although its structure does not match that of the farmhouse described in the novel. Wuthering Heights_sentence_97

Top Withens was first suggested as the model by Ellen Nussey, a friend of Charlotte Brontë, to Edward Morison Wimperis, an artist who was commissioned to illustrate the Brontë sisters' novels in 1872. Wuthering Heights_sentence_98

The second possibility is High Sunderland Hall, near Halifax, West Yorkshire, now demolished. Wuthering Heights_sentence_99

This Gothic edifice was located near Law Hill, where Emily worked briefly as a governess in 1838. Wuthering Heights_sentence_100

While it was perhaps grander than Wuthering Heights, the hall had grotesque embellishments of griffins and misshapen nude males similar to those described by Lockwood in Chapter 1 of the novel. Wuthering Heights_sentence_101

The inspiration for Thrushcross Grange has long been traced to Ponden Hall, near Haworth, which is very small. Wuthering Heights_sentence_102

Shibden Hall, near Halifax, is perhaps more likely., as mentioned by Ian Jacks in the Explanatory Notes to the 1976 edition of the novel. Wuthering Heights_sentence_103

The Thrushcross Grange that Emily describes is rather unusual. Wuthering Heights_sentence_104

It sits within an enormous park, as does Shibden Hall. Wuthering Heights_sentence_105

By comparison, the park at Chatsworth (the home of the Duke of Devonshire) is over 2 miles (3.2 km) long but, as the house sits near the middle, it is no more than 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from the lodge to the house. Wuthering Heights_sentence_106

Considering that Edgar Linton apparently does not even have a title, this seems unlikely. Wuthering Heights_sentence_107

Point of view Wuthering Heights_section_14

Most of the novel is the story told by housekeeper Nelly Dean to Lockwood, though the novel "uses several narrators (in fact, five or six) to place the story in perspective, or in a variety of perspectives". Wuthering Heights_sentence_108

Emily Brontë uses this frame story technique to narrate most of the story. Wuthering Heights_sentence_109

Thus, for example, Lockwood, the first narrator of the story, tells the story of Nelly, who herself tells the story of another character. Wuthering Heights_sentence_110

The use of a character, like Nelly Dean is "a literary device, a well-known convention taken from the Gothic novel, the function of which is to portray the events in a more mysterious and exciting manner". Wuthering Heights_sentence_111

Thus the point of view comes Wuthering Heights_sentence_112

Critics have questioned the reliability of the two main narrators. Wuthering Heights_sentence_113

The author has been described as sarcastic "toward Lockwood—who fancies himself a world-weary romantic but comes across as an effete snob", and there are "subtler hints that Nelly’s perspective is influenced by her own biases". Wuthering Heights_sentence_114

The narrative also includes an excerpt from Catherine Earnshaw’s old diary, and mini-narrations by Heathcliff, Isabella, and another servant. Wuthering Heights_sentence_115

Romance tradition Wuthering Heights_section_15

Emily Brontë wrote in the romance tradition of the novel that Walter Scott defined, as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents". Wuthering Heights_sentence_116

cited in Scott distinguished the romance from the novel, where (as he saw it) "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society". Wuthering Heights_sentence_117

Scott describes romance as a "kindred term" to novel. Wuthering Heights_sentence_118

However, romances like Wuthering Heights, Scotts own historical romances and, for example, Moby Dick are often referred to as novels. Wuthering Heights_sentence_119

Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, en roman". Wuthering Heights_sentence_120

This sort of romance is different from the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Wuthering Heights_sentence_121

Emily Brontë's approach to the novel form was influenced, in addition to Scott, especially by the Gothic novel, and, in what is usually considered the first gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto (1764) Horace Walpole's declared aim was to combine elements of the medieval romance, which he deemed too fanciful, and the modern novel, which he considered to be too confined to strict realism. Wuthering Heights_sentence_122

Influences Wuthering Heights_section_16

The periodicals that their father read, the Leeds Intelligencer and Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, were a major source of information for his children. Wuthering Heights_sentence_123

Blackwood's Magazine in particular, was not only the source of their knowledge of world affairs, but also provided material for the Brontës' early writing. Wuthering Heights_sentence_124

It is quite likely that Emily was aware of the debate on evolution, even if the great theses of Charles Darwin were not made public until eleven years after his death. Wuthering Heights_sentence_125

This debate had been launched in 1844 by Robert Chambers and raised the questions of the existence of divine providence, the idea of the violence which underlies the universe and of the relationships between living beings . Wuthering Heights_sentence_126

Among other influences was the Romantic movement that includes the Gothic novel, the novels of Walter Scott, and the poetry of Byron. Wuthering Heights_sentence_127

From 1833, Charlotte and Branwell's Angrian tales begin to feature Byronic heroes who have a strong sexual magnetism and passionate spirit, and demonstrate arrogance and even black-heartedness. Wuthering Heights_sentence_128

They had discovered the poet in an article in Blackwood's Magazine from August 1825; he had died the previous year. Wuthering Heights_sentence_129

From this moment, the name Byron became synonymous with all the prohibitions and audacities as if it had stirred up the very essence of the rise of those forbidden things. Wuthering Heights_sentence_130

The influence of Byronic Romanticism is apparent and Wuthering Heights transports the Gothic to the forbidding Yorkshire Moors and features ghostly apparitions and a Byronic hero in the person of the demonic Heathcliff. Wuthering Heights_sentence_131

The Brontës' fiction is seen by some feminist critics as prime examples of Female Gothic, exploring woman's entrapment within domestic space and subjection to patriarchal authority and the transgressive and dangerous attempts to subvert and escape such restriction. Wuthering Heights_sentence_132

Emily's Cathy and Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre are both examples of female protagonists in such a role. Wuthering Heights_sentence_133

Emily also knew Greek tragedies, was a good Latinist, and possessed an exceptional classical culture in a woman of the time. Wuthering Heights_sentence_134

She was also influenced by the poetry of Milton and Shakespeare; there are echoes of King Lear as well as Romeo and Juliet. Wuthering Heights_sentence_135

Gothic novel Wuthering Heights_section_17

Ellen Moers, in Literary Women, developed a feminist theory that connects women writers, including Emily Brontë, with gothic fiction. Wuthering Heights_sentence_136

Catherine Earnshaw has been identified by some critics as a type of gothic demon, because she "shape-shifts" in order to marry Edgar Linton, by assuming a domesticity that is contrary to her true nature. Wuthering Heights_sentence_137

It has also been suggested that Catherine's relationship with Heathcliff conforms to the "dynamics of the Gothic romance, in that the woman falls prey to the more or less demonic instincts of her lover, suffers from the violence of his feelings, and at the end is entangled by his thwarted passion". Wuthering Heights_sentence_138

At one stage Heathcliff is described as a vampire, and it has been suggested that both he and Catherine are in fact meant to be seen as vampire-like personalities. Wuthering Heights_sentence_139

Themes Wuthering Heights_section_18

Morality Wuthering Heights_section_19

Some critics viewed the novel with suspicion because of its outrageous violence and immorality – surely, the critics wrote, a work of a man with a depraved mind. Wuthering Heights_sentence_140

Love Wuthering Heights_section_20

According to 2007 British poll Wuthering Heights is the greatest love story of all time – "Yet some of the novel’s admirers consider it not a love story at all but an exploration of evil and abuse". Wuthering Heights_sentence_141

Feminist critics argue that reading of Wuthering Heights as a love story not only "romanticizes abusive men and toxic relationships but goes against Brontë’s clear intent". Wuthering Heights_sentence_142

While a "passionate, doomed, death-transcending relationship between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw Linton forms the core of the novel", Wuthering Heights consistently subverts the romantic narrative. Wuthering Heights_sentence_143

Our first encounter with Heathcliff shows him to be a nasty bully. Wuthering Heights_sentence_144

Later, Brontë puts in Heathcliff’s mouth an explicit warning not to turn him into a Byronic hero: After ... Isabella elop[es] with him, he sneers that she did so “under a delusion . Wuthering Heights_sentence_145

. Wuthering Heights_sentence_146

. Wuthering Heights_sentence_147

picturing in me a hero of romance. Wuthering Heights_sentence_148

References in culture Wuthering Heights_section_21

Main article: List of Wuthering Heights references Wuthering Heights_sentence_149

Adaptations Wuthering Heights_section_22

Main article: Adaptations of Wuthering Heights Wuthering Heights_sentence_150

Film and TV Wuthering Heights_section_23

The earliest known film adaptation of Wuthering Heights was filmed in England in 1920 and was directed by A. Wuthering Heights_sentence_151 V. Bramble. Wuthering Heights_sentence_152

It is unknown if any prints still exist. Wuthering Heights_sentence_153

The most famous is 1939's Wuthering Heights, starring Laurence Olivier and Merle Oberon and directed by William Wyler. Wuthering Heights_sentence_154

This acclaimed adaptation, like many others, eliminated the second generation's story (young Cathy, Linton and Hareton) and is rather inaccurate as a literary adaptation. Wuthering Heights_sentence_155

It won the 1939 New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film and was nominated for the 1939 Academy Award for Best Picture. Wuthering Heights_sentence_156

In 1958, an adaptation aired on CBS television as part of the series DuPont Show of the Month starring Rosemary Harris as Cathy and Richard Burton as Heathcliff. Wuthering Heights_sentence_157

The BBC produced a television dramatisation in 1967 starring Ian McShane and Angela Scoular. Wuthering Heights_sentence_158

The 1970 film with Timothy Dalton as Heathcliff is the first colour version of the novel. Wuthering Heights_sentence_159

It has gained acceptance over the years although it was initially poorly received. Wuthering Heights_sentence_160

The character of Hindley is portrayed much more sympathetically, and his story-arc is altered. Wuthering Heights_sentence_161

It also subtly suggests that Heathcliff may be Cathy's illegitimate half-brother. Wuthering Heights_sentence_162

In 1978, the BBC produced a five-part TV serialisation of the book starring Ken Hutchinson, Kay Adshead and John Duttine, with music by Carl Davis; it is considered one of the most faithful adaptations of Emily Brontë's story. Wuthering Heights_sentence_163

There is also a 1985 French film adaptation, Hurlevent by Jacques Rivette. Wuthering Heights_sentence_164

The 1992 film Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights starring Ralph Fiennes and Juliette Binoche is notable for including the oft-omitted second generation story of the children of Cathy, Hindley and Heathcliff. Wuthering Heights_sentence_165

More recent film or TV adaptations include ITV's 2009 two-part drama series starring Tom Hardy, Charlotte Riley, Sarah Lancashire, and Andrew Lincoln, and the 2011 film starring Kaya Scodelario and James Howson and directed by Andrea Arnold. Wuthering Heights_sentence_166

Adaptations which place the story in a new setting include the 1954 adaptation, retitled Abismos de Pasion, directed by Spanish filmmaker Luis Buñuel and set in Catholic Mexico, with Heathcliff and Cathy renamed Alejandro and Catalina. Wuthering Heights_sentence_167

In Buñuel's version Heathcliff/Alejandro claims to have become rich by making a deal with Satan. Wuthering Heights_sentence_168

The New York Times reviewed a re-release of this film as "an almost magical example of how an artist of genius can take someone else's classic work and shape it to fit his own temperament without really violating it," noting that the film was thoroughly Spanish and Catholic in its tone while still highly faithful to Brontë. Wuthering Heights_sentence_169

Yoshishige Yoshida's 1988 adaptation also has a transposed setting, this time to medieval Japan. Wuthering Heights_sentence_170

In Yoshida's version, the Heathcliff character, Onimaru, is raised in a nearby community of priests who worship a local fire god. Wuthering Heights_sentence_171

Filipino director Carlos Siguion-Reyna made a film adaptation titled Hihintayin Kita sa Langit (1991). Wuthering Heights_sentence_172

The screenplay was written by Raquel Villavicencio and produced by Armida Siguion-Reyna. Wuthering Heights_sentence_173

It starred Richard Gomez as Gabriel (Heathcliff) and Dawn Zulueta as Carmina (Catherine). Wuthering Heights_sentence_174

It became a Filipino film classic. Wuthering Heights_sentence_175

In 2003, MTV produced a poorly reviewed version set in a modern California high school. Wuthering Heights_sentence_176

The 1966 Indian film Dil Diya Dard Liya is based upon this novel. Wuthering Heights_sentence_177

The film is directed by Abdul Rashid Kardar and Dilip Kumar. Wuthering Heights_sentence_178

The film stars Dilip Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Pran, Rehman, Shyama and Johnny Walker. Wuthering Heights_sentence_179

The music is by Naushad. Wuthering Heights_sentence_180

Although it did not fare as well as other movies of Dilip Kumar, it was well received by critics. Wuthering Heights_sentence_181

Theatre Wuthering Heights_section_24

The novel has been popular in opera and theatre, including operas written by Bernard Herrmann, Carlisle Floyd, and Frédéric Chaslin (most cover only the first half of the book) and a musical by Bernard J. Taylor. Wuthering Heights_sentence_182

Literature Wuthering Heights_section_25

In 2011, a graphic novel version was published by Classical Comics. Wuthering Heights_sentence_183

It was adapted by Scottish writer Sean Michael Wilson and hand painted by comic book veteran artist John M Burns. Wuthering Heights_sentence_184

This version, which stays close to the original novel, received a nomination for the Stan Lee Excelsior Awards, elected by pupils from 170 schools in the United Kingdom. Wuthering Heights_sentence_185

Works inspired by Wuthering Heights_section_26

Main article: List of Wuthering Heights references Wuthering Heights_sentence_186

Music Wuthering Heights_section_27

Kate Bush's song "Wuthering Heights" is most likely the best-known creative work inspired by Brontë's story that is not properly an "adaptation". Wuthering Heights_sentence_187

Bush wrote and released the song when she was 18 and chose it as the lead single in her debut album (despite the record company preferring another track as the lead single). Wuthering Heights_sentence_188

It was primarily inspired by the Olivier–Oberon film version, which deeply affected Bush in her teenage years. Wuthering Heights_sentence_189

The song is sung from Catherine's point of view as she pleads at Heathcliff's window to be admitted. Wuthering Heights_sentence_190

It uses quotations from Catherine, both in the chorus ("Let me in! Wuthering Heights_sentence_191

I'm so cold!") Wuthering Heights_sentence_192

and the verses, with Catherine's admitting she had "bad dreams in the night". Wuthering Heights_sentence_193

Critic Sheila Whiteley wrote that the ethereal quality of the vocal resonates with Cathy's dementia, and that Bush's high register has both "childlike qualities in its purity of tone" and an "underlying eroticism in its sinuous erotic contours". Wuthering Heights_sentence_194

Singer Pat Benatar also released the song in 1980 on the "Crimes of Passion" album. Wuthering Heights_sentence_195

Brazilian heavy metal band Angra released a version of Bush's song on its debut album Angels Cry, in 1993.A 2018 cover of Bush's "Wuthering Heights" by EURINGER adds electropunk elements. Wuthering Heights_sentence_196

Wind & Wuthering (1976) by English rock band Genesis alludes to the Brontë novel not only in the album's title but also in the titles of two of its tracks, "Unquiet Slumbers for the Sleepers..." and "...In That Quiet Earth". Wuthering Heights_sentence_197

Both titles refer to the closing lines in the novel. Wuthering Heights_sentence_198

Songwriter Jim Steinman said that he wrote the song "It's All Coming Back to Me Now" "while under the influence of Wuthering Heights". Wuthering Heights_sentence_199

He said that the song was "about being enslaved and obsessed by love" and compared it to "Heathcliffe digging up Kathy's corpse and dancing with it in the cold moonlight". Wuthering Heights_sentence_200

The song "Cath" by indie rock band Death Cab for Cutie was inspired by Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights_sentence_201

The song "Cover My Eyes (Pain and Heaven)" by the band Marillion includes the line "Like the girl in the novel in the wind on the moors". Wuthering Heights_sentence_202

The song "Emily" by folk artist Billie Marten is written from Brontë's perspective. Wuthering Heights_sentence_203

Marten wrote the song while studying Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights_sentence_204

Literature Wuthering Heights_section_28

Mizumura Minae's A True Novel (Honkaku shosetsu) (2002) is inspired by Wuthering Heights and might be called an adaptation of the story in a post-World War II Japanese setting. Wuthering Heights_sentence_205

In Jane Urquhart's Changing Heaven, the novel Wuthering Heights, as well as the ghost of Emily Brontë, feature as prominent roles in the narrative. Wuthering Heights_sentence_206

In her 2019 novel, The West Indian, Valerie Browne Lester imagines an origin story for Heathcliff in 1760s Jamaica. Wuthering Heights_sentence_207

Canadian author Hilary Scharper's ecogothic novel Perdita (2013) was deeply influenced by Wuthering Heights, namely in terms of the narrative role of powerful, cruel and desolate landscapes. Wuthering Heights_sentence_208

The poem "Wuthering" (2017) by Tanya Grae uses Wuthering Heights as an allegory. Wuthering Heights_sentence_209

Maryse Condé's Windward Heights (La migration des coeurs) (1995) is a reworking of Wuthering Heights set in Cuba and Guadeloupe at the turn of the 20th century, which Condé stated she intended as an homage to Brontë. Wuthering Heights_sentence_210

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wuthering Heights.