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This article is about the country in Western Asia. Yemen_sentence_0

For other uses, see Yemen (disambiguation). Yemen_sentence_1


Republic of Yemen

ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْيَمَنِيَّةُ (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-YamanīyahYemen_header_cell_0_0_0

CapitalYemen_header_cell_0_1_0 Sanaa (de jure)
under the SPC control 

Aden (Temporary capital)Yemen_cell_0_1_1

Capital-in-exileYemen_header_cell_0_2_0 RiyadhYemen_cell_0_2_1
Largest cityYemen_header_cell_0_3_0 SanaaYemen_cell_0_3_1
Official languagesYemen_header_cell_0_4_0 ArabicYemen_cell_0_4_1
Ethnic groupsYemen_header_cell_0_5_0 Yemen_cell_0_5_1
ReligionYemen_header_cell_0_6_0 IslamYemen_cell_0_6_1
Demonym(s)Yemen_header_cell_0_7_0 Yemeni, YemeniteYemen_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentYemen_header_cell_0_8_0 Yemen_cell_0_8_1
PresidentYemen_header_cell_0_9_0 Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi (non-resident)Yemen_cell_0_9_1
Vice PresidentYemen_header_cell_0_10_0 Ali Mohsen al-AhmarYemen_cell_0_10_1
Prime MinisterYemen_header_cell_0_11_0 Maeen Abdulmalik SaeedYemen_cell_0_11_1
President of the Supreme Political CouncilYemen_header_cell_0_12_0 Mahdi al-MashatYemen_cell_0_12_1
Prime Minister of the Supreme Political CouncilYemen_header_cell_0_13_0 Abdel-Aziz bin HabtourYemen_cell_0_13_1
President of the Southern Transitional CouncilYemen_header_cell_0_14_0 Aidarus al-ZoubaidiYemen_cell_0_14_1
Vice-President of the Southern Transitional CouncilYemen_header_cell_0_15_0 Hani Bin BrekYemen_cell_0_15_1
LegislatureYemen_header_cell_0_16_0 Parliament (de jure)

Supreme Political Council (de facto)Yemen_cell_0_16_1

Upper houseYemen_header_cell_0_17_0 Shura CouncilYemen_cell_0_17_1
Lower houseYemen_header_cell_0_18_0 House of RepresentativesYemen_cell_0_18_1
Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen establishedYemen_header_cell_0_20_0 30 October 1918Yemen_cell_0_20_1
Yemen Arab Republic establishedYemen_header_cell_0_21_0 26 September 1962Yemen_cell_0_21_1
South Yemen independenceYemen_header_cell_0_22_0 30 November 1967Yemen_cell_0_22_1
UnificationYemen_header_cell_0_23_0 22 May 1990Yemen_cell_0_23_1
Current constitutionYemen_header_cell_0_24_0 16 May 1991Yemen_cell_0_24_1
TotalYemen_header_cell_0_26_0 527,968 km (203,850 sq mi) (49th)Yemen_cell_0_26_1
Water (%)Yemen_header_cell_0_27_0 negligibleYemen_cell_0_27_1
2018 estimateYemen_header_cell_0_29_0 28,498,683 (48th)Yemen_cell_0_29_1
2004 censusYemen_header_cell_0_30_0 19,685,000Yemen_cell_0_30_1
DensityYemen_header_cell_0_31_0 44.7/km (115.8/sq mi) (160th)Yemen_cell_0_31_1
GDP (PPP)Yemen_header_cell_0_32_0 2018 estimateYemen_cell_0_32_1
TotalYemen_header_cell_0_33_0 $73.348 billion (118th)Yemen_cell_0_33_1
Per capitaYemen_header_cell_0_34_0 $2,380 (161st)Yemen_cell_0_34_1
GDP (nominal)Yemen_header_cell_0_35_0 2018 estimateYemen_cell_0_35_1
TotalYemen_header_cell_0_36_0 $28.524 billion (103rd)Yemen_cell_0_36_1
Per capitaYemen_header_cell_0_37_0 $925 (177th)Yemen_cell_0_37_1
Gini (2014)Yemen_header_cell_0_38_0 36.7


HDI (2018)Yemen_header_cell_0_39_0 0.463

low · 177thYemen_cell_0_39_1

CurrencyYemen_header_cell_0_40_0 Yemeni rial (YER)Yemen_cell_0_40_1
Time zoneYemen_header_cell_0_41_0 UTC+3 (AST)Yemen_cell_0_41_1
Driving sideYemen_header_cell_0_42_0 rightYemen_cell_0_42_1
Calling codeYemen_header_cell_0_43_0 +967Yemen_cell_0_43_1
Internet TLDYemen_header_cell_0_44_0 .ye, اليمن.Yemen_cell_0_44_1

Yemen (/ˈjɛmən/ (listen); Arabic: ٱلْيَمَن‎, romanized: al-Yaman), officially the Republic of Yemen (Arabic: ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْيَمَنِيَّةُ‎, romanized: al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah, literally "Yemeni Republic"), is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Yemen_sentence_2

It is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres (203,850 square miles). Yemen_sentence_3

The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 miles). Yemen_sentence_4

It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and Oman to the east. Yemen_sentence_5

Yemen's territory encompasses more than 200 islands, including the Socotra islands in the Guardafui Channel. Yemen_sentence_6

Yemen is characterized as a failed state with high necessity of transformation. Yemen_sentence_7

Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sanaa, but the city has been under Houthi rebel control since February 2015 as well as Aden, which is also controlled by the Southern Transitional Council since 2018. Yemen_sentence_8

Its executive administration resides in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Yemen_sentence_9

In ancient times, Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans, a trading state that included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. Yemen_sentence_10

In 275 CE, the region came under the rule of the later Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Yemen_sentence_11

Christianity arrived in the fourth century. Yemen_sentence_12

Islam spread quickly in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the early Islamic conquests. Yemen_sentence_13

The administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Yemen_sentence_14

Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous. Yemen_sentence_15

The country was divided between the Ottoman and British empires in the early twentieth century. Yemen_sentence_16

The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. Yemen_sentence_17

South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and later, a Marxist-Leninist state. Yemen_sentence_18

The two Yemeni states united to form the modern Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah) in 1990. Yemen_sentence_19

President Ali Abdullah Saleh was the first president of the new republic until his resignation in 2012 in the wake of the Arab Spring. Yemen_sentence_20

His rule has been described as a kleptocracy. Yemen_sentence_21

Since 2011, Yemen has been in a state of political crisis starting with street protests against poverty, unemployment, corruption, and president Saleh's plan to amend Yemen's constitution and eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life. Yemen_sentence_22

President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, who was formally elected president on 21 February 2012 in a one-candidate election. Yemen_sentence_23

Since then, the country has been in a civil war (alongside the Saudi Arabian-led military intervention aimed at restoring Hadi's government) with several proto-state entities claiming to govern Yemen: the Cabinet of Yemen, Supreme Political Council and the Southern Transitional Council. Yemen_sentence_24

At least 56,000 civilians and combatants have been killed in armed violence in Yemen since January 2016. Yemen_sentence_25

The war has resulted in a famine affecting 17 million people. Yemen_sentence_26

The lack of safe drinking water, caused by depleted aquifers and the destruction of the country's water infrastructure, has also caused the largest, fastest-spreading cholera outbreak in modern history, with the number of suspected cases exceeding 994,751. Yemen_sentence_27

Over 2,226 people have died since the outbreak began to spread rapidly at the end of April 2017. Yemen_sentence_28

The ongoing humanitarian crisis and conflict has received widespread criticism for having a dramatic worsening effect on Yemen's humanitarian situation, that some say has reached the level of a "humanitarian disaster" and some have even labelled it as a genocide. Yemen_sentence_29

It has worsened the country's already-poor human rights record which was already characterized by rampant torture, extrajudicial killings, and limited civil liberties. Yemen_sentence_30

Yemen belongs to the least developed country group, referring to its numerous "severe structural impediments to sustainable development". Yemen_sentence_31

In 2019, the United Nations reported that Yemen is the country with the most people in need of humanitarian aid, about 24 million people out of a total of 28.5 million, or 85% of its population. Yemen_sentence_32

As of 2020, the country is placed the highest in Fragile State Index, and the second worst in Global Hunger Index, only being surpassed by the Central African Republic. Yemen_sentence_33

It is a member of the Arab League, United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Yemen_sentence_34

Etymology Yemen_section_0

Further information: Arabia Felix, South Arabia, and Hamavaran Yemen_sentence_35

The term Yamnat was mentioned in Old South Arabian inscriptions on the title of one of the kings of the second Himyarite kingdom known as Shammar Yahrʽish II. Yemen_sentence_36

The term probably referred to the southwestern coastline of the Arabian peninsula and the southern coastline between Aden and Hadramout. Yemen_sentence_37

The historical Yemen included much greater territory than the current nation, stretching from northern 'Asir in southwestern Saudi Arabia to Dhofar in southern Oman. Yemen_sentence_38

One etymology derives Yemen from ymnt, meaning "South", and significantly plays on the notion of the land to the right (). Yemen_sentence_39

Other sources claim that Yemen is related to yamn or yumn, meaning "felicity" or "blessed", as much of the country is fertile. Yemen_sentence_40

The Romans called it Arabia Felix ("fertile Arabia"), as opposed to Arabia Deserta ("deserted Arabia"). Yemen_sentence_41

Latin and Greek writers referred to ancient Yemen as "India", which arose from the Persians calling the Abyssinians whom they came into contact with in South Arabia by the name of the dark-skinned people who lived next to them, viz. the Indians. Yemen_sentence_42

History Yemen_section_1

Main article: History of Yemen Yemen_sentence_43

Ancient history Yemen_section_2

Main articles: Ancient history of Yemen, Sabaeans, Qataban, Minaeans, and Himyarite Kingdom Yemen_sentence_44

With its long sea border between eastern and western civilizations, Yemen has long existed at a crossroads of cultures with a strategic location in terms of trade on the west of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen_sentence_45

Large settlements for their era existed in the mountains of northern Yemen as early as 5000 BCE. Yemen_sentence_46

The Sabaean Kingdom came into existence from at least the 11th century BCE. Yemen_sentence_47

The four major kingdoms or tribal confederations in South Arabia were: Saba, Hadramout, Qataban, and Ma'in. Yemen_sentence_48

Saba’ (Arabic: سَـبَـأ‎) is thought to be biblical Sheba and was the most prominent federation. Yemen_sentence_49

The Sabaean rulers adopted the title Mukarrib generally thought to mean unifier, or a priest-king, or the head of the confederation of South Arabian kingdoms, the "king of the kings". Yemen_sentence_50

The role of the Mukarrib was to bring the various tribes under the kingdom and preside over them all. Yemen_sentence_51

The Sabaeans built the Great Dam of Marib around 940 BCE. Yemen_sentence_52

The dam was built to withstand the seasonal flash floods surging down the valley. Yemen_sentence_53

Between 700 and 680 BCE, the Kingdom of Awsan dominated Aden and its surroundings and challenged the Sabaean supremacy in the Arabian South. Yemen_sentence_54

Sabaean Mukarrib Karib'il Watar I conquered the entire realm of Awsan, and expanded Sabaean rule and territory to include much of South Arabia. Yemen_sentence_55

Lack of water in the Arabian Peninsula prevented the Sabaeans from unifying the entire peninsula. Yemen_sentence_56

Instead, they established various colonies to control trade routes. Yemen_sentence_57

Evidence of Sabaean influence is found in northern Ethiopia, where the South Arabian alphabet, religion and pantheon, and the South Arabian style of art and architecture were introduced. Yemen_sentence_58

The Sabaean created a sense of identity through their religion. Yemen_sentence_59

They worshipped El-Maqah and believed that they were his children. Yemen_sentence_60

For centuries, the Sabaeans controlled outbound trade across the Bab-el-Mandeb, a strait separating the Arabian Peninsula from the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea from the Indian Ocean. Yemen_sentence_61

By the third century BCE, Qataban, Hadramout, and Ma'in became independent from Saba and established themselves in the Yemeni arena. Yemen_sentence_62

Minaean rule stretched as far as Dedan, with their capital at Baraqish. Yemen_sentence_63

The Sabaeans regained their control over Ma'in after the collapse of Qataban in 50 BCE. Yemen_sentence_64

By the time of the Roman expedition to Arabia Felix in 25 BCE, the Sabaeans were once again the dominating power in Southern Arabia. Yemen_sentence_65

Aelius Gallus was ordered to lead a military campaign to establish Roman dominance over the Sabaeans. Yemen_sentence_66

The Romans had a vague and contradictory geographical knowledge about Arabia Felix or Yemen. Yemen_sentence_67

The Roman army of 10,000 men was defeated before Marib. Yemen_sentence_68

Strabo's close relationship with Aelius Gallus led him to attempt to justify his friend's defeat in his writings. Yemen_sentence_69

It took the Romans six months to reach Marib and 60 days to return to Egypt. Yemen_sentence_70

The Romans blamed their Nabataean guide and executed him for treachery. Yemen_sentence_71

No direct mention in Sabaean inscriptions of the Roman expedition has yet been found. Yemen_sentence_72

After the Roman expedition – perhaps earlier – the country fell into chaos, and two clans, namely Hamdan and Himyar, claimed kingship, assuming the title King of Sheba and Dhu Raydan. Yemen_sentence_73

Dhu Raydan, i.e., Himyarites, allied themselves with Aksum in Ethiopia against the Sabaeans. Yemen_sentence_74

The chief of Bakil and king of Saba and Dhu Raydan, El Sharih Yahdhib, launched successful campaigns against the Himyarites and Habashat, i.e., Aksum, El Sharih took pride in his campaigns and added the title Yahdhib to his name, which means "suppressor"; he used to kill his enemies by cutting them to pieces. Yemen_sentence_75

Sana'a came into prominence during his reign, as he built the Ghumdan Palace as his place of residence. Yemen_sentence_76

The Himyarite annexed Sana'a from Hamdan around 100 CE. Yemen_sentence_77

Hashdi tribesmen rebelled against them and regained Sana'a around 180 AD. Yemen_sentence_78

Shammar Yahri'sh had not conquered Hadramout, Najran, and Tihama until 275 CE, thus unifying Yemen and consolidating Himyarite rule. Yemen_sentence_79

The Himyarites rejected polytheism and adhered to a consensual form of monotheism called Rahmanism. Yemen_sentence_80

In 354 CE, Roman Emperor Constantius II sent an embassy headed by Theophilos the Indian to convert the Himyarites to Christianity. Yemen_sentence_81

According to Philostorgius, the mission was resisted by local Jews. Yemen_sentence_82

Several inscriptions have been found in Hebrew and Sabaean praising the ruling house in Jewish terms for "...helping and empowering the People of Israel." Yemen_sentence_83

According to Islamic traditions, King As'ad the Perfect mounted a military expedition to support the Jews of Yathrib. Yemen_sentence_84

Abu Kariba As'ad, as known from the inscriptions, led a military campaign to central Arabia or Najd to support the vassal Kingdom of Kindah against the Lakhmids. Yemen_sentence_85

However, no direct reference to Judaism or Yathrib was discovered from his lengthy reign. Yemen_sentence_86

Abu Kariba died in 445 CE, having reigned for almost 50 years. Yemen_sentence_87

By 515 AD, Himyar became increasingly divided along religious lines and a bitter conflict between different factions paved the way for an Aksumite intervention. Yemen_sentence_88

The last Himyarite king Ma'adikarib Ya'fur was supported by Aksum against his Jewish rivals. Yemen_sentence_89

Ma'adikarib was Christian and launched a campaign against the Lakhmids in southern Iraq, with the support of other Arab allies of Byzantium. Yemen_sentence_90

The Lakhmids were a Bulwark of Persia, which was intolerant to a proselytizing religion like Christianity. Yemen_sentence_91

After the death of Ma'adikarib Ya'fur around 521 CE, a Himyarite Jewish warlord named Yousef Asar Yathar rose to power with the honorary title of Yathar (meaning, "to avenge"). Yemen_sentence_92

Yemenite Christians, aided by Aksum and Byzantium, systematically persecuted Jews and burned down several synagogues across the land. Yemen_sentence_93

Yousef avenged his people with great cruelty. Yemen_sentence_94

He marched toward the port city of Mocha, killing 14,000 and capturing 11,000. Yemen_sentence_95

Then he settled a camp in Bab-el-Mandeb to prevent aid flowing from Aksum. Yemen_sentence_96

At the same time, Yousef sent an army under the command of another Jewish warlord, Sharahil Yaqbul, to Najran. Yemen_sentence_97

Sharahil had reinforcements from the Bedouins of the Kindah and Madh'hij tribes, eventually wiping out the Christian community in Najran. Yemen_sentence_98

Yousef or Dhu Nuwas (the one with sidelocks) as known in Arabic literature, believed that Christians in Yemen were a fifth column. Yemen_sentence_99

Christian sources portray Dhu Nuwas (Yousef Asar) as a Jewish zealot, while Islamic traditions say that he threw 20,000 Christians into pits filled with flaming oil. Yemen_sentence_100

This history. Yemen_sentence_101

Dhu Nuwas left two inscriptions, neither of them making any reference to fiery pits. Yemen_sentence_102

Byzantium had to act or lose all credibility as a protector of eastern Christianity. Yemen_sentence_103

It is reported that Byzantium Emperor Justin I sent a letter to the Aksumite King Kaleb, pressuring him to "...attack the abominable Hebrew." Yemen_sentence_104

A tripartite military alliance of Byzantine, Aksumite, and Arab Christians successfully defeated Yousef around 525–527 CE and a client Christian king was installed on the Himyarite throne. Yemen_sentence_105

Esimiphaios was a local Christian lord, mentioned in an inscription celebrating the burning of an ancient Sabaean palace in Marib to build a church on its ruins. Yemen_sentence_106

Three new churches were built in Najran alone. Yemen_sentence_107

Many tribes did not recognize Esimiphaios's authority. Yemen_sentence_108

Esimiphaios was displaced in 531 by a warrior named Abraha, who refused to leave Yemen and declared himself an independent king of Himyar. Yemen_sentence_109

Emperor Justinian I sent an embassy to Yemen. Yemen_sentence_110

He wanted the officially Christian Himyarites to use their influence on the tribes in inner Arabia to launch military operations against Persia. Yemen_sentence_111

Justinian I bestowed the "dignity of king" upon the Arab sheikhs of Kindah and Ghassan in central and northern Arabia. Yemen_sentence_112

From early on, Roman and Byzantine policy was to develop close links with the powers of the coast of the Red Sea. Yemen_sentence_113

They were successful in converting Aksum and influencing their culture. Yemen_sentence_114

The results concerning to Yemen were rather disappointing. Yemen_sentence_115

A Kendite prince called Yazid bin Kabshat rebelled against Abraha and his Arab Christian allies. Yemen_sentence_116

A truce was reached once the Great Dam of Marib had suffered a breach. Yemen_sentence_117

Abraha died around 570CE; Sources regarding his death are available from the qur'an and hadith. Yemen_sentence_118

The Sasanid Empire annexed Aden around 570 CE. Yemen_sentence_119

Under their rule, most of Yemen enjoyed great autonomy except for Aden and Sana'a. Yemen_sentence_120

This era marked the collapse of ancient South Arabian civilization since the greater part of the country was under several independent clans until the arrival of Islam in 630 CE. Yemen_sentence_121

Middle Ages Yemen_section_3

See also: Islamic history of Yemen Yemen_sentence_122

Advent of Islam and the three dynasties Yemen_section_4

Main articles: Yufirids, Ziyadid Dynasty, and Imams of Yemen Yemen_sentence_123

Muhammad sent his cousin Ali to Sana'a and its surroundings around 630 CE. Yemen_sentence_124

At the time, Yemen was the most advanced region in Arabia. Yemen_sentence_125

The Banu Hamdan confederation was among the first to accept Islam, second only to the Somalis, Afar and Habesha. Yemen_sentence_126

Muhammad sent Muadh ibn Jabal, as well to Al-Janad, in present-day Taiz, and dispatched letters to various tribal leaders. Yemen_sentence_127

The reason behind this was the division among the tribes and the absence of a strong central authority in Yemen during the days of the prophet. Yemen_sentence_128

Major tribes, including Himyar, sent delegations to Medina during the "year of delegations" around 630–631 CE. Yemen_sentence_129

Several Yemenis accepted Islam before the year 630, such as Ammar ibn Yasir, Al-Ala'a Al-Hadrami, Miqdad ibn Aswad, Abu Musa Ashaari, and Sharhabeel ibn Hasana. Yemen_sentence_130

A man named 'Abhala ibn Ka'ab Al-Ansi expelled the remaining Persians and claimed he was a prophet of Rahman. Yemen_sentence_131

He was assassinated by a Yemeni of Persian origin called Fayruz al-Daylami. Yemen_sentence_132

Christians, who were mainly staying in Najran along with Jews, agreed to pay jizyah (Arabic: جِـزْيَـة‎), although some Jews converted to Islam, such as Wahb ibn Munabbih and Ka'ab al-Ahbar. Yemen_sentence_133

Yemen was stable during the Rashidun Caliphate. Yemen_sentence_134

Yemeni tribes played a pivotal role in the Islamic expansion of Egypt, Iraq, Persia, the Levant, Anatolia, North Africa, Sicily, and Andalusia. Yemen_sentence_135

Yemeni tribes who settled in Syria, contributed significantly to the solidification of Umayyad rule, especially during the reign of Marwan I. Yemen_sentence_136

Powerful Yemenite tribes such as Kindah were on his side during the Battle of Marj Rahit. Yemen_sentence_137

Several emirates led by people of Yemeni descent were established in North Africa and Andalusia. Yemen_sentence_138

Effective control over entire Yemen was not achieved by the Umayyad Caliphate. Yemen_sentence_139

Imam Abdullah ibn Yahya Al-Kindi was elected in 745 CE to lead the Ibāḍī movement in Hadramawt and Oman. Yemen_sentence_140

He expelled the Umayyad governor from Sana'a and captured Mecca and Medina in 746. Yemen_sentence_141

Al-Kindi, known by his nickname "Talib al-Haqq" (seeker of truth), established the first Ibadi state in the history of Islam but was killed in Taif around 749. Yemen_sentence_142

Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Ziyad founded the Ziyadid dynasty in Tihama around 818 CE. Yemen_sentence_143

The state stretched from Haly (in present-day Saudi Arabia) to Aden. Yemen_sentence_144

They nominally recognized the Abbasid Caliphate but were ruling independently from their capital in Zabid. Yemen_sentence_145

The history of this dynasty is obscure. Yemen_sentence_146

They never exercised control over the highlands and Hadramawt, and did not control more than a coastal strip of Yemen (Tihama) bordering the Red Sea. Yemen_sentence_147

A Himyarite clan called the Yufirids established their rule over the highlands from Saada to Taiz, while Hadramawt was an Ibadi stronghold and rejected all allegiance to the Abbasids in Baghdad. Yemen_sentence_148

By virtue of its location, the Ziyadid dynasty of Zabid developed a special relationship with Abyssinia. Yemen_sentence_149

The chief of the Dahlak islands exported slaves, as well as amber and leopard hides, to the then ruler of Yemen. Yemen_sentence_150

The first Zaidi imam, Yahya ibn al-Husayn, arrived in Yemen in 893 CE. Yemen_sentence_151

He was the founder of the Zaidi imamate in 897. Yemen_sentence_152

He was a religious cleric and judge who was invited to come to Saada from Medina to arbitrate tribal disputes. Yemen_sentence_153

Imam Yahya persuaded local tribesmen to follow his teachings. Yemen_sentence_154

The sect slowly spread across the highlands, as the tribes of Hashid and Bakil, later known as "the twin wings of the imamate," accepted his authority. Yemen_sentence_155

Yahya established his influence in Saada and Najran. Yemen_sentence_156

He also tried to capture Sana'a from the Yufirids in 901 CE but failed miserably. Yemen_sentence_157

In 904, the Isma'ilis under Ibn Hawshab and Ali ibn al-Fadl al-Jayshani invaded Sana'a. Yemen_sentence_158

The Yufirid emir As'ad ibn Ibrahim retreated to Al-Jawf, and between 904 and 913, Sana'a was conquered no less than 20 times by Isma'ilis and Yufirids. Yemen_sentence_159

As'ad ibn Ibrahim regained Sana'a in 915. Yemen_sentence_160

Yemen was in turmoil as Sana'a became a battlefield for the three dynasties, as well as independent tribes. Yemen_sentence_161

The Yufirid emir Abdullah ibn Qahtan attacked and burned Zabid in 989, severely weakening the Ziyadid dynasty. Yemen_sentence_162

The Ziyadid monarchs lost effective power after 989, or even earlier than that. Yemen_sentence_163

Meanwhile, a succession of slaves held power in Zabid and continued to govern in the name of their masters, eventually establishing their own dynasty around 1022 or 1050 according to different sources. Yemen_sentence_164

Although they were recognized by the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad, they ruled no more than Zabid and four districts to its north. Yemen_sentence_165

The rise of the Isma'ili Sulayhid dynasty in the Yemeni highlands reduced their history to a series of intrigues. Yemen_sentence_166

Sulayhid Dynasty (1047–1138) Yemen_section_5

Main article: Sulayhid dynasty Yemen_sentence_167

The Sulayhid dynasty was founded in the northern highlands around 1040; at the time, Yemen was ruled by different local dynasties. Yemen_sentence_168

In 1060, Ali ibn Muhammad Al-Sulayhi conquered Zabid and killed its ruler Al-Najah, founder of the Najahid dynasty. Yemen_sentence_169

His sons were forced to flee to Dahlak. Yemen_sentence_170

Hadramawt fell into Sulayhid hands after their capture of Aden in 1162. Yemen_sentence_171

By 1063, Ali had subjugated Greater Yemen. Yemen_sentence_172

He then marched toward Hejaz and occupied Makkah. Yemen_sentence_173

Ali was married to Asma bint Shihab, who governed Yemen with her husband. Yemen_sentence_174

The Khutba during Friday prayers was proclaimed in both her husband's name and hers. Yemen_sentence_175

No other Arab woman had this honor since the advent of Islam. Yemen_sentence_176

Ali al-Sulayhi was killed by Najah's sons on his way to Mecca in 1084. Yemen_sentence_177

His son Ahmed Al-Mukarram led an army to Zabid and killed 8,000 of its inhabitants. Yemen_sentence_178

He later installed the Zurayids to govern Aden. Yemen_sentence_179

al-Mukarram, who had been afflicted with facial paralysis resulting from war injuries, retired in 1087 and handed over power to his wife Arwa al-Sulayhi. Yemen_sentence_180

Queen Arwa moved the seat of the Sulayhid dynasty from Sana'a to Jibla, a small town in central Yemen near Ibb. Yemen_sentence_181

Jibla was strategically near the Sulayhid dynasty source of wealth, the agricultural central highlands. Yemen_sentence_182

It was also within easy reach of the southern portion of the country, especially Aden. Yemen_sentence_183

She sent Ismaili missionaries to India, where a significant Ismaili community was formed that exists to this day. Yemen_sentence_184

Queen Arwa continued to rule securely until her death in 1138. Yemen_sentence_185

Arwa al-Sulayhi is still remembered as a great and much-loved sovereign, as attested in Yemeni historiography, literature, and popular lore, where she is referred to as Balqis al-sughra ("the junior queen of Sheba"). Yemen_sentence_186

Although the Sulayhids were Ismaili, they never tried to impose their beliefs on the public. Yemen_sentence_187

Shortly after Queen Arwa's death, the country was split between five competing petty dynasties along religious lines. Yemen_sentence_188

The Ayyubid dynasty overthrew the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt. Yemen_sentence_189

A few years after their rise to power, Saladin dispatched his brother Turan Shah to conquer Yemen in 1174. Yemen_sentence_190

Ayyubid conquest (1171–1260) Yemen_section_6

Main article: Ayyubid Dynasty Yemen_sentence_191

Turan Shah conquered Zabid from the Mahdids in May 1174, then marched toward Aden in June and captured it from the Zurayids. Yemen_sentence_192

The Hamdanid sultans of Sana'a resisted the Ayyubid in 1175, and the Ayyubids did not manage to secure Sana'a until 1189. Yemen_sentence_193

The Ayyubid rule was stable in southern and central Yemen, where they succeeded in eliminating the ministates of that region, while Ismaili and Zaidi tribesmen continued to hold out in several fortresses. Yemen_sentence_194

The Ayyubids failed to capture the Zaydis stronghold in northern Yemen. Yemen_sentence_195

In 1191, Zaydis of Shibam Kawkaban rebelled and killed 700 Ayyubid soldiers. Yemen_sentence_196

Imam Abdullah bin Hamza proclaimed the imamate in 1197 and fought al-Mu'izz Ismail, the Ayyubid Sultan of Yemen. Yemen_sentence_197

Imam Abdullah was defeated at first but was able to conquer Sana'a and Dhamar in 1198, and al-Mu'izz Ismail was assassinated in 1202. Yemen_sentence_198

Abdullah bin Hamza carried on the struggle against the Ayyubid until his death in 1217. Yemen_sentence_199

After his demise, the Zaidi community was split between two rival imams. Yemen_sentence_200

The Zaydis were dispersed and a truce was signed with the Ayyubid in 1219. Yemen_sentence_201

The Ayyubid army was defeated in Dhamar in 1226. Yemen_sentence_202

Ayyubid Sultan Mas'ud Yusuf left for Mecca in 1228, never to return. Yemen_sentence_203

Other sources suggest that he was forced to leave for Egypt instead in 1123. Yemen_sentence_204

Rasulid Dynasty (1229–1454) Yemen_section_7

Main article: Rasulid dynasty Yemen_sentence_205

The Rasulid Dynasty was established in 1229 by Umar ibn Rasul, who was appointed deputy governor by the Ayyubids in 1223. Yemen_sentence_206

When the last Ayyubid ruler left Yemen in 1229, Umar stayed in the country as caretaker. Yemen_sentence_207

He subsequently declared himself an independent king by assuming the title "al-Malik Al-Mansur" (the king assisted by Allah). Yemen_sentence_208

Umar established the Rasulid dynasty on a firm foundation and expanded its territory to include the area from Dhofar to Mecca Yemen_sentence_209

Umar first established himself at Zabid, then moved into the mountainous interior, taking the important highland centre Sana'a. Yemen_sentence_210

However, the Rasulid capitals were Zabid and Taiz. Yemen_sentence_211

He was assassinated by his nephew in 1249. Yemen_sentence_212

Omar's son Yousef defeated the faction led by his father's assassins and crushed several counter-attacks by the Zaydi imams who still held on in the northern highland. Yemen_sentence_213

Mainly because of the victories he scored over his rivals, he assumed the honorific title "al-Muzaffar" (the victorious). Yemen_sentence_214

After the fall of Baghdad to the Mongols in 1258, al-Muzaffar Yusuf I appropriated the title of caliph. Yemen_sentence_215

He chose the city of Taiz to become the political capital of the kingdom because of its strategic location and proximity to Aden. Yemen_sentence_216

al-Muzaffar Yusuf I died in 1296, having reigned for 47 years. Yemen_sentence_217

When the news of his death reached the Zaydi imam Al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Yahya, he commented, Yemen_sentence_218

The Rasulid state nurtured Yemen's commercial links with India and the Far East. Yemen_sentence_219

They profited greatly by the Red Sea transit trade via Aden and Zabid. Yemen_sentence_220

The economy also boomed due to the agricultural development programs instituted by the kings who promoted massive cultivation of palms. Yemen_sentence_221

The Rasulid kings enjoyed the support of the population of Tihama and southern Yemen, while they had to buy the loyalty of Yemen's restive northern highland tribes. Yemen_sentence_222

The Rasulid sultans built numerous Madrasas to solidify the Shafi'i school of thought, which is still the dominant school of jurisprudence amongst Yemenis today. Yemen_sentence_223

Under their rule, Taiz and Zabid became major international centres of Islamic learning. Yemen_sentence_224

The kings themselves were educated men in their own right, who not only had important libraries but also wrote treatises on a wide array of subjects, ranging from astrology and medicine to agriculture and genealogy. Yemen_sentence_225

The dynasty is regarded as the greatest native Yemeni state since the fall of the pre-Islamic Himyarite Kingdom. Yemen_sentence_226

They were of Turkic descent. Yemen_sentence_227

They claimed an ancient Yemenite origin to justify their rule. Yemen_sentence_228

The Rasulids were not the first dynasty to create a fictitious genealogy for political purposes, nor were they doing anything out of the ordinary in the tribal context of Arabia. Yemen_sentence_229

By claiming descent from a solid Yemenite tribe, the Rasulids brought Yemen to a vital sense of unity in an otherwise chaotic regional milieu. Yemen_sentence_230

They had a difficult relationship with the Mamluks of Egypt because the latter considered them a vassal state. Yemen_sentence_231

Their competition centred over the Hejaz and the right to provide kiswa of the Ka'aba in Mecca. Yemen_sentence_232

The dynasty became increasingly threatened by disgruntled family members over the problem of succession, combined by periodic tribal revolts, as they were locked in a war of attrition with the Zaydi imams in the northern highlands. Yemen_sentence_233

During the last 12 years of Rasulid rule, the country was torn between several contenders for the kingdom. Yemen_sentence_234

The weakening of the Rasulid provided an opportunity for the Banu Taher clan to take over and establish themselves as the new rulers of Yemen in 1454 CE. Yemen_sentence_235

Tahiride Dynasty (1454–1517) Yemen_section_8

Main article: Tahirids (Yemen) Yemen_sentence_236

The Tahirids were a local clan based in Rada'a. Yemen_sentence_237

While they were not as impressive as their predecessors, they were still keen builders. Yemen_sentence_238

They built schools, mosques, and irrigation channels, as well as water cisterns and bridges in Zabid, Aden, Rada'a, and Juban. Yemen_sentence_239

Their best-known monument is the Amiriya Madrasa in Rada' District, which was built in 1504. Yemen_sentence_240

The Tahiride were too weak either to contain the Zaydi imams or to defend themselves against foreign attacks. Yemen_sentence_241

Realizing how rich the Tahiride realm was, they decided to conquer it. Yemen_sentence_242

The Mamluk army, with the support of forces loyal to Zaydi Imam Al-Mutawakkil Yahya Sharaf ad-Din, conquered the entire realm of the Tahiride but failed to capture Aden in 1517. Yemen_sentence_243

The Mamluk victory was short-lived. Yemen_sentence_244

The Ottoman Empire conquered Egypt, hanging the last Mamluk Sultan in Cairo. Yemen_sentence_245

The Ottomans had not decided to conquer Yemen until 1538. Yemen_sentence_246

The Zaydi highland tribes emerged as national heroes by offering stiff, vigorous resistance to the Turkish occupation. Yemen_sentence_247

The Mamluks of Egypt tried to attach Yemen to Egypt and the Portuguese led by Afonso de Albuquerque, occupied Socotra and made an unsuccessful attack on Aden in 1513. Yemen_sentence_248

Realizing how rich the Tahiride realm was, they decided to conquer it. Yemen_sentence_249

The Mamluk army, with the support of forces loyal to Zaydi Imam Al-Mutawakkil Yahya Sharaf ad-Din, conquered the entire realm of the Tahiride but failed to capture Aden in 1517. Yemen_sentence_250

The Mamluk victory was short-lived. Yemen_sentence_251

The Ottoman Empire conquered Egypt, hanging the last Mamluk Sultan in Cairo. Yemen_sentence_252

The Ottomans had not decided to conquer Yemen until 1538. Yemen_sentence_253

The Zaydi highland tribes emerged as national heroes by offering stiff, vigorous resistance to the Turkish occupation. Yemen_sentence_254

Modern history Yemen_section_9

See also: Modern history of Yemen Yemen_sentence_255

The Zaydis and Ottomans Yemen_section_10

See also: Yemen Eyalet and Yemeni Zaidi State Yemen_sentence_256

The Ottomans had two fundamental interests to safeguard in Yemen: The Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina, and the trade route with India in spices and textiles—both threatened, and the latter virtually eclipsed, by the arrival of the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea in the early 16th century. Yemen_sentence_257

Hadım Suleiman Pasha, The Ottoman governor of Egypt, was ordered to command a fleet of 90 ships to conquer Yemen. Yemen_sentence_258

The country was in a state of incessant anarchy and discord as Hadım Suleiman Pasha described it by saying: Yemen_sentence_259

Imam al-Mutawakkil Yahya Sharaf ad-Din ruled over the northern highlands including Sana'a, while Aden was held by the last Tahiride Sultan 'Amir ibn Dauod. Yemen_sentence_260

Hadım Suleiman Pasha stormed Aden in 1538, killing its ruler, and extended Ottoman authority to include Zabid in 1539 and eventually Tihama in its entirety. Yemen_sentence_261

Zabid became the administrative headquarters of Yemen Eyalet. Yemen_sentence_262

The Ottoman governors did not exercise much control over the highlands. Yemen_sentence_263

They held sway mainly in the southern coastal region, particularly around Zabid, Mocha, and Aden. Yemen_sentence_264

Of 80,000 soldiers sent to Yemen from Egypt between 1539 and 1547, only 7,000 survived. Yemen_sentence_265

The Ottoman accountant-general in Egypt remarked: Yemen_sentence_266

The Ottomans sent yet another expeditionary force to Zabid in 1547, while Imam al-Mutawakkil Yahya Sharaf ad-Din was ruling the highlands independently. Yemen_sentence_267

Imam al-Mutawakkil Yahya chose his son Ali to succeed him, a decision that infuriated his other son al-Mutahhar ibn Yahya. Yemen_sentence_268

Al-Mutahhar was lame, so he was not qualified for the imamate. Yemen_sentence_269

He urged Oais Pasha, the Ottoman colonial governor in Zabid, to attack his father. Yemen_sentence_270

Indeed, Ottoman troops supported by tribal forces loyal to Imam al-Mutahhar stormed Taiz and marched north toward Sana'a in August 1547. Yemen_sentence_271

The Turks officially made Imam al-Mutahhar a Sanjak-bey with authority over 'Amran. Yemen_sentence_272

Imam al-Mutahhar assassinated the Ottoman colonial governor and recaptured Sana'a, but the Ottomans, led by Özdemir Pasha, forced al-Mutahhar to retreat to his fortress in Thula. Yemen_sentence_273

Özdemir Pasha effectively put Yemen under Ottoman rule between 1552 and 1560. Yemen_sentence_274

He was considered a competent ruler given Yemen's notorious lawlessness, garrisoning the main cities, building new fortresses, and rendering secure the main routes. Yemen_sentence_275

Özdemir died in Sana'a in 1561 and was succeeded by Mahmud Pasha. Yemen_sentence_276

Unlike Özdemir's brief but able leadership, Mahmud Pasha was described by other Ottoman officials as a corrupt and unscrupulous governor. Yemen_sentence_277

He used his authority to take over several castles, some of which belonged to the former Rasulid kings. Yemen_sentence_278

Mahmud Pasha killed a Sunni scholar from Ibb. Yemen_sentence_279

The Ottoman historian claimed that this incident was celebrated by the Zaydi Shia community in the northern highlands. Yemen_sentence_280

Disregarding the delicate balance of power in Yemen by acting tactlessly, he alienated different groups within Yemeni society, causing them to forget their rivalries and unite against the Turks. Yemen_sentence_281

Mahmud Pasha was displaced by Ridvan Pasha in 1564. Yemen_sentence_282

By 1565, Yemen was split into two provinces, the highlands under the command of Ridvan Pasha and Tihama under Murad Pasha. Yemen_sentence_283

Imam al-Mutahhar launched a propaganda campaign in which he claimed that the prophet Mohammed came to him in a dream and advised him to wage jihad against the Ottomans. Yemen_sentence_284

Al-Mutahhar led the tribes to capture Sana'a from Ridvan Pasha in 1567. Yemen_sentence_285

When Murad tried to relieve Sana'a, highland tribesmen ambushed his unit and slaughtered all of them. Yemen_sentence_286

Over 80 battles were fought. Yemen_sentence_287

The last decisive encounter took place in Dhamar around 1568, in which Murad Pasha was beheaded and his head sent to al-Mutahhar in Sana'a. Yemen_sentence_288

By 1568, only Zabid remained under the possession of the Turks. Yemen_sentence_289

Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha, the Ottoman governor of Syria, was ordered by Selim II to suppress the Yemeni rebels. Yemen_sentence_290

However, the Turkish army in Egypt was reluctant to go to Yemen due to their knowledge of the hegemony of the northern Yemenis. Yemen_sentence_291

Mustafa Pasha sent a letter with two Turkish shawishes hoping to persuade al-Mutahhar to give an apology and confirm that Mustafa Pasha did not promote any act of aggression against the Ottoman army, and state that the "ignorant Arabian" according to the Turks, acted on their own. Yemen_sentence_292

Imam al-Mutahhar refused the Ottoman offer. Yemen_sentence_293

When Mustafa Pasha sent an expeditionary force under the command of Uthman Pasha, it was defeated with great casualties. Yemen_sentence_294

Sultan Selim II was infuriated by Mustafa's hesitation to go to Yemen. Yemen_sentence_295

He executed a number of sanjak-beys in Egypt and ordered Sinan Pasha to lead the entire Turkish army in Egypt to reconquer Yemen. Yemen_sentence_296

Sinan Pasha was a prominent Ottoman general of Albanian origin. Yemen_sentence_297

He reconquered Aden, Taiz, and Ibb, and besieged Shibam Kawkaban in 1570 for seven months. Yemen_sentence_298

The siege was lifted once a truce was reached. Yemen_sentence_299

Imam al-Mutahhar was pushed back, but could not be entirely overcome. Yemen_sentence_300

After al-Mutahhar's demise in 1572, the Zaydi community was not united under an imam; the Turks took advantage of their disunity and conquered Sana'a, Sa'dah, and Najran in 1583. Yemen_sentence_301

Imam al-Nasir Hassan was arrested in 1585 and exiled to Constantinople, thereby putting an end to the Yemeni rebellion. Yemen_sentence_302

The Zaydi tribesmen in the northern highlands particularly those of Hashid and Bakil, were ever the Turkish bugbear in all Arabia. Yemen_sentence_303

The Ottomans who justified their presence in Yemen as a triumph for Islam, accused the Zaydis of being infidels. Yemen_sentence_304

Hassan Pasha was appointed governor of Yemen and enjoyed a period of relative peace from 1585 to 1597. Yemen_sentence_305

Pupils of al-Mansur al-Qasim suggested he should claim the imamate and fight the Turks. Yemen_sentence_306

He declined at first, but the promotion of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence at the expense of Zaydi Islam infuriated al-Mansur al-Qasim. Yemen_sentence_307

He proclaimed the imamate in September 1597, which was the same year the Ottoman authorities inaugurated al-Bakiriyya Mosque. Yemen_sentence_308

By 1608, Imam al-Mansur (the victorious) regained control over the highlands and signed a truce for 10 years with the Ottomans. Yemen_sentence_309

Imam al-Mansur al-Qasim died in 1620. Yemen_sentence_310

His son Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad succeeded him and confirmed the truce with the Ottomans. Yemen_sentence_311

In 1627, the Ottomans lost Aden and Lahej. Yemen_sentence_312

'Abdin Pasha was ordered to suppress the rebels, but failed, and had to retreat to Mocha. Yemen_sentence_313

Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad expelled the Ottomans from Sana'a in 1628, only Zabid and Mocha remained under Ottoman possession. Yemen_sentence_314

Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad captured Zabid in 1634 and allowed the Ottomans to leave Mocha peacefully. Yemen_sentence_315

The reason behind Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad's success was the possession of firearms by the tribes and their unity behind him. Yemen_sentence_316

In 1632, Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad sent an expeditionary force of 1,000 men to conquer Mecca. Yemen_sentence_317

The army entered the city in triumph and killed its governor. Yemen_sentence_318

The Ottomans were not ready to lose Mecca after Yemen, so they sent an army from Egypt to fight the Yemenites. Yemen_sentence_319

Seeing that the Turkish army was too numerous to overcome, the Yemeni army retreated to a valley outside Mecca. Yemen_sentence_320

Ottoman troops attacked the Yemenis by hiding at the wells that supplied them with water. Yemen_sentence_321

This plan proceeded successfully, causing the Yemenis over 200 casualties, most from thirst. Yemen_sentence_322

The tribesmen eventually surrendered and returned to Yemen. Yemen_sentence_323

Al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad died in 1644. Yemen_sentence_324

He was succeeded by Al-Mutawakkil Isma'il, another son of al-Mansur al-Qasim, who conquered Yemen in its entirety, from Asir in the north to Dhofar in the east. Yemen_sentence_325

During his reign, and during the reign of his successor, Al-Mahdi Ahmad (1676–1681), the imamate implemented some of the harshest discriminatory laws (ghiyar) against the Jews of Yemen, which culminated in the expulsion of all Jews (Exile of Mawza) to a hot and arid region in the Tihama coastal plain. Yemen_sentence_326

The Qasimid state was the strongest Zaydi state to ever exist. Yemen_sentence_327

See Yemeni Zaidi State for more information. Yemen_sentence_328

During that period, Yemen was the sole coffee producer in the world. Yemen_sentence_329

The country established diplomatic relations with the Safavid dynasty of Persia, Ottomans of Hejaz, Mughal Empire in India, and Ethiopia, as well. Yemen_sentence_330

Fasilides of Ethiopia sent three diplomatic missions to Yemen, but the relations did not develop into a political alliance, as Fasilides had hoped, due to the rise of powerful feudalists in his country. Yemen_sentence_331

In the first half of the 18th century, the Europeans broke Yemen's monopoly on coffee by smuggling coffee trees and cultivating them in their own colonies in the East Indies, East Africa, the West Indies, and Latin America. Yemen_sentence_332

The imamate did not follow a cohesive mechanism for succession, and family quarrels and tribal insubordination led to the political decline of the Qasimi dynasty in the 18th century. Yemen_sentence_333

In 1728 or 1731, the chief representative of Lahej declared himself an independent sultan in defiance of the Qasimid dynasty and conquered Aden, thus establishing the Sultanate of Lahej. Yemen_sentence_334

The rising power of the fervently Islamist Wahhabi movement on the Arabian Peninsula cost the Zaidi state its coastal possessions after 1803. Yemen_sentence_335

The imam was able to regain them temporarily in 1818, but new intervention by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt in 1833 again wrested the coast from the ruler in Sana'a. Yemen_sentence_336

After 1835, the imamate changed hands with great frequency and some imams were assassinated. Yemen_sentence_337

After 1849, the Zaidi polity descended into chaos that lasted for decades. Yemen_sentence_338

Great Britain and the Nine Regions Yemen_section_11

See also: Aden Protectorate and Sultanate of Lahej Yemen_sentence_339

The British were looking for a coal depot to service their steamers en route to India. Yemen_sentence_340

It took 700 tons of coal for a round-trip from Suez to Bombay. Yemen_sentence_341

East India Company officials decided on Aden. Yemen_sentence_342

The British Empire tried to reach an agreement with the Zaydi imam of Sana'a, permitting them a foothold in Mocha, and when unable to secure their position, they extracted a similar agreement from the Sultan of Lahej, enabling them to consolidate a position in Aden. Yemen_sentence_343

An incident played into British hands when, while passing Aden for trading purposes, one of their sailing ships sank and Arab tribesmen boarded it and plundered its contents. Yemen_sentence_344

The British India government dispatched a warship under the command of Captain Stafford Bettesworth Haines to demand compensation. Yemen_sentence_345

Haines bombarded Aden from his warship in January 1839. Yemen_sentence_346

The ruler of Lahej, who was in Aden at the time, ordered his guards to defend the port, but they failed in the face of overwhelming military and naval power. Yemen_sentence_347

The British managed to occupy Aden and agreed to compensate the sultan with an annual payment of 6,000 riyals. Yemen_sentence_348

The British evicted the Sultan of Lahej from Aden and forced him to accept their "protection." Yemen_sentence_349

In November 1839, 5000 tribesmen tried to retake the town but were repulsed and 200 were killed. Yemen_sentence_350

The British realised that Aden's prosperity depended on their relations with the neighbouring tribes, which required that they rest on a firm and satisfactory basis. Yemen_sentence_351

The British government concluded "protection and friendship" treaties with nine tribes surrounding Aden, whereas they would remain independent from British interference in their affairs as long as they do not conclude treaties with foreigners (non-Arab colonial powers). Yemen_sentence_352

Aden was declared a free zone in 1850. Yemen_sentence_353

With emigrants from India, East Africa, and Southeast Asia, Aden grew into a world city. Yemen_sentence_354

In 1850, only 980 Arabs were registered as original inhabitants of the city. Yemen_sentence_355

The English presence in Aden put them at odds with the Ottomans. Yemen_sentence_356

The Turks asserted to the British that they held sovereignty over the whole of Arabia, including Yemen as the successor of Mohammed and the Chief of the Universal Caliphate. Yemen_sentence_357

Ottoman return Yemen_section_12

See also: Yemen Vilayet Yemen_sentence_358

The Ottomans were concerned about the British expansion from India to the Red Sea and Arabia. Yemen_sentence_359

They returned to the Tihama in 1849 after an absence of two centuries. Yemen_sentence_360

Rivalries and disturbances continued among the Zaydi imams, between them and their deputies, with the ulema, with the heads of tribes, as well as with those who belonged to other sects. Yemen_sentence_361

Some citizens of Sana'a were desperate to return law and order to Yemen and asked the Ottoman Pasha in Tihama to pacify the country. Yemen_sentence_362

Yemeni merchants knew that the return of the Ottomans would improve their trade, for the Ottomans would become their customers. Yemen_sentence_363

An Ottoman expedition force tried to capture Sana'a, but was defeated and had to evacuate the highlands. Yemen_sentence_364

The Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, strengthened the Ottoman decision to remain in Yemen. Yemen_sentence_365

In 1872, military forces were dispatched from Constantinople and moved beyond the Ottoman stronghold in the lowlands (Tihama) to conquer Sana'a. Yemen_sentence_366

By 1873, the Ottomans succeeded in conquering the northern highlands. Yemen_sentence_367

Sana'a became the administrative capital of Yemen Vilayet. Yemen_sentence_368

The Ottomans learned from their previous experience and worked on the disempowerment of local lords in the highland regions. Yemen_sentence_369

They even attempted to secularize the Yemeni society, while Yemenite Jews came to perceive themselves in Yemeni nationalist terms. Yemen_sentence_370

The Ottomans appeased the tribes by forgiving their rebellious chiefs and appointing them to administrative posts. Yemen_sentence_371

They introduced a series of reforms to enhance the country's economic welfare. Yemen_sentence_372

However, corruption was widespread in the Ottoman administration in Yemen. Yemen_sentence_373

This was because only the worst of the officials were appointed because those who could avoid serving in Yemen did so. Yemen_sentence_374

The Ottomans had reasserted control over the highlands for a temporary duration. Yemen_sentence_375

The so-called Tanzimat reforms were considered heretic by the Zaydi tribes. Yemen_sentence_376

In 1876, the Hashid and Bakil tribes rebelled against the Ottomans; the Turks had to appease them with gifts to end the uprising. Yemen_sentence_377

The tribal chiefs were difficult to appease and an endless cycle of violence curbed Ottoman efforts to pacify the land. Yemen_sentence_378

Ahmed Izzet Pasha proposed that the Ottoman army evacuate the highlands and confine itself to Tihama, and not unnecessarily burden itself with continuing military operation against the Zaydi tribes. Yemen_sentence_379

The hit-and-run tactics of the northern highlands tribesmen wore out the Ottoman military. Yemen_sentence_380

They resented the Turkish Tanzimat and defied all attempts to impose a central government upon them. Yemen_sentence_381

The northern tribes united under the leadership of the House of Hamidaddin in 1890. Yemen_sentence_382

Imam Yahya Hamidaddin led a rebellion against the Turks in 1904; the rebels disrupted the Ottoman ability to govern. Yemen_sentence_383

The revolts between 1904 and 1911 were especially damaging to the Ottomans, costing them as many as 10,000 soldiers and as much as 500,000 pounds per year. Yemen_sentence_384

The Ottomans signed a treaty with imam Yahya Hamidaddin in 1911. Yemen_sentence_385

Under the treaty, Imam Yahya was recognized as an autonomous leader of the Zaydi northern highlands. Yemen_sentence_386

The Ottomans continued to rule Shafi'i areas in the mid-south until their departure in 1918. Yemen_sentence_387

Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen Yemen_section_13

Main article: Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen Yemen_sentence_388

Imam Yahya hamid ed-Din al-Mutawakkil was ruling the northern highlands independently from 1911. Yemen_sentence_389

After the Ottoman departure in 1918, he sought to recapture the lands of his Qasimid ancestors. Yemen_sentence_390

He dreamed of Greater Yemen stretching from Asir to Dhofar. Yemen_sentence_391

These schemes brought him into conflict with the de facto rulers in the territories claimed, namely the Idrisids, Ibn Saud, and the British government in Aden. Yemen_sentence_392

The Zaydi imam did not recognize the Anglo-Ottoman border agreement of 1905 on the grounds that it was made between two foreign powers occupying Yemen. Yemen_sentence_393

The border treaty effectively divided Yemen into north and south. Yemen_sentence_394

In 1915, the British signed a treaty with the Idrisids guaranteeing their security and independence if they would fight against the Turks. Yemen_sentence_395

In 1919, Imam Yahya hamid ed-Din moved southward to "liberate" the nine British protectorates. Yemen_sentence_396

The British responded by moving quickly towards Tihama and occupying al-Hudaydah. Yemen_sentence_397

Then they handed it over to their Idrisi allies. Yemen_sentence_398

Imam Yahya attacked the southern protectorates again in 1922. Yemen_sentence_399

The British bombed Yahya's tribal forces using aircraft to which the tribes had no effective counter. Yemen_sentence_400

In 1925, Imam Yahya captured al-Hudaydah from the Idrisids. Yemen_sentence_401

He continued to follow and attack the Idrisids until Asir fell under the control of the imam's forces, forcing the Idrisi to request an agreement that would enable them to administer the region in the name of the imam. Yemen_sentence_402

Imam Yahya refused the offer on the grounds that the Idrisis were of Moroccan descent. Yemen_sentence_403

According to Imam Yahya, the Idrisis, along with the British, were nothing but recent intruders and should be driven out of Yemen permanently. Yemen_sentence_404

In 1927, Imam Yahya's forces were about 50 km (30 mi) away from Aden, Taiz, and Ibb, and were bombed by the British for five days; the imam had to pull back. Yemen_sentence_405

Small Bedouin forces, mainly from the Madh'hij confederation of Marib, attacked Shabwah but were bombed by the British and had to retreat. Yemen_sentence_406

The Italian Empire was the first to recognize Imam Yahya as the King of Yemen in 1926. Yemen_sentence_407

This created a great deal of anxiety for the British, who interpreted it as recognition of Imam Yahya's claim to sovereignty over Greater Yemen, which included the Aden protectorate and Asir. Yemen_sentence_408

The Idrisis turned to Ibn Saud seeking his protection from Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din. Yemen_sentence_409

However, in 1932, the Idrisis broke their accord with Ibn Saud and went back to Imam Yahya seeking help against Ibn Saud himself, who had begun liquidating their authority and expressed his desire to annex those territories into his own Saudi domain. Yemen_sentence_410

Imam Yahya demanded the return of all Idrisi dominion. Yemen_sentence_411

That same year, a group of Hejazi liberals fled to Yemen and plotted to expel Ibn Saud from the former Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz, which had been conquered by the Saudis seven years earlier. Yemen_sentence_412

Ibn Saud appealed to Britain for aid. Yemen_sentence_413

The British government sent arms and aeroplanes . Yemen_sentence_414

The British were anxious that Ibn Saud's financial difficulties may encourage the Italian Empire to bail him out. Yemen_sentence_415

Ibn Saud suppressed the Asiri rebellion in 1933, after which the Idrisids fled to Sana'a. Yemen_sentence_416

Negotiations between the Imam Yahya Hamid ed-Din and Ibn Saud proved fruitless. Yemen_sentence_417

After a military confrontation, Ibn Saud announced a ceasefire in May 1934. Yemen_sentence_418

Imam Yahya agreed to release Saudi hostages and the surrender of the Idrisis to Saudi custody. Yemen_sentence_419

Imam Yahya ceded the three provinces of Najran, Asir, and Jazan for 20 years. Yemen_sentence_420

and signed another treaty with the British government in 1934. Yemen_sentence_421

The imam recognized the British sovereignty over Aden protectorate for 40 years. Yemen_sentence_422

Out of fear for Hudaydah, Yahya did submit to these demands. Yemen_sentence_423

According to Bernard Reich, Professor of Political Science and International Affairs at George Washington University, Yahya could have done better by reorganizing the Zaydi tribes of the northern highlands as his ancestors did against the Turks and British intruders and turn the lands they captured into another graveyard. Yemen_sentence_424

Colonial Aden Yemen_section_14

Starting in 1890, hundreds of Yemeni people from Hajz, Al-Baetha, and Taiz migrated to Aden to work at ports, and as labourers. Yemen_sentence_425

This helped the population of Aden once again become predominantly Arab after, having been declared a free zone, it had become mostly foreigners. Yemen_sentence_426

During World War II, Aden had increasing economic growth and became the second-busiest port in the world after New York City. Yemen_sentence_427

After the rise of labour unions, a rift was apparent between the sectors of workers and the first signs of resistance to the occupation started in 1943. Yemen_sentence_428

Muhammad Ali Luqman founded the first Arabic club and school in Aden, and was the first to start working towards a union. Yemen_sentence_429

The Colony of Aden was divided into an eastern colony and a western colony. Yemen_sentence_430

Those were further divided into 23 sultanates and emirates, and several independent tribes that had no relationships with the sultanates. Yemen_sentence_431

The deal between the sultanates and Britain detailed protection and complete control of foreign relations by the British. Yemen_sentence_432

The Sultanate of Lahej was the only one in which the sultan was referred to as His Highness. Yemen_sentence_433

The Federation of South Arabia was created by the British to counter Arab nationalism by giving more freedom to the rulers of the nations. Yemen_sentence_434

The North Yemen Civil War inspired many in the south to rise against the British rule. Yemen_sentence_435

The National Liberation Front (NLF) of Yemen was formed with the leadership of Qahtan Muhammad Al-Shaabi. Yemen_sentence_436

The NLF hoped to destroy all the sultanates and eventually unite with the Yemen Arab Republic. Yemen_sentence_437

Most of the support for the NLF came from Radfan and Yafa, so the British launched Operation Nutcracker, which completely burned Radfan in January 1964. Yemen_sentence_438

Two states Yemen_section_15

Main articles: Yemen Arab Republic and South Yemen Yemen_sentence_439

Arab nationalism made an impact in some circles who opposed the lack of modernization efforts in the Mutawakkilite monarchy. Yemen_sentence_440

This became apparent when Imam Ahmad bin Yahya died in 1962. Yemen_sentence_441

He was succeeded by his son, but army officers attempted to seize power, sparking the North Yemen Civil War. Yemen_sentence_442

The Hamidaddin royalists were supported by Saudi Arabia, Britain, and Jordan (mostly with weapons and financial aid, but also with small military forces), whilst the military rebels were backed by Egypt. Yemen_sentence_443

Egypt provided the rebels with weapons and financial assistance, but also sent a large military force to participate in the fighting. Yemen_sentence_444

Israel covertly supplied weapons to the royalists to keep the Egyptian military busy in Yemen and make Nasser less likely to initiate a conflict in the Sinai. Yemen_sentence_445

After six years of civil war, the military rebels were victorious (February 1968) and formed the Yemen Arab Republic. Yemen_sentence_446

The revolution in the north coincided with the Aden Emergency, which hastened the end of British rule in the south. Yemen_sentence_447

On 30 November 1967, the state of South Yemen was formed, comprising Aden and the former Protectorate of South Arabia. Yemen_sentence_448

This socialist state was later officially known as the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and a programme of nationalisation was begun. Yemen_sentence_449

Relations between the two Yemeni states fluctuated between peaceful and hostile. Yemen_sentence_450

The South was supported by the Eastern bloc. Yemen_sentence_451

The North, however, was not able to get the same connections. Yemen_sentence_452

In 1972, the two states fought a war. Yemen_sentence_453

The war was resolved with a ceasefire and negotiations brokered by the Arab League, where it was declared that unification would eventually occur. Yemen_sentence_454

In 1978, Ali Abdullah Saleh was named as president of the Yemen Arab Republic. Yemen_sentence_455

After the war, the North complained about the South's help from foreign countries. Yemen_sentence_456

This included Saudi Arabia. Yemen_sentence_457

In 1979, fresh fighting between the two states resumed and efforts were renewed to bring about unification. Yemen_sentence_458

Thousands were killed in 1986 in the South Yemen Civil War. Yemen_sentence_459

President Ali Nasser Muhammad fled to the north and was later sentenced to death for treason. Yemen_sentence_460

A new government formed. Yemen_sentence_461

Unification and civil war Yemen_section_16

Main article: Yemeni unification Yemen_sentence_462

In 1990, the two governments reached a full agreement on the joint governing of Yemen, and the countries were merged on 22 May 1990, with Saleh as President. Yemen_sentence_463

The President of South Yemen, Ali Salim al-Beidh, became Vice President. Yemen_sentence_464

A unified parliament was formed and a unity constitution was agreed upon. Yemen_sentence_465

In the 1993 parliamentary election, the first held after unification, the General People's Congress won 122 of 301 seats. Yemen_sentence_466

After the invasion of Kuwait crisis in 1990, Yemen's president opposed military intervention from non-Arab states. Yemen_sentence_467

As a member of the United Nations Security Council for 1990 and 1991, Yemen abstained on a number of UNSC resolutions concerning Iraq and Kuwait and voted against the "...use of force resolution." Yemen_sentence_468

The vote outraged the U.S. Saudi Arabia expelled 800,000 Yemenis in 1990 and 1991 to punish Yemen for its opposition to the intervention. Yemen_sentence_469

In the absence of strong state institutions, elite politics in Yemen constituted a de facto form of collaborative governance, where competing tribal, regional, religious, and political interests agreed to hold themselves in check through tacit acceptance of the balance it produced. Yemen_sentence_470

The informal political settlement was held together by a power-sharing deal among three men: President Saleh, who controlled the state; major general Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, who controlled the largest share of the Republic of Yemen Armed Forces; and Abdullah ibn Husayn al-Ahmar, figurehead of the Islamist al-Islah party and Saudi Arabia's chosen broker of transnational patronage payments to various political players, including tribal sheikhs. Yemen_sentence_471

The Saudi payments have been intended to facilitate the tribes' autonomy from the Yemeni government and to give the Saudi government a mechanism with which to weigh in on Yemen's political decision-making. Yemen_sentence_472

Following food riots in major towns in 1992, a new coalition government made up of the ruling parties from both the former Yemeni states was formed in 1993. Yemen_sentence_473

However, Vice President al-Beidh withdrew to Aden in August 1993 and said he would not return to the government until his grievances were addressed. Yemen_sentence_474

These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party, as well as the economic marginalization of the south. Yemen_sentence_475

Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. Yemen_sentence_476

The government of Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas became ineffective due to political infighting Yemen_sentence_477

An accord between northern and southern leaders was signed in Amman, Jordan on 20 February 1994, but this could not stop the civil war. Yemen_sentence_478

During these tensions, both the northern and southern armies (which had never integrated) gathered on their respective frontiers. Yemen_sentence_479

The May – July 1994 civil war in Yemen resulted in the defeat of the southern armed forces and the flight into exile of many Yemeni Socialist Party leaders and other southern secessionists. Yemen_sentence_480

Saudi Arabia actively aided the south during the 1994 civil war. Yemen_sentence_481

Contemporary Yemen Yemen_section_17

Ali Abdullah Saleh became Yemen's first directly elected president in the 1999 presidential election, winning 96.2 per cent of the vote. Yemen_sentence_482

The only other candidate, Najeeb Qahtan Al-Sha'abi, was the son of Qahtan Muhammad al-Sha'abi, a former president of South Yemen. Yemen_sentence_483

Though a member of Saleh's General People's Congress (GPC) party, Najeeb ran as an independent. Yemen_sentence_484

In October 2000, 17 U.S. personnel died after a suicide attack on the U.S. naval vessel USS Cole in Aden, which was subsequently blamed on al-Qaeda. Yemen_sentence_485

After the September 11 attacks on the United States, President Saleh assured U.S. President George W. Bush that Yemen was a partner in his War on Terror. Yemen_sentence_486

In 2001, violence surrounded a referendum, which apparently supported extending Saleh's rule and powers. Yemen_sentence_487

The Shia insurgency in Yemen began in June 2004 when dissident cleric Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, head of the Zaidi Shia sect, launched an uprising against the Yemeni government. Yemen_sentence_488

The Yemeni government alleged that the Houthis were seeking to overthrow it and to implement Shī'ite religious law. Yemen_sentence_489

The rebels counter that they are "defending their community against discrimination" and government aggression. Yemen_sentence_490

In 2005, at least 36 people were killed in clashes across the country between police and protesters over rising fuel prices. Yemen_sentence_491

In the 2006 presidential election, held on 20 September, Saleh won with 77.2% of the vote. Yemen_sentence_492

His main rival, Faisal bin Shamlan, received 21.8%. Yemen_sentence_493

Saleh was sworn in for another term on 27 September. Yemen_sentence_494

A suicide bomber killed eight Spanish tourists and two Yemenis in the province of Marib in July 2007. Yemen_sentence_495

A series of bomb attacks occurred on police, official, diplomatic, foreign business, and tourism targets in 2008. Yemen_sentence_496

Car bombings outside the U.S. embassy in Sana'a killed 18 people, including six of the assailants in September 2008. Yemen_sentence_497

In 2008, an opposition rally in Sana'a demanding electoral reform was met with police gunfire. Yemen_sentence_498

Al-Qaeda Yemen_section_18

In January 2009, the Saudi Arabian and Yemeni al-Qaeda branches merged to form Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, which is based in Yemen, and many of its members were Saudi nationals who had been released from Guantanamo Bay. Yemen_sentence_499

Saleh released 176 al-Qaeda suspects on condition of good behaviour, but terrorist activities continued. Yemen_sentence_500

The Yemeni army launched a fresh offensive against the Shia insurgents in 2009, assisted by Saudi forces. Yemen_sentence_501

Tens of thousands of people were displaced by the fighting. Yemen_sentence_502

A new ceasefire was agreed upon in February 2010. Yemen_sentence_503

However, by the end of the year, Yemen claimed that 3,000 soldiers had been killed in renewed fighting. Yemen_sentence_504

The Shia rebels accused Saudi Arabia of providing support to salafi groups to suppress Zaidism in Yemen. Yemen_sentence_505

On orders from U.S. President Barack Obama, U.S. warplanes fired cruise missiles at what officials in Washington claimed were Al Qaeda training camps in the provinces of Sana'a and Abyan on 17 December 2009. Yemen_sentence_506

Instead of hitting Al-Qaeda operatives, it hit a village, killing 55 civilians. Yemen_sentence_507

Officials in Yemen said that the attacks claimed the lives of more than 60 civilians, 28 of them children. Yemen_sentence_508

Another airstrike was carried out on 24 December. Yemen_sentence_509

The U.S. launched a series of drone attacks in Yemen to curb a perceived growing terror threat due to political chaos in Yemen. Yemen_sentence_510

Since December 2009, U.S. strikes in Yemen have been carried out by the U.S. military with intelligence support from the CIA. Yemen_sentence_511

The drone strikes are protested by human-rights groups who say they kill innocent civilians, and that the U.S. military and CIA drone strikes lack sufficient congressional oversight, including the choice of human targets suspected of being threats to America. Yemen_sentence_512

Controversy over U.S. policy for drone attacks mushroomed after a September 2011 drone strike in Yemen killed Anwar al-Awlaki and Samir Khan, both U.S. citizens. Yemen_sentence_513

Another drone strike in October 2011 killed Anwar's teenaged son, Abdulrahman al-Awlaki. Yemen_sentence_514

In 2010, the Obama administration policy allowed targeting of people whose names are not known. Yemen_sentence_515

The U.S. government increased military aid to $140 million in 2010. Yemen_sentence_516

U.S. drone strikes continued after the ousting of President Saleh. Yemen_sentence_517

As of 2015, Shi'a Houthis are fighting against the Islamic State, Al Qaeda, and Saudi Arabia. Yemen_sentence_518

The U.S. supports the Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen against the Houthis, but many in US SOCOM reportedly favor Houthis, as they have been an effective force to roll back al-Qaeda and recently ISIL in Yemen. Yemen_sentence_519

The Guardian reported that "The only groups poised to benefit from the war dragging on are the jihadis of Islamic State (ISIL) and Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), the latter's most powerful franchise, who are likely to gain influence amid the chaos. Yemen_sentence_520

ISIL has claimed recent, bloody suicide bombings in Houthi mosques and Sana'a when it once had no known presence in the country, while AQAP has continued to seize territory in eastern Yemen unhindered by American drone strikes." Yemen_sentence_521

In February 2016 Al-Qaeda forces and Saudi-led coalition forces were both seen fighting Houthi rebels in the same battle. Yemen_sentence_522

In June 2019, the leader of ISIS in Yemen, Abu Osama al-Muhajir, was captured by the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen supported by the United States during a raid in the province of al-Mahra. Yemen_sentence_523

The operation included Yemeni security forces and recovered a number of weapons, ammunition, computers, money in different currencies and communications equipment. Yemen_sentence_524

It did not injure any civilians. Yemen_sentence_525

Revolution and aftermath Yemen_section_19

Main articles: 2011 Yemeni revolution, 2014–15 Yemeni coup d'état, Yemeni Civil War (2014–present), Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, and Famine in Yemen Yemen_sentence_526

The 2011 Yemeni revolution followed other Arab Spring mass protests in early 2011. Yemen_sentence_527

The uprising was initially against unemployment, economic conditions, and corruption, as well as against the government's proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen so that Saleh's son could inherit the presidency. Yemen_sentence_528

In March 2011, police snipers opened fire on a pro-democracy camp in Sana'a, killing more than 50 people. Yemen_sentence_529

In May, dozens were killed in clashes between troops and tribal fighters in Sana'a. Yemen_sentence_530

By this point, Saleh began to lose international support. Yemen_sentence_531

In October 2011, Yemeni human rights activist Tawakul Karman won the Nobel Peace Prize, and the UN Security Council condemned the violence and called for a transfer of power. Yemen_sentence_532

On 23 November 2011, Saleh flew to Riyadh, in neighbouring Saudi Arabia, to sign the Gulf Co-operation Council plan for political transition, which he had previously spurned. Yemen_sentence_533

Upon signing the document, he agreed to legally transfer the office and powers of the presidency to his deputy, Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi. Yemen_sentence_534

Hadi took office for a two-year term upon winning the uncontested presidential elections in February 2012. Yemen_sentence_535

A unity government – including a prime minister from the opposition – was formed. Yemen_sentence_536

Al-Hadi would oversee the drafting of a new constitution, followed by parliamentary and presidential elections in 2014. Yemen_sentence_537

Saleh returned in February 2012. Yemen_sentence_538

In the face of objections from thousands of street protesters, parliament granted him full immunity from prosecution. Yemen_sentence_539

Saleh's son, General Ahmed Ali Abdullah Saleh, continues to exercise a strong hold on sections of the military and security forces. Yemen_sentence_540

AQAP claimed responsibility for a February 2012 suicide attack on the presidential palace that killed 26 Republican Guards on the day that President Hadi was sworn in. Yemen_sentence_541

AQAP was also behind a suicide bombing that killed 96 soldiers in Sana'a three months later. Yemen_sentence_542

In September 2012, a car bomb attack in Sana'a killed 11 people, a day after a local al-Qaeda leader Said al-Shihri was reported killed in the south. Yemen_sentence_543

By 2012, there has been a "small contingent of U.S. special-operations troops" – in addition to CIA and "unofficially acknowledged" U.S. military presence – in response to increasing terror attacks by AQAP on Yemeni citizens. Yemen_sentence_544

Many analysts have pointed out the former Yemeni government role in cultivating terrorist activity in the country. Yemen_sentence_545

Following the election of the new President, Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, the Yemeni military was able to push Ansar al-Sharia back and recapture the Shabwah Governorate. Yemen_sentence_546

The central government in Sana'a remained weak, staving off challenges from southern separatists and Shia rebels as well as AQAP. Yemen_sentence_547

The Shia insurgency intensified after Hadi took power, escalating in September 2014 as anti-government forces led by Abdul-Malik al-Houthi swept into the capital and forced Hadi to agree to a "unity" government. Yemen_sentence_548

The Houthis then refused to participate in the government, although they continued to apply pressure on Hadi and his ministers, even shelling the president's private residence and placing him under house arrest, until the government's mass resignation in January 2015. Yemen_sentence_549

The following month, the Houthis dissolved parliament and declared that a Revolutionary Committee under Mohammed Ali al-Houthi was the interim authority in Yemen. Yemen_sentence_550

Abdul-Malik al-Houthi, a cousin of the new acting president, called the takeover a "glorious revolution." Yemen_sentence_551

However, the "constitutional declaration" of 6 February 2015 was widely rejected by opposition politicians and foreign governments, including the United Nations. Yemen_sentence_552

Hadi managed to flee from Sana'a to Aden, his hometown and stronghold in the south, on 21 February 2015. Yemen_sentence_553

He promptly gave a televised speech rescinding his resignation, condemning the coup, and calling for recognition as the constitutional president of Yemen. Yemen_sentence_554

The following month, Hadi declared Aden Yemen's "temporary" capital. Yemen_sentence_555

The Houthis, however, rebuffed an initiative by the Gulf Cooperation Council and continued to move south toward Aden. Yemen_sentence_556

All U.S. personnel were evacuated and President Hadi was forced to flee the country to Saudi Arabia. Yemen_sentence_557

On 26 March 2015, Saudi Arabia announced Operation Decisive Storm and began airstrikes and announced its intentions to lead a military coalition against the Houthis, whom they claimed were being aided by Iran, and began a force buildup along the Yemeni border. Yemen_sentence_558

The coalition included the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco, Sudan, Egypt, and Pakistan. Yemen_sentence_559

The United States announced that it was assisting with intelligence, targeting, and logistics. Yemen_sentence_560

Saudi Arabia and Egypt would not rule out ground operations. Yemen_sentence_561

After Hadi troops took control of Aden from Houthis, jihadist groups became active in the city, and some terrorist incidents were linked to them such as Missionaries of Charity attack in Aden on 4 March 2016. Yemen_sentence_562

Since February 2018, Aden has been seized by the UAE-backed separatist Southern Transitional Council. Yemen_sentence_563

More than 50,000 children in Yemen died from starvation in 2017. Yemen_sentence_564

The famine in Yemen is the direct result of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen and blockade of Yemen. Yemen_sentence_565

The famine is being compounded by an outbreak of cholera that has affected more than one million people. Yemen_sentence_566

Geography Yemen_section_20

Main article: Geography of Yemen Yemen_sentence_567

Yemen is in Western Asia, in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the Red Sea. Yemen_sentence_568

It lies south of Saudi Arabia and west of Oman, between latitudes 12 and 19°N and longitudes 42 and 55°E. Yemen_sentence_569

Yemen is at . Yemen_sentence_570

Yemen is 527,970 km (203,850 sq mi) in size. Yemen_sentence_571

A number of Red Sea islands, including the Hanish Islands, Kamaran, and Perim, as well as Socotra in the Arabian Sea, belong to Yemen; the largest of these is Socotra. Yemen_sentence_572

Many of the islands are volcanic; for example Jabal al-Tair had a volcanic eruption in 2007, and before that in 1883. Yemen_sentence_573

Although mainland Yemen is in the southern Arabian Peninsula and thus part of Asia, and its Hanish Islands and Perim in the Red Sea are associated with Asia, the archipelago of Socotra, which lies east of the horn of Somalia and is much closer to Africa than to Asia. Yemen_sentence_574

Socotra faces the Guardafui Channel and the Somali Sea. Yemen_sentence_575

Regions and climate Yemen_section_21

Yemen can be divided geographically into four main regions: the coastal plains in the west, the western highlands, the eastern highlands, and the Rub' al Khali in the east. Yemen_sentence_576

The Tihāmah ("hot lands" or "hot earth") form a very arid and flat coastal plain along Yemen's entire Red Sea coastline. Yemen_sentence_577

Despite the aridity, the presence of many lagoons makes this region very marshy and a suitable breeding ground for malaria mosquitos. Yemen_sentence_578

Extensive crescent-shaped sand dunes are present. Yemen_sentence_579

The evaporation in the Tihamah is so great that streams from the highlands never reach the sea, but they do contribute to extensive groundwater reserves. Yemen_sentence_580

Today, these are heavily exploited for agricultural use. Yemen_sentence_581

Near the village of Madar about 50 km (30 mi) north of Sana'a, dinosaur footprints were found, indicating that the area was once a muddy flat. Yemen_sentence_582

The Tihamah ends abruptly at the escarpment of the western highlands. Yemen_sentence_583

This area, now heavily terraced to meet the demand for food, receives the highest rainfall in Arabia, rapidly increasing from 100 mm (3.9 in) per year to about 760 mm (29.9 in) in Taiz and over 1,000 mm (39.4 in) in Ibb. Yemen_sentence_584

Temperatures are warm in the day but fall dramatically at night. Yemen_sentence_585

Perennial streams occur in the highlands, but these never reach the sea because of high evaporation in the Tihamah. Yemen_sentence_586

The central highlands are an extensive high plateau over 2,000 m (6,562 ft) in elevation. Yemen_sentence_587

This area is drier than the western highlands because of rain-shadow influences, but still receives sufficient rain in wet years for extensive cropping. Yemen_sentence_588

Water storage allows for irrigation and the growing of wheat and barley. Yemen_sentence_589

Sana'a is in this region. Yemen_sentence_590

The highest point in Yemen and Arabia is Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb, at about 3,666 m (12,028 ft). Yemen_sentence_591

Yemen's portion of the Rub al Khali desert in the east is much lower, generally below 1,000 m (3,281 ft), and receives almost no rain. Yemen_sentence_592

It is populated only by Bedouin herders of camels. Yemen_sentence_593

The growing scarcity of water is a source of increasing international concern. Yemen_sentence_594

See Water supply and sanitation in Yemen. Yemen_sentence_595

Biodiversity Yemen_section_22

Main article: Wildlife of Yemen Yemen_sentence_596

The flora of Yemen is a mixture of the tropical African, Sudanian plant geographical region and the Saharo-Arabian region. Yemen_sentence_597

The Sudanian element—characterized by relatively high rainfall—dominates the western mountains and parts of the highland plains. Yemen_sentence_598

The Saharo-Arabian element dominates in the coastal plains, eastern mountain, and the eastern and northern desert plains. Yemen_sentence_599

A high percentage of Yemen plants belong to tropical African plants of Sudanian regions. Yemen_sentence_600

Among the Sudanian element species, the following may be mentioned: Ficus spp., Acacia mellifera, Grewia villosa, Commiphora spp., Rosa abyssinica, Cadaba farinosa and others. Yemen_sentence_601

Among the Saharo-Arabian species, these may be mentioned: Panicum turgidum, Aerva javanica, Zygophyllum simplex, Fagonia indica, Salsola spp., Acacia tortilis, A. hamulos, A. Yemen_sentence_602 ehrenbergiana, Phoenix dactylifera, Hyphaene thebaica, Capparis decidua, Salvadora persica, Balanites aegyptiaca, and many others. Yemen_sentence_603

Many of the Saharo-Arabian species are endemic to the extensive sandy coastal plain (the Tihamah). Yemen_sentence_604

The characteristic genera of the Irano-Turanian in the eastern and northern east of the country are: Calligonum spp., Cymbopogon jwarancusa, and Tamarix spp. and of the Mediterranean regions are: Teucrium, Lavandula, Juniperus, Brassica, and Diplotaxis spp. Yemen_sentence_605

Among the fauna, the Arabian leopard, which would inhabit the mountains, is considered rare here. Yemen_sentence_606

Environmental issues Yemen_section_23

Politics Yemen_section_24

Main article: Politics of Yemen Yemen_sentence_607

Yemen is a republic with a bicameral legislature. Yemen_sentence_608

Under the 1991 constitution, an elected president, an elected 301-seat Assembly of Representatives, and an appointed 111-member Shura Council share power. Yemen_sentence_609

The President is the head of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. Yemen_sentence_610

In Sana'a, a Supreme Political Council (not recognized internationally) forms the government. Yemen_sentence_611

The 1991 constitution provides that the president be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates endorsed by at least 15 members of the Parliament. Yemen_sentence_612

The prime minister, in turn, is appointed by the president and must be approved by two-thirds of the Parliament. Yemen_sentence_613

The presidential term of office is seven years, and the parliamentary term of elected office is six years. Yemen_sentence_614

Suffrage is universal for people age 18 and older, but only Muslims may hold elected office. Yemen_sentence_615

President Ali Abdullah Saleh became the first elected President in reunified Yemen in 1999 (though he had been President of unified Yemen since 1990 and president of North Yemen since 1978). Yemen_sentence_616

He was re-elected to office in September 2006. Yemen_sentence_617

Saleh's victory was marked by an election that international observers judged was "partly free," though the election was accompanied by violence, violations of press freedoms, and allegations of fraud. Yemen_sentence_618

Parliamentary elections were held in April 2003, and the General People's Congress maintained an absolute majority. Yemen_sentence_619

Saleh remained almost uncontested in his seat of power until 2011, when local frustration at his refusal to hold another round of elections, as combined with the impact of the 2011 Arab Spring, resulted in mass protests. Yemen_sentence_620

In 2012, he was forced to resign from power, though he remained an important actor in Yemeni politics, allying with the Houthis during their takeover in the mid-2010s. Yemen_sentence_621

The constitution calls for an independent judiciary. Yemen_sentence_622

The former northern and southern legal codes have been unified. Yemen_sentence_623

The legal system includes separate commercial courts and a Supreme Court based in Sana'a. Yemen_sentence_624

Sharia is the main source of laws, with many court cases being debated according to the religious basis of law and many judges being religious scholars as well as legal authorities. Yemen_sentence_625

The Prison Authority Organization Act, Republican decree no. Yemen_sentence_626

48 (1981), and Prison Act regulations, provide the legal framework for management of the country's prison system. Yemen_sentence_627

Foreign relations Yemen_section_25

Main article: Foreign relations of Yemen Yemen_sentence_628

The geography and ruling imams of North Yemen kept the country isolated from foreign influence before 1962. Yemen_sentence_629

The country's relations with Saudi Arabia were defined by the Taif Agreement of 1934, which delineated the northernmost part of the border between the two kingdoms and set the framework for commercial and other intercourse. Yemen_sentence_630

The Taif Agreement has been renewed periodically in 20-year increments, and its validity was reaffirmed in 1995. Yemen_sentence_631

Relations with the British colonial authorities in Aden and the south were usually tense. Yemen_sentence_632

The Soviet and Chinese Aid Missions established in 1958 and 1959 were the first important non-Muslim presences in North Yemen. Yemen_sentence_633

Following the September 1962 revolution, the Yemen Arab Republic became closely allied with and heavily dependent upon Egypt. Yemen_sentence_634

Saudi Arabia aided the royalists in their attempt to defeat the Republicans and did not recognize the Yemen Arab Republic until 1970. Yemen_sentence_635

At the same time, Saudi Arabia maintained direct contact with Yemeni tribes, which sometimes strained its official relations with the Yemeni Government. Yemen_sentence_636

Saudi Arabia remained hostile to any form of political and social reform in Yemen and continued to provide financial support for tribal elites. Yemen_sentence_637

In February 1989, North Yemen joined Iraq, Jordan, and Egypt in forming the Arab Cooperation Council (ACC), an organization created partly in response to the founding of the Gulf Cooperation Council and intended to foster closer economic cooperation and integration among its members. Yemen_sentence_638

After unification, the Republic of Yemen was accepted as a member of the ACC in place of its YAR predecessor. Yemen_sentence_639

In the wake of the Persian Gulf crisis, the ACC has remained inactive. Yemen_sentence_640

Yemen is not a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council mainly for its republican government. Yemen_sentence_641

Yemen is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and also participates in the nonaligned movement. Yemen_sentence_642

The Republic of Yemen accepted responsibility for all treaties and debts of its predecessors, the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY). Yemen_sentence_643

Yemen has acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Yemen_sentence_644

Since the end of the 1994 civil war, tangible progress has been made on the diplomatic front in restoring normal relations with Yemen's neighbors. Yemen_sentence_645

In the summer of 2000, Yemen and Saudi Arabia signed an International Border Treaty settling a 50-year-old dispute over the location of the border between the two countries. Yemen_sentence_646

Until the signing of the Yemen-Saudi Arabia peace treaty in July 2000, Yemen's northern border was undefined; the Arabian Desert prevented any human habitation there. Yemen_sentence_647

Yemen settled its dispute with Eritrea over the Hanish Islands in 1998. Yemen_sentence_648

The Saudi – Yemen barrier was constructed by Saudi Arabia against an influx of illegal immigrants and against the smuggling of drugs and weapons. Yemen_sentence_649

The Independent headed an article with "Saudi Arabia, one of the most vocal critics in the Arab world of Israel's "security fence" in the West Bank, is quietly emulating the Israeli example by erecting a barrier along its porous border with Yemen." Yemen_sentence_650

In March 2020, the Trump administration and key US’ allies, including Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cut off tens of millions of dollars for health care programs and other aid to the United Nations' appeal for Yemen. Yemen_sentence_651

As a result of funding cuts, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) stated that the UN agencies were forced to either close or reduce more than 75 per cent of its programs that year alone, affecting more than 8 million people. Yemen_sentence_652

Saudi Arabia had been leading a Western-backed military coalition, including the United Arab Emirates as a key member, which intervened in Yemen in 2015, in a bid to restore the government ousted from power by the Houthi movement. Yemen_sentence_653

The United Nations described the situation in Yemen, where the war killed tens of thousands of people and left millions on the brink of famine, as the world’s worst humanitarian crisis. Yemen_sentence_654

Human rights Yemen_section_26

Main article: Human rights in Yemen Yemen_sentence_655

The government and its security forces, often considered to suffer from rampant corruption, have been responsible for torture, inhumane treatment, and extrajudicial executions. Yemen_sentence_656

There are arbitrary arrests of citizens, especially in the south, as well as arbitrary searches of homes. Yemen_sentence_657

Prolonged pretrial detention is a serious problem, and judicial corruption, inefficiency, and executive interference undermine due process. Yemen_sentence_658

Freedom of speech, the press, and religion are all restricted. Yemen_sentence_659

Journalists critical of the government are often harassed and threatened by the police. Yemen_sentence_660

Homosexuality is illegal, punishable by death. Yemen_sentence_661

Since the start of the Shia insurgency, many people accused of supporting al-Houthi have been arrested and held without charge or trial. Yemen_sentence_662

According to the U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report 2007, "Some Zaydis reported harassment and discrimination by the government because they were suspected of sympathizing with the al-Houthis. Yemen_sentence_663

However, it appears the Government's actions against the group were probably politically, not religiously, motivated." Yemen_sentence_664

The U.S. Yemen_sentence_665 Committee for Refugees and Immigrants reported several violations of refugee and asylum seekers' rights in the organization's 2008 World Refugee Survey. Yemen_sentence_666

Yemeni authorities reportedly deported numerous foreigners without giving them access to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, despite the UN's repeated requests. Yemen_sentence_667

Refugees further reported violence directed against them by Yemeni authorities while living in refugee camps. Yemen_sentence_668

Yemeni officials reportedly raped and beat camp-based refugees with impunity in 2007. Yemen_sentence_669

Yemen is ranked last of 135 countries in the 2012 Global Gender Gap Report. Yemen_sentence_670

Human Rights Watch reported on discrimination and violence against women as well as on the abolition of the minimum marriage age of fifteen for women. Yemen_sentence_671

The onset of puberty (interpreted by some to be as low as the age of nine) was set as a requirement for marriage instead. Yemen_sentence_672

Publicity about the case of ten-year-old Yemeni divorcee Nujood Ali brought the child marriage issue to the fore not only in Yemen but also worldwide. Yemen_sentence_673

On 30 June 2020, a human rights group revealed the scale of torture and deaths in Yemen's unofficial detention centres. Yemen_sentence_674

UAE and Saudi forces were responsible for some of the most shocking treatment of prisoners, including being hung upside down for hours and sexual torture such as the burning of genitals. Yemen_sentence_675

Human trafficking Yemen_section_27

Main article: Human trafficking in Yemen Yemen_sentence_676

The United States Department of State 2013 Trafficking in Persons report classified Yemen as a Tier 3 country, meaning that its government does not fully comply with the minimum standards against human trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. Yemen_sentence_677

Yemen officially abolished slavery in 1962, but it is still being practiced. Yemen_sentence_678

On 22 June 2020, Human Rights Watch wrote an open letter to the UN Secretary-General on “Children and Armed Conflict” report to improve the protection of children in Yemen and in Myanmar. Yemen_sentence_679

Amnesty said, United Nations Security Council must urgently fix its monitoring and reporting mechanism for children impacted by armed conflict. Yemen_sentence_680

The Human Right Watch on 14 September 2020, demanded the interference caused by Houthi rebels and other authorities in Yemen aid operations to stop, as millions of lives dependent on the aid operations were being put at risk. Yemen_sentence_681

Military Yemen_section_28

Main article: Military of Yemen Yemen_sentence_682

The armed forces of Yemen include the Yemen Army (includes Republican Guard), Navy (includes Marines), Yemeni Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Yamaniya; includes Air Defense Force). Yemen_sentence_683

A major reorganization of the armed forces continues. Yemen_sentence_684

The unified air forces and air defenses are now under one command. Yemen_sentence_685

The navy has concentration in Aden. Yemen_sentence_686

Total armed forces manning numbers about 401,000 active personnel, including moreover especially conscripts. Yemen_sentence_687

The Yemen Arab Republic and The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen joined to form the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990. Yemen_sentence_688

The supreme commander of the armed forces is the President of the Republic of Yemen. Yemen_sentence_689

The number of military personnel in Yemen is relatively high; in sum, Yemen has the second largest military force on the Arabian Peninsula after Saudi Arabia. Yemen_sentence_690

In 2012, total active troops were estimated as follows: army, 390,000; navy, 7,000; and air force, 5,000. Yemen_sentence_691

In September 2007, the government announced the reinstatement of compulsory military service. Yemen_sentence_692

Yemen's defense budget, which in 2006 represented approximately 40 percent of the total government budget, is expected to remain high for the near term, as the military draft takes effect and internal security threats continue to escalate. Yemen_sentence_693

By 2012, Yemen had 401,000 active personnel. Yemen_sentence_694

Administrative divisions Yemen_section_29

Main article: Governorates of Yemen Yemen_sentence_695

As of the end of 2004, Yemen was divided into twenty governorates (muhafazat – the latest being Raymah Governorate, which was created during 2004) plus one municipality called "Amanat Al-Asemah" (the latter containing the constitutional capital, Sana'a). Yemen_sentence_696

An additional governorate (Soqatra Governorate) was created in December 2013 comprising Socotra Island (bottom-right corner of map), previously part of Hadramaut Governorate. Yemen_sentence_697

The governorates are subdivided into 333 districts (muderiah), which are subdivided into 2,210 sub-districts, and then into 38,284 villages (as of 2001). Yemen_sentence_698

In 2014, a constitutional panel decided to divide the country into six regions—four in the north, two in the south, and capital Sana'a outside of any region—creating a federalist model of governance. Yemen_sentence_699

This federal proposal was a contributing factor toward the Houthis' subsequent coup d'état against the government. Yemen_sentence_700

Economy Yemen_section_30

Main article: Economy of Yemen Yemen_sentence_701

Further information: Telecommunications in Yemen, Transportation in Yemen, and Internet usage in Yemen Yemen_sentence_702

Yemen as of 2013 had a GDP (PPP) of US$61.63 billion, with an income per capita of $2,500. Yemen_sentence_703

Services are the largest economic sector (61.4% of GDP), followed by the industrial sector (30.9%), and agriculture (7.7%). Yemen_sentence_704

Of these, petroleum production represents around 25% of GDP and 63% of the government's revenue. Yemen_sentence_705

Agriculture Yemen_section_31

Principal agricultural commodities produced in the nation include grain, vegetables, fruits, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton, dairy products, fish, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), and poultry. Yemen_sentence_706

Most Yemenis are employed in agriculture. Yemen_sentence_707

However, the role of agricultural sector is limited due to the relatively low share of the sector in GDP and the large share of net food-buying households in Yemen (97%). Yemen_sentence_708

Sorghum is the most common crop. Yemen_sentence_709

Cotton and many fruit trees are also grown, with mangoes being the most valuable. Yemen_sentence_710

A big problem in Yemen is the cultivation of Khat (or qat), a psychoactive plant that releases a stimulant when chewed, and accounts for up to 40 percent of the water drawn from the Sana'a Basin each year, and that figure is rising. Yemen_sentence_711

Some agricultural practices are drying the Sana'a Basin and displaced vital crops, which has resulted in increasing food prices. Yemen_sentence_712

Rising food prices, in turn, pushed an additional six percent of the country into poverty in 2008 alone. Yemen_sentence_713

Efforts are being made by the government and Dawoodi Bohra community at North Yemen to replace qat with coffee plantations. Yemen_sentence_714

Industry Yemen_section_32

Yemen's industrial sector is centred on crude oil production and petroleum refining, food processing, handicrafts, small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods, aluminum products, commercial ship repair, cement, and natural gas production. Yemen_sentence_715

In 2013, Yemen had an industrial production growth rate of 4.8%. Yemen_sentence_716

It also has large proven reserves of natural gas. Yemen_sentence_717

Yemen's first liquified natural gas plant began production in October 2009. Yemen_sentence_718

Labour force Yemen_section_33

The labor force was seven million workers in 2013. Yemen_sentence_719

Services, industry, construction and commerce together constitute less than 25% of the labor force. Yemen_sentence_720

Export and import Yemen_section_34

As of 2013, exports from Yemen totaled $6.694 billion. Yemen_sentence_721

The main export commodities are crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas. Yemen_sentence_722

These products were mainly sent to China (41%), Thailand (19.2%), India (11.4%), and South Korea (4.4%). Yemen_sentence_723

Imports as of 2013 total $10.97 billion. Yemen_sentence_724

The main imported commodities are machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, livestock, and chemicals. Yemen_sentence_725

These products were mainly imported from the EU (48.8%), UAE (9.8%), Switzerland (8.8%), China (7.4%), and India (5.8%). Yemen_sentence_726

State budget Yemen_section_35

As of 2013, the Yemeni government's budget consisted of $7.769 billion in revenues and $12.31 billion in expenditures. Yemen_sentence_727

Taxes and other revenues constituted roughly 17.7% of the GDP, with a budget deficit of 10.3%. Yemen_sentence_728

The public debt was 47.1% of GDP. Yemen_sentence_729

Yemen had reserves of foreign exchange and gold of around $5.538 billion in 2013. Yemen_sentence_730

Its inflation rate over the same period based on consumer prices was 11.8%. Yemen_sentence_731

Yemen's external debt totaled $7.806 billion. Yemen_sentence_732

International relations Yemen_section_36

Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Soviet Union and China provided large-scale assistance. Yemen_sentence_733

For example, China and the United States are involved with the expansion of the Sana'a International Airport. Yemen_sentence_734

In the south, pre-independence economic activity was overwhelmingly concentrated in the port city of Aden. Yemen_sentence_735

The seaborne transit trade, which the port relied upon, collapsed with the temporary closure of the Suez Canal and Britain's withdrawal from Aden in 1967. Yemen_sentence_736

Since the conclusion of the war, the government made an agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to implement a structural adjustment program. Yemen_sentence_737

Phase one of the program included major financial and monetary reforms, including floating the currency, reducing the budget deficit, and cutting subsidies. Yemen_sentence_738

Phase two addresses structural issues, such as civil service reform. Yemen_sentence_739

In early 1995, the government of Yemen launched an economic, financial, and administrative reform program (EFARP) with the support of the World Bank and the IMF, as well as international donors. Yemen_sentence_740

These programs had a positive impact on Yemen's economy and led to the reduction of the budget deficit to less than 3% of gross domestic product during the period 1995–1999 and the correction of macro-financial imbalances. Yemen_sentence_741

The real growth rate in the non-oil sector rose by 5.6% from 1995 to 1997. Yemen_sentence_742

Water supply and sanitation Yemen_section_37

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Yemen Yemen_sentence_743

A key challenge is severe water scarcity, especially in the Highlands, prompting The Times to write "Yemen could become first nation to run out of water." Yemen_sentence_744

A second key challenge is a high level of poverty, making it difficult to recover the costs of service provision. Yemen_sentence_745

Access to water supply sanitation is as low as in some sub-Saharan African countries. Yemen_sentence_746

Yemen is both the poorest country and the most water-scarce country in the Arab world. Yemen_sentence_747

Third, the capacity of sector institutions to plan, build, operate and maintain infrastructure remains limited. Yemen_sentence_748

Last but not least the security situation makes it even more difficult to improve or even maintain existing levels of service. Yemen_sentence_749

The average Yemeni has access to only 140 cubic meters of water per year (101 gallons per day) for all uses, while the Middle Eastern average is 1000 m/yr, and the internationally defined threshold for water stress is 1700 cubic meters per year. Yemen_sentence_750

Yemen's groundwater is the main source of water in the country but the water tables have dropped severely leaving Yemen without a viable source of water. Yemen_sentence_751

For example, in Sana'a, the water table was 30 metres (98 feet) below surface in the 1970s but had dropped to 1,200 metres (3,900 feet) below surface by 2012. Yemen_sentence_752

The groundwater has not been regulated by Yemen's governments. Yemen_sentence_753

Even before the revolution, Yemen's water situation had been described as increasingly dire by experts who worried that Yemen would be the first country to run out of water. Yemen_sentence_754

Agriculture in Yemen takes up about 90% of water in Yemen even though it only generates 6% of GDP. Yemen_sentence_755

A large portion of Yemenis are dependent on small-scale subsistence agriculture. Yemen_sentence_756

Half of the agricultural water in Yemen is used to grow khat, a drug that many Yemenis chew. Yemen_sentence_757

Due to the 2015 Yemeni civil war, the situation is increasingly dire. Yemen_sentence_758

80% of Yemen's population struggles to access water to drink and bathe. Yemen_sentence_759

Bombing has forced many Yemenis to leave their homes for other areas, and so wells in those areas are under increasing pressure. Yemen_sentence_760

Demographics Yemen_section_38

Main article: Demographics of Yemen Yemen_sentence_761

Yemen's population is 28 million by 2018 estimates, with 46% of the population being under 15 years old and 2.7% above 65 years. Yemen_sentence_762

In 1950, it was 4.3 million. Yemen_sentence_763

By 2050, the population is estimated to increase to about 60 million. Yemen_sentence_764

Yemen has a high total fertility rate, at 4.45 children per woman. Yemen_sentence_765

It is the 30th highest in the world. Yemen_sentence_766

Sana'a's population has increased rapidly, from roughly 55,000 in 1978 to nearly 2 million in the early 21st century. Yemen_sentence_767

Ethnic groups Yemen_section_39

Yemeni ethnic groups are predominantly Arabs, followed by Afro-Arabs, South Asians and Europeans. Yemen_sentence_768

When the former states of North and South Yemen were established, most resident minority groups departed. Yemen_sentence_769

Yemen is a largely tribal society. Yemen_sentence_770

In the northern, mountainous parts of the country, there are 400 Zaidi tribes. Yemen_sentence_771

There are also hereditary caste groups in urban areas such as Al-Akhdam. Yemen_sentence_772

There are also Yemenis of Persian origin. Yemen_sentence_773

According to Muqaddasi, Persians formed the majority of Aden's population in the 10th century. Yemen_sentence_774

Yemenite Jews once formed a sizable minority in Yemen with a distinct culture from other Jewish communities in the world. Yemen_sentence_775

Most emigrated to Israel in the mid-20th century, following the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries and Operation Magic Carpet. Yemen_sentence_776

An estimated 100,000 people of Indian origin are concentrated in the southern part of the country, around Aden, Mukalla, Shihr, Lahaj, Mokha and Hodeidah. Yemen_sentence_777

Most of the prominent Indonesians, Malaysians, and Singaporeans of Arab descent are Hadhrami people with origins in southern Yemen in the Hadramawt coastal region. Yemen_sentence_778

Today there are almost 10,000 Hadramis in Singapore. Yemen_sentence_779

The Hadramis migrated to Southeast Asia, East Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Yemen_sentence_780

The Maqil were a collection of Arab Bedouin tribes of Yemeni origin who migrated westwards via Egypt. Yemen_sentence_781

Several groups of Yemeni Arabs turned south to Mauritania, and by the end of the 17th century, they dominated the entire country. Yemen_sentence_782

They can also be found throughout Morocco and in Algeria as well as in other North African Countries. Yemen_sentence_783

Yemen is the only country in the Arabian Peninsula that is signatory to two international accords dating back to 1951 and 1967 governing the protection of refugees. Yemen_sentence_784

Yemen hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 124,600 in 2007. Yemen_sentence_785

Refugees and asylum seekers living in Yemen were predominantly from Somalia (110,600), Iraq (11,000), Ethiopia (2,000), and Syria. Yemen_sentence_786

Additionally, more than 334,000 Yemenis have been internally displaced by conflict. Yemen_sentence_787

The Yemeni diaspora is largely concentrated in neighbouring Saudi Arabia, where between 800,000 and 1 million Yemenis reside, and the United Kingdom, home to between 70,000 and 80,000 Yemenis. Yemen_sentence_788

Languages Yemen_section_40

Modern Standard Arabic is the official language of Yemen, while Yemeni Arabic is used as the vernacular. Yemen_sentence_789

In al Mahrah Governorate in the far east and the island of Socotra, several non-Arabic languages are spoken. Yemen_sentence_790

Yemeni Sign Language is used by the deaf community. Yemen_sentence_791

Yemen is part of the homeland of the South Semitic languages. Yemen_sentence_792

Mehri is the largest South Semitic language spoken in the nation, with more than 70,000 speakers. Yemen_sentence_793

The ethnic group itself is called Mahra. Yemen_sentence_794

Soqotri is another South Semitic language, with speakers on the island of Socotra isolated from the pressures of Arabic on the Yemeni mainland. Yemen_sentence_795

According to the 1990 census in Yemen, the number of speakers there was 57,000. Yemen_sentence_796

Yemen was also home of the Old South Arabian languages. Yemen_sentence_797

The Razihi language appears to be the only remaining Old South Arabian language. Yemen_sentence_798

English is the most important foreign language, being widely taught and spoken mostly in the south, a former British colony. Yemen_sentence_799

There are a significant number of Russian speakers, originating from Yemeni-Russian cross-marriages occurring mainly in the 1970s and 1980s. Yemen_sentence_800

A small Cham-speaking community is found in the capital city of Sana'a, originating from refugees expatriated from Vietnam after the Vietnam War in the 1970s. Yemen_sentence_801

Urban areas Yemen_section_41

Main article: List of cities in Yemen Yemen_sentence_802

Religion Yemen_section_42

Main article: Religion in Yemen Yemen_sentence_803

Islam the state religion of Yemen. Yemen_sentence_804

Religion in Yemen consists primarily of two principal Islamic religious groups: About 55% of the Muslim population is Sunni and 45% is Shia, according to the International Religious Freedom Report. Yemen_sentence_805

Sunnis are primarily Shafi'i but also include significant groups of Malikis and Hanbalis. Yemen_sentence_806

Shias are primarily Zaydi and also have significant minorities of Ismaili and Twelver Shias. Yemen_sentence_807

The Sunnis are predominantly in the south and southeast. Yemen_sentence_808

The Zaidis are predominantly in the north and northwest whilst the Ismailis are in the main centres such as Sana'a and Ma'rib. Yemen_sentence_809

There are mixed communities in the larger cities. Yemen_sentence_810

About .05 percent of Yemenis are non-Muslim – adhering to Christianity, Judaism, or Hinduism or having no religious affiliation. Yemen_sentence_811

Estimates of the number of Christians in Yemen range from 25,000 to 41,000. Yemen_sentence_812

A 2015 study estimates 400 Christians from a Muslim background in the country. Yemen_sentence_813

There are approximately 50 Jews left in Yemen. Yemen_sentence_814

Some 200 Yemenite Jews were brought to Israel by the Jewish Agency circa 2016. Yemen_sentence_815

According to WIN/Gallup International polls, Yemen has the most religious population among Arab countries and it is one of the most religious population world-wide. Yemen_sentence_816

Culture Yemen_section_43

Main article: Culture of Yemen Yemen_sentence_817

Yemen is a culturally rich country with influence from many civilizations, such as the early civilization of Saba'. Yemen_sentence_818

Media Yemen_section_44

Main article: Media of Yemen Yemen_sentence_819

Radio broadcasting in Yemen began in the 1940s when it was still divided into the South by the British and the North by the Imami ruling system. Yemen_sentence_820

After the unification of Yemen in 1990, the Yemeni government reformed its corporations and founded some additional radio stations that broadcast locally. Yemen_sentence_821

However, it drew back after 1994, due to destroyed infrastructure resulting from the civil war. Yemen_sentence_822

Television is the most significant media platform in Yemen. Yemen_sentence_823

Given the low literacy rate in the country, television is the main source of news for Yemenis. Yemen_sentence_824

There are six free-to-air channels currently headquartered in Yemen, of which four are state-owned. Yemen_sentence_825

The Yemeni film industry is in its early stages; only two Yemeni films have been released as of 2008. Yemen_sentence_826

Theatre Yemen_section_45

Main article: Theatre in Yemen Yemen_sentence_827

The history of Yemeni theatre dates back at least a century, to the early 1900s. Yemen_sentence_828

Both amateur and professional (government-sponsored) theatre troupes perform in the country's major urban centres. Yemen_sentence_829

Many of Yemen's significant poets and authors, like Ali Ahmed Ba Kathir, Muhammad al-Sharafi, and Wajdi al-Ahdal, have written dramatic works; poems, novels, and short stories by Yemeni authors like Mohammad Abdul-Wali and Abdulaziz Al-Maqaleh have also been adapted for the stage. Yemen_sentence_830

There have been Yemeni productions of plays by Arab authors such as Tawfiq al-Hakim and Saadallah Wannous and by Western authors, including Shakespeare, Pirandello, Brecht, and Tennessee Williams. Yemen_sentence_831

Historically speaking, the southern port city of Aden is the cradle of Yemeni theatre; in recent decades the capital, Sana'a, has hosted numerous theatre festivals, often in conjunction with World Theatre Day. Yemen_sentence_832

Sport Yemen_section_46

World Heritage sites Yemen_section_47

Main article: Tourism in Yemen Yemen_sentence_833

Among Yemen's natural and cultural attractions are four World Heritage sites. Yemen_sentence_834

The Old Walled City of Shibam in Wadi Hadhramaut, inscribed by UNESCO in 1982, two years after Yemen joined the World Heritage Committee, is nicknamed "Manhattan of the Desert" because of its skyscrapers. Yemen_sentence_835

Surrounded by a fortified wall made of mud and straw, the 16th-century city is one of the oldest examples of urban planning based on the principle of vertical construction. Yemen_sentence_836

The Old City of Sana'a, at an altitude of more than 2,100 metres (7,000 ft), has been inhabited for over two and a half millennia, and was inscribed in 1986. Yemen_sentence_837

Sana'a became a major Islamic centre in the 7th century, and the 103 mosques, 14 hammams (traditional bathhouses), and more than 6,000 houses that survive all date from before the 11th century. Yemen_sentence_838

Close to the Red Sea Coast, the historic town of Zabid, inscribed in 1993, was Yemen's capital from the 13th to the 15th century, and is an archaeological and historical site. Yemen_sentence_839

It played an important role for many centuries because of its university, which was a centre of learning for the whole Arab and Islamic world. Yemen_sentence_840

Algebra is said to have been invented there in the early 9th century by the little-known scholar Al-Jazari. Yemen_sentence_841

The latest addition to Yemen's list of World Heritage Sites is the Socotra Archipelago. Yemen_sentence_842

Mentioned by Marco Polo in the 13th century, this remote and isolated archipelago consists of four islands and two rocky islets delineating the southern limit of the Gulf of Aden. Yemen_sentence_843

The site has a rich biodiversity. Yemen_sentence_844

Nowhere else in the world do 37% of Socotra's 825 plants, 90% of its reptiles and 95% of its snails occur. Yemen_sentence_845

It is home to 192 bird species, 253 species of coral, 730 species of coastal fish, and 300 species of crab and lobster, as well as a range of Aloes and the Dragon's Blood Tree (Dracaena cinnabari). Yemen_sentence_846

The cultural heritage of Socotra includes the unique Soqotri language. Yemen_sentence_847

Education Yemen_section_48

Main article: Education in Yemen Yemen_sentence_848

The adult literacy rate in 2010 was 64%. Yemen_sentence_849

The government has committed to reduce illiteracy to less than 10% by 2025. Yemen_sentence_850

Although Yemen's government provides for universal, compulsory, free education for children ages six through 15, the U.S. Department of State reports that compulsory attendance is not enforced. Yemen_sentence_851

The government developed the National Basic Education Development Strategy in 2003 that aimed at providing education to 95% of Yemeni children between the ages of six and 14 years and also at decreasing the gap between males and females in urban and rural areas. Yemen_sentence_852

A seven-year project to improve gender equity and the quality and efficiency of secondary education, focusing on girls in rural areas, was approved by the World Bank in March 2008. Yemen_sentence_853

Following this, Yemen has increased its education spending from 5% of GDP in 1995 to 10% in 2005. Yemen_sentence_854

According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, the top-ranking universities in the country are the Yemeni University of Science & Technology (6532nd worldwide), Al Ahgaff University (8930th) and Sanaa University (11043rd). Yemen_sentence_855

Health Yemen_section_49

Main article: Health in Yemen Yemen_sentence_856

See also: Famine in Yemen and 2016–17 Yemen cholera outbreak Yemen_sentence_857

Despite the significant progress Yemen has made to expand and improve its health care system over the past decade, the system remains severely underdeveloped. Yemen_sentence_858

Total expenditures on health care in 2002 constituted 3.7 percent of gross domestic product. Yemen_sentence_859

In that same year, the per capita expenditure for health care was very low, as compared with other Middle Eastern countries—US$58 according to United Nations statistics and US$23 according to the World Health Organization. Yemen_sentence_860

According to the World Bank, the number of doctors in Yemen rose by an average of more than 7 percent between 1995 and 2000, but as of 2004 there were still only three doctors per 10,000 persons. Yemen_sentence_861

In 2003 Yemen had only 0.6 hospital beds available per 1,000 persons. Yemen_sentence_862

Health care services are particularly scarce in rural areas. Yemen_sentence_863

Only 25 percent of rural areas are covered by health services, as compared with 80 percent of urban areas. Yemen_sentence_864

Emergency services, such as ambulance service and blood banks, are non-existent. Yemen_sentence_865

See also Yemen_section_50


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