|Sheikh Prof. Dr.
Yusuf 'Abdullah al-Qaradawi
يوسف عبد الله القرضاوي
|Born||Yusuf 'Abdullah al-Qaradawi
(1926-09-09) 9 September 1926 (age 94)
|Children||Abdul Rahman Yusuf|
|Notable work(s)||Fiqh al-Zakat, al-Halal wa al-Haram fi al-Islam, Fiqh al-Jihad, Fiqh al-Awlawiyyat, Fiqh al-Dawlah, Madkhal li-Ma'rifat al-Islam and others|
|Alma mater||Al-Azhar University (Cairo, Egypt)|
|Awards||King Faisal International Prize (Saudi Arabia)
Prize of the Islamic University (Malaysia)
International Holy Quran Award (Dubai)
the Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Prize (Brunei)
Al-Owais Prize (UAE)
Medal of Independence, First Class (Jordan)
Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي, romanized: Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī; or Yusuf al-Qardawi; born 9 September 1926) is an Egyptian Islamic scholar based in Doha, Qatar, and chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars.
He is also known for IslamOnline, a website he helped to found in 1997 and for which he serves as chief religious scholar.
Al-Qaradawi has published more than 120 books, including The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam and Islam: The Future Civilization.
He has also received eight international prizes for his contributions to Islamic scholarship, and is considered one of the most influential such scholars living today.
Al-Qaradawi has long had a prominent role within the intellectual leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood, an Egyptian political organization, although he has repeatedly stated that he is no longer a member and twice (in 1976 and 2004) turned down offers for the official role in the organization.
Al-Qaradawi is sometimes described as a "moderate Islamist".
Some of his views, such as his condoning of Palestinian suicide bombings against Israelis, have caused reactions from governments in the West: he was refused an entry visa to the United Kingdom in 2008, and barred from entering France in 2012.
He became an orphan at the age of two, when he lost his father.
Following his father's death, he was raised by his uncle.
He read and memorized the entire Quran by the time he was nine years old.
He then joined the Institute of Religious Studies at Tanta, and graduated after nine years of study.
While in Tanta, Al-Qaradawi first encountered Hassan al Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, when al Banna gave a lecture at his school.
Al-Qaradawi has written of the lasting impact of this encounter, describing al Banna as "brilliantly radiating, as if his words were revelation or live coals from the light of prophecy."
He earned a diploma in Arabic Language and Literature in 1958 at the Advanced Arabic Studies Institute.
He enrolled in the graduate program in the Department of Quran and Sunnah Sciences of the Faculty of Religion's Fundamentals (Usul al-Din), and graduated with a master's degree in Quranic Studies in 1960.
In 1962, he was sent by Al-Azhar University to Qatar to head the Qatari Secondary Institute of Religious Studies.
He completed his PhD thesis titled Zakah and its effect on solving social problems in 1973 with First Merit and was awarded his PhD degree from Al-Azhar.
He left Egypt for Qatar in 1961, and did not return until the overthrow of the military regime by the 2011 Egyptian Revolution.
In the same year he founded the Centre of Seerah and Sunna Research.
He also served at the Institute of Imams, Egypt under the Egyptian Ministry of Religious Endowments as supervisor before moving back to Doha as Dean of the Islamic Department at the Faculties of Shariah and Education in Qatar, where he continued until 1990.
His next appointment was in Algeria as Chairman of the Scientific Council of Islamic University and Higher Institutions in 1990–91.
He returned to Qatar once more as Director of the Seerah and Sunnah Center at Qatar University, a post he still occupies today.
In 1997, Al-Qaradawi helped found the European Council for Fatwa and Research, a council of important and influential Muslim scholars dedicated to researching and writing fatwas in support of Western Muslim minority communities based in Ireland, and he serves as its head.
He also serves as the chairman of International Union for Muslim Scholars (IUMS).
In the wake of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution he returned to Egypt for the first time since leaving in 1961.
Al-Qaradawi is a principal shareholder and former Sharia adviser to Bank Al-Taqwa, a member bank of the Lugano-Switzerland Al-Taqwa group, a bank that the U.S. states finances terrorism and that the UN Security Council had listed as associated with Al Qaeda.
On 2 August 2010, the bank was removed from a list of entities and individuals associated with Al Qaeda maintained by the Security Council.
Al-Qaradawi finished 3rd in a 2008 poll on who was the world's leading public intellectual.
2011 return to Egypt
After the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, Qaradawi made his first public appearance in Egypt after 1981.
In Tahrir Square, he led Friday prayers on 18 February, addressing an audience estimated to exceed two million Egyptians.
It began with an address of "O Muslims and Copts", referring to Egypt's Coptic Christian minority instead of the customary opening for Islamic Friday sermons "O Muslims".
He was reported to have said, "Egyptian people are like the genie who came out of the lamp and who have been in prison for 30 years."
He also demanded the release of political prisoners in Egyptian prisons, praised the Copts for protecting Muslims in their Friday prayer, and called for the new military rulers to quickly restore civilian rule.
He referred to Mubarak as a Tyrannical Pharaoh.
He also called on Libyan ambassadors around the world to distance themselves from Gaddafi's government.
Views and statements
Religious and sectarian views
Al-Qaradawi has written on the danger of extremist groups of Islam, in his dissertation on the subject Islamic Awakening between Rejection and Extremism.
In it he warns of the dangers of blind obedience, bigotry and intolerance; rigidity—which deprives people of clarity of vision and the opportunity for dialogue with others; commitment to excessiveness, including the excessive application of minor or controversial Islamic issues to people in non-Muslim countries or to people who have only recently converted to Islam; harshness in the treatment of people, roughness in the manner of approach, and crudeness in calling people to Islam, all which are contrary to the teachings of the Qur'an and Sunnah.
On the other hand, Al-Qaradawi himself has advocated extremism and anti-semitism, denouncing Jews for their "corruption" and describing Adolf Hitler as having put Jews "in their place", while others believe Al-Qaradawi is merely "not afraid to state firmly that 'Palestinian martyr operations are a weapon of the weak'".
Al-Qaradawi has been an avid caller to what he calls "Islamic Sufism", praising those who practice it as pious.
Al-Qaradawi has disparaged Shi'ites as innovators (mubtadiʿūn) and warned of the "Shiitization" of the Middle East, saying Shiite Muslims were "invading" Sunni societies.
In response, the Iranian Mehr News Agency described Qaradawi as "a spokesman for international Freemasonry and rabbis".
In May 2013, al-Qaradawi has also verbally attacked the Alawite sect, which many describe as an offshoot of Shia Islam and of which President Bashir al-Assad is a member, as "more infidel than Christians and Jews" (أكفر من اليهود والنصارى).
However, in 2010, al-Qaradawi met with Shi'a scholar Ayatollah Hassan al-Saffar and urged to work their differences and come together and promote peace and disregard for sectarian strife like what the hardline are doing to create more dissension and discord between Shi'a and Sunni.
He says that their origins are not in the salaf (the first three generations of Muslims), but in the Arabian Najd Islamic leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Saudi Arabia's founder Ibn Saud, and so is only 200-years-old not 1,400 years.
Wahhabism was founded (Al-Qaradawi states) with the help of British imperialists who toppled the mainstream Sunni Islam Ottoman Empire and later Hussein bin Ali (Sharif of Mecca) who're the original Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques in charge of Makkah's Al-Masjid al-Haram and Madinah's Al-Masjid an-Nabawi for over a thousand years since the time of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad whom is also the Prophet's direct descendant.
Further information: International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism
Al-Qaradawi also claims that rather than opposing extremist terrorism, Israel and America have funded and supported these groups by funding them since the 1970s to the present day to pursue their (Western) political agenda in controlling the vast wealth of oil, gas, coal and mine to further destabilized the natural-resource-rich Middle East and beyond.
Qaradawi also said that if more terrorist attacks were to occur, Israel will greatly benefit from it as it will give boosts to the sales of Israeli security companies and firms to promote their high-tech equipment globally in both hard and software forms.
Qaradawi stated that the deceitful evil implications of those countries' complicity with this group is irreversible and has no end in sight.
He compared them (takfiri groups) to dogs from Hell-fire for using religion to kill the innocents.
He issued a fatwa (edict) in 2014 denouncing the Islamic State (Daesh) declaration of "caliphate" and its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as "invalid, null and void" from every aspect, every angle of the Islamic Sharia Law.
Al-Qaradawi has (at times) called for dialogue with non-Muslims.
He also puts emphasis on conversations with the West, including Jews, Christians, and secularists.
He writes that this effort should differentiate itself from a debate, for the latter does not often result in mutual cooperation.
Regarding the rights and citizenship of non-Muslim minorities, Qaradawi has said, "those people who live under the protection of an Islamic government enjoy special privileges.
They are referred to as 'the Protected People' (dhimmi) ...
In modern terminology, dhimmies are 'citizens' of the Islamic state.
From the earliest period of Islam to the present day, Muslims are in unanimous agreement that they enjoy the same rights and carry the same responsibilities as Muslims themselves, while being free to practice their own faiths."
In his book titled The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, al-Qaradawi wrote, "Islam does not prohibit Muslims to be kind and generous to peoples of other religions, even if they are idolaters and polytheists, ... it looks upon the People of the Book, that is, Jews and Christians, with special regard, whether they reside in a Muslim society or outside it.
The Qur'an never addresses them without saying, 'O People of the Book' or 'O You who have been given the Book', indicating that they were originally people of a revealed religion.
For this reason there exists a relationship of mercy and spiritual kinship between them and the Muslims."
Al-Qaradawi has strongly opposed Zionism and Israel but made conflicting statements on the Jewish people.
In May 2008, al-Qaradawi told visiting Rabbis from the Haredi, Anti-Zionist Neturei Karta sect, "there is no enmity between Muslims and Jews ... Jews who believe in the authentic Torah are very close to Muslims."
"Muslims are against the expansionist, oppressive Zionist movement, not the Jews."
Reportedly, in 1998 the Associated Press quoted al-Qaradawi writing, "There should be no dialogue with these people [Israelis] except with swords."
In August 2005, The Wall Street Journal reported that the Dublin-based European Council for Fatwa and Research, of which al-Qaradhawi is president, had used the antisemitic Protocols of the Elders of Zion in its theological deliberations.
Al-Qaradawi's remarks were sharply criticized by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), which accused him of inciting violence against Jews.
In a sermon broadcast on Qatar TV on 26 April 2013 (as translated by MEMRI), Qaradawi announced that he would not participate in an inter-faith dialogue if Jews were present, stating, "If you invite the Jews, I will not participate.
I will participate in a Muslim-Christian meeting, but with the Jews there should be no debate."
Qaradawi stated that there can be "no debate whatsoever with those who have committed injustice" and "Those Jews have committed clear injustice against us.
They have shed our blood, killed our children, displaced our people, seized our lands, and usurped our rights."
Later in his sermon, Qaradawi restated: "I cannot be a part of a conference in which wrongdoing Jews participate.
They have committed great injustice, and I cannot possibly shake hands with them.
Their hands are soiled with blood.
They have murderous, violent, and oppressive hands.
I cannot soil my hands by shaking theirs."
Al-Qaradawi's statements were described as in a Jewish Political Studies Review article, which connected his belief in Jewish conspiracies to the appeals to violence against them.
The conspiracies al-Qaradawi is described as endorsing are "the Jews as the greatest enemies of Islam; alleges a Jewish plot to take over the entire Middle East, including Mecca and Medina; blames the Jews for the abolition of the Islamic Caliphate in 1924 and the spread of communism; and accuses the Jews of planning to tear down the al-Aqsa Mosque".
Views on the Holocaust
Al-Qaradawi has defended the mass murder of millions during the Holocaust as a "punishment."
Apostasy from Islam
Al-Qaradawi says that Apostasy in Islam – Muslims leaving Islam – is a grave danger to the Muslim community and that it is the duty of all Muslims "is to combat apostasy in all its forms and wherefrom it comes, giving it no chance to pervade in the Muslim world".
In February 2013, Qaradawi stated on Egyptian television that the application of the death penalty for those who leave Islam is a necessity, stating, "If they had gotten rid of the apostasy punishment, Islam wouldn't exist today."
Qaradawi also cited several speeches and writings by Muhammad and his followers, such as Surah Al-Ma'idah 5:33, which he quoted as "The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His apostle is that they should be murdered or crucified."
Qaradawi further explained, " ... many hadiths, not only one or two, but many, narrated by a number of Muhammad's companions state that any apostate should be killed.
Ibn 'Abbas's hadith: 'Kill whoever changes his faith [from Islam].'"
However, Islamopedia online states that while Al-Qaradawi considers execution as a penalty in principle, only apostates that combine other crimes with apostasy (e.g., "incit[ing] a war against Islam") are to be executed.
He follows classical tradition in advocating that apostates to be given a chance to repent before being executed.
Finally, while al-Qaradawi believes that the Muslim community is not allowed to punish "intellectual apostasy" or "hidden apostasy" -- where the apostates do not "swagger" about their conversion -- he still strongly condemns it.
He says "These people are not noticed when they invade or begin to disseminate their falsehood, but they are mostly felt when they affect the minds.
They do not use guns in their attacks, however, their attacks are fierce and cunning."
Nevertheless, he concedes, "Erudite scholars and well versed jurists ... can not take an action in face of such professional criminals who have firmly established themselves and have not left a chance for law to be enforced on them."
He states their punishment should be left to the judgement of God in the Hereafter.
Civil state v. theocracy
Al-Qaradawi has spoken in favor of democracy in the Muslim world, speaking of a need for reform of political climates in the Middle East specifically.
On 22 February 2011, he held an exclusive interview with OnIslam.net, dismissing the allegation that he wanted a religious state established in Egypt: "On the contrary, my speech supported establishing a civil state with a religious background, I am totally against theocracy.
We are not a state for mullahs."
After the September 11 attacks, al-Qaradawi urged Muslims to donate blood for the victims and said:
He denies that Palestinian suicide bombing attacks constitute terrorism, claiming, "when Palestinians face such unjust aggression, they tend to stem bloodletting and destruction and not to claim the lives of innocent civilians," but qualifies that with "I do agree with those who do not allow such martyr operations to be carried out outside the Palestinian territories."
Al-Qaradawi has suggested the legitimate use of (defensive) suicide bombings against enemy combatants in modern times if the defending combatants have no other means of self-defense.
With regards to suicide bombings he says that they are "breaching the scholarly consensus ... because to endanger one's life is one thing and to commit suicide during the attack is obviously another".
With regards to male soldiers he states, "It goes without saying that they are considered combatants as soon as they arrive on the battlefield even if they are not in direct combat – provided of course that the remaining conventions of war have been observed throughout, and that all this is during a valid war when there is no ceasefire."
Western governments have met al-Qaradawi to request release of European civilians kidnapped in Iraq and have thanked him officially, praising his cooperation.
The French Foreign Minister Michel Barnier wrote to al-Qaradawi: "With such a clear condemnation of the abduction of the French hostages you have sent a clear-cut message demonstrating respect for the tenets of Islam."
Al-Qaradawi supports suicide attacks on all Israelis, including women since he views the Israeli society as a "completely military" society that did not include any civilians.
He also considers pregnant women and their unborn babies to be valid targets on the ground that the babies could grow up to join the Israeli Army.
Defending bombings against Israeli civilians, al-Qaradawi told BBC Newsnight in 2005 that:
- "An Israeli woman is not like women in our societies, because she is a soldier."
- "I consider this type of martyrdom operation as an evidence of God's justice."
- "Allah Almighty is Just; through His infinite Wisdom He has given the weak a weapon the strong do not have and that is their ability to turn their bodies into bombs as Palestinians do."
At the press conference held by the organizations sponsoring his visit to London, al-Qaradawi reiterated his view that suicide attacks are a justified form of resistance to Israeli occupation of the rightfully Palestinian territories.
He has also justified his views by stating that all Israeli civilians are potential soldiers, since Israel is a "militarized society".
Because of these views, al-Qaradawi has been accused by Western countries and Israel of supporting terrorism.
In an interview with the newspaper Al Raya in April 2001, al-Qaradawi declared that suicide (or "martyrdom") bombings conducted by Palestinians against Israelis "are not suicide operations.
These are heroic martyrdom operations, and the heroes who carry them out don't embark on this action out of hopelessness and despair but are driven by an overwhelming desire to cast terror and fear into the hearts of the oppressors."
On the other hand, Al-Qaradawi opposes attacks outside of the Palestinian Territories and Israel, and against non-Israeli targets.
For example, on 20 March 2005, he condemned a car bombing that had occurred in Doha, Qatar the previous day.
One Briton, Jon Adams was killed.
Al-Qaradawi issued a statement saying:
According to IslamOnline, Qaradawi released a fatwa on 14 April 2004 stating boycott of American and Israeli products was an obligation for all who are able.
The fatwa reads in part :
He asked all of the Palestinian people to work with other Arab people and Muslims around the world to destroy Israel, saying inflammatory things such as "Our wish should be that we carry out Jihad to death" and "We should seek to liberate Palestine, all of Palestine, inch by inch."
More recently according to The Investigative Project on Terrorism report wrote by Anti-Islam journalist Steven Emerson, al-Qaradawi published a message in Arabic on his website which was translated by The Investigative Project on Terrorism in which he called on Muslims to join the "greatest battle of liberation" against Israel and against the Jews in general.
The preacher allegedly protested the closure of Temple Mount after the assassination attempt that killed an Israeli activist, where the third holiest shrine for Islam is located, namely Jerusalem's Al-Aqsa mosque.
Along the same line citing from New York-based Jewish-run ADL (Anti-Defamation League) report, on 24 January 2011 al-Qaradawi had voiced his desire to see Jerusalem conquered in a fatwa in which he claimed that it was the Muslims' duty to "defend" Jerusalem with "their lives, their money and all they pos-sess, or else they will be subject to Allah's punishment."
In July 2015, al-Qaradawi argued on the TV show Ala-Masouliyati (I Am Responsible) that it is permissible for suicide bombers to self-detonate if requested by a group.
Conversely, individuals are prohibited from carrying out suicide bombings on their own.
On the subject of the Western Wall, Qaradawi said:
In 2004 the International Union of Muslim Scholars, an organization chaired by al-Qaradawi which counts a great number of prominent individual affiliated to the Muslim Brotherhood and/or Hamas among its members, ruled that "resisting occupation troops in Iraq is a 'duty' on able Muslims in and outside the war-torn country and that aiding the occupier is impermissible."
In an address aired on Qatar TV on 5 January 2007, al-Qaradawi questioned the trial of Saddam Hussein under American supervision in Iraq, but agreed to it if it were conducted by the Iraqi people "after liberating Iraq from American colonialism".
He also suggested that the trial was "an act of vengeance by the Americans" for his missile attacks on Israel.
He strongly criticized the way Saddam was hanged:
In 2006, in response to Muslim scholar Abdullah Ibn Jibreen's fatwa declaring that it was forbidden for Muslims to support or pray for Hezbollah because they are Shia, al-Qaradawi said that supporting Hezbollah is a religious duty for all Muslims and that resistance, whether in Palestine or Lebanon, is the most noble act.
He added "Shias agree with the Sunnis in the main principles of Islam while the differences are only over the branches" and also called upon the Sunnis and Shia of Iraq to end the civil war.
Seven years later, during the Syrian Civil War, Qaradawi urged all Sunnis to fight Hezbollah, attacking Hezbollah's leader Hassan Nasrallah and Iran: "The leader of the Party of Satan comes to fight the Sunnis ... Now we know what the Iranians want ...
They want continued massacres to kill Sunnis."
Qaradawi also stated that he now regretted having advocated rapprochement between Sunnis and Shias and his 2006 defense of Hezbollah.
Qaradawi declared his support for the rebels led by the National Transitional Council in the 2011 Libyan civil war, urging Arab nations to recognize them and "to confront the tyranny of the regime in Tripoli".
He suggested weapons be sent to the rebels to assist the, and said "Our Islamic nation should stand against injustice and corruption and I urge the Egyptian government to extend a helping hand to Libyan people and not to Gaddafi."
In response to the 2011 Bahrain protests, Qaradawi was reluctant to give support: "The protests in Bahrain are sectarian in nature.
The Shias are revolting against the Sunnis."
He claimed that Shia protesters attack Sunnis and occupied their mosques.
He acknowledged that the Shia majority had legitimate concerns in regards to fairness with the Sunnis: "I want them to be real citizens of their country."
Qaradawi said that all Arabs should back up the protesters in the 2011 Syrian uprising, saying "Today the train of revolution has reached a station that it had to reach: The Syria station," and "It is not possible for Syria to be separated from the history of the Arab community."
He declared his support for the protests against what he called Syria's "oppressive regime", claiming "atrocities" were committed by it.
He called for victory against the ruling Ba'ath party and claimed the army would be the major factor in the revolt.
He claimed that when he offered to mediate negotiations between the Muslim Brotherhood and the Syrian government, someone deliberately sabotaged it.
Qaradawi also expressed his support for the No Fly zone put in place by western nations over Libya, saying "The operation in Libya is to protect the civilians from Gaddafi's tyranny" and slamming Arab League leader Amr Moussa for criticism of it.
Women, gender and other issues
Commenting on the role women played in social active issues:
According to Kamal Badr, Qaradawi advocates that rape victims be protected by society:
He stated on Channel 4 News that it was justifiable in certain circumstances but the "ideal was for Muslim men never to beat their wives, and if husbands wrongly beat their wives, they have the right to fight back".
The British newspaper The Daily Telegraph writes that al-Qaradawi, in his book The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, states that wife-beating is permissible after the failure of all other means of persuasion.
In such circumstances, a husband may beat his wife "lightly with his hands, avoiding her face and other sensitive areas".
Female genital mutilation (FGM)
Qaradawi says female genital mutilation surgery is forbidden in Islam.
He calls on ending and banned to Female Circumcision in some parts of the Muslim world, especially in rural Africa where most still practice it.
His views were supported by Sheikhs in Al-Azhar.
Qaradawi urged women to not masturbate and said that its dangerous to insert things into the vagina.
On 5 June 2006, on the Al Jazeera program Sharia and Life, al-Qaradawi (a regular on the program) reiterated orthodox views on homosexuality.
When asked about the punishment for people who "practise liwaat (sodomy) or sihaaq (lesbian activity)", al-Qaradawi replied: "The same punishment as any sexual pervert – the same as the fornicator."
The punishment for fornication is lashing.
In an interview with Der Spiegel, Qaradawi said that his attitude towards homosexuality is the same as that found in Christianity.
In the interview he stated, "One year ago, there was a demonstration against me in London because I spoke out against homosexuality.
People seem to have forgotten that it wasn't me who came up with this mindset.
It's part of God's order spoken of by Moses and even mentioned by Jesus."
However, there are rigorous scholarly debates among the Islamic School of Law (Fiqh) as to whether LGBT are define by genetic disorders and that it may be permissible or not for those who're scientifically-medically-proven to be part of the LGBT category as with hermaphrodite denoting whether a person is incline towards the naturality of female or male instinct.
Same for Mukhannathun (Transgender), in which there are many prophetic Hadith that allows male who have inclinations towards being female (effeminate) that occurred during the Islamic prophet Muhammad's time and that they were accepted as part of the larger community in Madinah having equal rights.
Qaradawi is one of many among the leading Islamic scholars who is in this ongoing debate.
Punishment of stoning
He calls on those who done it to be punishable with death for their crime; a life for a life.
Mawlid (Muhammad's birthday)
Al-Qaradawi fully supports and advocates Mawlid.
In fact, it is encouraged in Islam to do good action (Man Sanna Sunnatun Hassanah) based on a Sahih Hadith.
And that Allah (God) himself have said in Al-Qur'an, Chapter 21, Verse 107:
Al-Qaradawi explains that Allah (God) is talking about Muhammad's miracle birth as the verse mentions "sent you".
In other words, his presence, his birth, his coming.
A "mercy" (rahmah) to the worlds.
Means mercy to all mankind.
It means everything; all of his creations (all creatures).
It's in this Sahih Hadith that Sheikh Prof. Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradawi emphasizes that good innovative actions is strongly encouraged for as long as it doesn't goes against the Sharia (Islamic Law).
What more involving religion itself than worldly good deeds like holding an old person's hand while crossing the road guiding him/her to safety and many more.
It's encouraging for both.
He says these is the true meaning and emphasis of Islam, to be the religion of mercy (rahmah) and to do more good than just good so that others may lead by our good examples and that they may successively follows them till End of Time.
Al-Qaradawi says that niqab (veil) is not obligatory in Islam.
He has pointed out that a woman's face is not an awrah.
He calls those who don the niqabs as following tradition and culture before Islam came to Arabia.
Those people, be it male or female at that time, had to cover their faces from dusty desert and from inhaling dust especially during sandstorms.
At the same time Qaradawi issued a fatwa (edict) that organ transplant from living to a living person is permissible in Islam but through donation as donation is considered charity.
As for a dead person, only when the brain stops, the transplant can then be carried out.
In April 2008, at a conference in Qatar titled "Mecca: the Center of the Earth, Theory and Practice", al-Qaradawi advocated the implementation of Mecca Time to replace the Greenwich Meridian as the basis of the world time zone system.
Al-Qaradawi called for a "Day of Anger" over the cartoons, but condemned violent actions in response to them.
Al-Qaradawi said, "Rushdie disgraced the honor of the Prophet and his family and defiled the values of Islam," but he never backed the fatwa calling for his death.
In 1997, Qaradawi's affiliation with the Muslim Brotherhood led to his expulsion from Egypt, a country where this organisation was at the time prohibited.
He has twice turned down offers to be its leader.
In an interview on the Dream channel, al-Qaradawi states the following about his relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood (MB):
On 16 May 2015 al-Qaradawi has been sentenced to death in absentia by an Egyptian court along with the ousted President Mohamed Morsi and over 100 other Egyptians affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood.
As reported by the Interpol website, Qaradawi is wanted by the judicial authorities of Egypt for "Agreement, incitement and assistance to commit intentional murder, helping the prisoners to escape, arson, vandalism and theft."
Qaradawi has criticised reality TV programs, saying that the aim of these is to 'mislead the [Muslim] nation'.
Reception in the Muslim world
Al-Qaradawi, a forefront of contemporary Muslim thinkers and scholars.
His vast contributions include more than 80 books and hundreds of articles on different Islamic issues, ranging from the fundamental principles and laws of Islam to the needs and challenges of modern Muslim societies.
His knowledge, intellect, moderation and unrelenting efforts to bring Islam to a larger audience have gained him the respect of millions of Muslims and non-Muslims worldwide.
His famous Television program Ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (Sharia and Life) has an estimated 700–800 million viewers worldwide.
Despite his fame.
In 2012, Qardawi traded barbs with fellow Muslim cleric Abu Abd al-Rahman Ibn Aqil al-Zahiri due to what Ibn Aqil perceived as hypocritical positions of Qardawi during the Arab Spring, a charge he denied.
Pakistani scholar, Muhammad Taqi Usmani stated, "There is no doubt that I—as the lowest student of Islamic Fiqh—with my benefitting from the books of the outstanding Dr al-Qaradāwī to a very large extent, and my supreme wonderment at the majority of [his works], have found myself, in some particular issues, not in agreement with him in the results that he has arrived at, but these sorts of differences (ikhtilāf) in views based on juristic judgement (ijtihādī) are natural, and cannot be the [sole] basis for judging [their author] so long as the people of knowledge do not deem [the bearers of such opinions] to be weak intellectually, or in religion, and [in any case] the importance of these books and their value in scholarship and da'wa are not affected by this to even the slightest, most insignificant degree."
In addition, he refers to some modern scholars by writing, "What we see today, very unfortunately, is that the one who brings forward elevated ideas in his writings and lofty theories in his speech and his sermons often does not rise above the level of the layman" but exempts Qardawi by saying, "As for the outstanding, erudite scholar, Dr Yūsuf al-Qaradāwī, may God (Most High) preserve him, God (Most High) has indeed made me fortunate enough to accompany him in travels and in residence, and sit with him and closely associate with him in long and repeated meetings.
[From this] I found him manifest in his personality exemplary Islamic qualities, for he is a human being before he is a Muslim, and a devoted Muslim before he is a caller to Islam (dā'i), and a caller to Islam before he is a scholar and jurist."
The Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı, which supports the Turkistan Islamic Party, attacked Yusuf al-Qaradawi and called his creed "perverted" and claimed that he was followed by "democratic polytheists".
Qaradawi was attacked by Hani Al-Siba'i.
On Syria and Russia
Qaradawi stated that Russia is an "enemy of Islam" due to the country's military relations with the Syrian regime.
His remarks drew harsh criticism from Muslims in Russia.
Kadyrov asserted that Qaradawi's statements are mainly "directed against the Muslims of Russia, who are citizens of this country, were born here and live here, and who care about their country".
Kadyrov claimed that "It is not Russia that is supplying weapons and money for the thousands of mercenaries from all over the world who have flooded Syria and are committing daily terrorist attacks, in which the blood of women, old people and children is shed,"
Entry into western countries
Al-Qaradawi has been banned from entering the United States since 1999 and the United Kingdom since 2008, though he visited London in 2004.
The lobby group MEMRI said it helped play a role in the measures.
During the conference al-Qaradawi expressed his support for suicide attacks against Israeli civilians, calling the fight against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian Territories a "necessary Jihad".
France announced in March 2012 it will not let him enter.
Fatwa controversy with MEMRI
Al-Qaradawi, however, denies this allegation:
Shaker Al-Nabulsi, a former Muslim who writes for the liberal site Ethal, called for the creation of a petition to the UN calling to put Qaradawi and his like on trial for incitement and support of terrorism.
Alcohol fatwa controversy
Al-Qaradawi issued a fatwa in 2008, stating that the consumption of tiny amounts of alcohol (<0.5% concentration or 5/1000, such as found in energy drinks) was acceptable for Muslims, in beverages where the fermentation is natural and unavoidable and is too small to lead to intoxication.
In October 2004, according to Saudi Arabia's newspaper "The Arab News" based in New York and Jeddah, over 2,500 Muslim intellectuals from 23 countries signed a petition addressed to the United Nations to raise awareness on the use of religion for incitement to violence.
Al-Qaradawi was mentioned among "the sheikhs of death," as the signatories defined those who manipulate religion to incite violence, for "providing a religious cover for terrorism."
A charge al-Qaradawi dismissed as baseless and slanderous.
The sheikh has been banned from entering the U.S. since 1999.
In 2008, the UK Home Office stated that al-Qaradawi was denied a visa to enter Britain for medical treatment because of fears that his preaching "could foster inter-community violence."
In March 2012, the French President Nicolas Sarkozy declared his decision to block the entry of extremists in the country after the Toulouse attacks, and specifically mentioned al-Qaradawi as one of those barred from entering France.
Qaradawi chairs the Union of Good, a coalition of Islamic charities supporting Hamas' infrastructure, an organisation on the US State Department list of foreign terrorist organizations.
In December 2014 the International Union of Muslim Scholars led by al-Qaradawi was expelled from the Cairo-based International Islamic Council for Da'wah and Relief based on the allegation that the group mixed religion and politics and supported terrorism.
The Consortium Against Terrorist Finance reports that, in 2010, Qaradawi was listed as the chairman of the Sharia supervisory board of Qatar Islamic Bank, one of the Qatari sharia-compliant giants which has allegedly a long history of cooperation with controversial financial entities.
He is also a former Sharia adviser and shareholder to Bank al-Taqwa, once listed by the U.S and the UN as a terrorist financier associated with al-Qaeda but delisted in 2010.
Al-Qaradawi was born in Egypt but lives in Qatar.
He has three sons and four daughters, three of whom hold doctorates from British Universities.
Awards and recognition
Al-Qaradawi has been awarded by various countries and institutions for his contributions to Islamic society.
Among them are
- The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) Prize in Islamic Economics – 1991
- King Faisal International Prize for Islamic Studies – 1994
- Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah (Sultan of Brunei) Award for Islamic Jurisprudence – 1997
- Sultan Al Owais Award for Cultural & Scientific Achievements – 1998–1999
- Dubai International Holy Quran Award for Islamic Personality of the Year – 2000
- The State Acknowledgement Award for contributions in the field of Islamic Studies from the Government of Qatar – 2008
- Tokoh Ma'al Hijrah (Hijra of the Prophet) award by the Malaysian Government −2009
The Qatar Faculty of Islamic Studies, part of the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, instituted the "Sheikh Yusuf Al Qaradawi Scholarships" in 2009, awarding them to five students each year for post-graduate studies.
It also named after him its newly established research centre, The Qaradawi Center for Islamic Moderation and Renewal.
The State Merit Prize for Islamic Studies was issued to Qaradawi by the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage of Qatar on 3 November 2009.
A 2008 Foreign Policy online poll put him at No.3 in the list of the Top 20 Public Intellectuals worldwide.
Al-Qaradawi has authored more than 120 books and his academic style and objective thought are considered to be some of the main characteristics of his works.
His most famous work is The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam.
Professor Mustafa al-Zarqa declared that owning a copy of it was "the duty of every Muslim family".
His book Fiqh al-Zakat is considered by some as the most comprehensive work in the area of zakat.
His book Fiqh al-Jihad has been widely commented on.
The Guardian writes:
His views on jihad have attracted criticism from some hard line groups.
Yusuf al-Qaradawi wrote many books, some of which were translated into English:
- Islam: Modern Fatwas on Issues of Women and the Family (Fatawa Mu'asira fi Shu'un al-Mar'a wa al-Usrah) (Dar al-Shihab, Algeria, 1987)
- , Doha (1996)
- The lawful and the prohibited in Islam=al-Halal wal-haram fil Islam. Indianapolis, IN, USA: American Trust Publications. 1999. ISBN 978-0-89259-016-2.
- The desired Muslim generation. Riyadh: International Islamic Publishing House. 1999. ISBN 978-9960-850-24-5.
- (in progress)
- Non muslims in the Islamic society. Indianapolis, Ind., USA: American Trust Publications. 1985. ISBN 978-0-89259-049-0.
- Priorities of the Islamic movement in the coming phase. Cairo: al-Dār. 1992. ISBN 978-977-00-4083-6.
- Fiqh az-zakat : a comparative study : the rules, regulations and philosophy of Zakat in the light of the Qurʼan and Sunna. London: Dar Al Taqwa. 1999. ISBN 978-1-870582-12-4.
- Contemporary fatawa : current issues in Islamic fiqh. Newark, NJ: Islamic Book Service. 1999. ISBN 978-1-892004-00-0.
- Time in the life of a Muslim. London: Ta-Ha. 2000. ISBN 978-1-84200-007-6.
- Sincerity: The Essential Quality. MAS Publications. 2006.
- Approaching the Sunnah : comprehension & controversy. London Washington D.C: International Institute of Islamic Thought. 2007. ISBN 978-1-56564-418-2.
- Islamic awakening between rejection and extremism. Kuala Lumpur Herndon, Va: Islamic Book Trust The International Institute of Islamic Thought. 2010. ISBN 978-967-5062-53-7.
- Islam : an introduction. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust. 2010. ISBN 978-967-5062-35-3.
- Economic security in Islam. Kuala Lumpur: Dar Al Wahi Publication. 2010. ISBN 978-983-43614-9-5.
Amongst his dozens of works in Arabic, we cite:
- Ghayr al-Muslimīn fī al-mujtanaʻ al-Islāmi. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1977. ISBN 978-977-723-655-3.
- Ayna al-khalal. Cairo: Dār al-Ṣaḥwah. 1985. ISBN 978-977-14-3047-6.
- Awāmil al-saʻah wa-al-murūnah fī al-sharīʻah al-Islāmīyah. Cairo: Dār al-Ṣaḥwah. 1985. ISBN 978-977-14-3046-9.
- al-ʻIbādah fī al-Islām. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1985. ISBN 978-977-307-043-4.
- al-Nās wa-al-ḥaqq. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1986. ISBN 978-977-307-093-9.
- Bayʻ al-murābaḥah lil-āmir bi-al-shirāʼ ka-mā tujrīhi al-maṣārif al-Islāmīyah : dirāsah fī ḍawʼ al-nuṣūṣ wa-al-qawāʻid al-sharʻīyah. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1987. ISBN 978-977-307-086-1.
- al-Īmān wa-al-ḥayāh. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1990. ISBN 978-977-307-210-0.
- Malāmiḥ al-mujtamaʻ al-Muslim alladhī nanshuduh. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1993. ISBN 978-977-225-036-3.
- Dawr al-qiyam wa-al-akhlāq fī al-iqtiṣād al-Islāmi. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1995. ISBN 978-977-225-060-8.
- Fī fiqh al-awlawīyāt : dirāsah jadīdah fī ḍawʼ al-Qurʼān wa-al-sunnah. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1995. ISBN 978-977-225-068-4.
- al-Islām wa-al-fann. Cairo: Maktabat Wahba. 1996. ISBN 978-977-225-084-4.
- al-Aqallīyāt ad-dīnīya wa-l-ḥall al-islāmi. Cairo: Maktabat Wahba. 1996. ISBN 978-977-225-097-4.
- al-Mubashshirāt bi-intiṣār al-Islām. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1996. ISBN 978-977-225-098-1.
- Min fiqh al-dawlah fī al-Islām : makānatuhā-- maʻālimuhā-- ṭabīʻatuhā, mawqifuhā min al-dīmuqrāṭīyah wa-al-taʻaddudīyah wa-al-marʼah wa-ghayr al-Muslimīn. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 1997. ISBN 978-977-09-0375-9.
- al-Ṣaḥwah al-Islāmīyah wa-humūm al-waṭan al-ʻArabi. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 1998. ISBN 978-977-09-0402-2.
- Thaqāfatunā bayna al-infitāḥ wa-al-inghilāq. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2000. ISBN 978-977-09-0658-3.
- al-Īmān bi-al-qadar. Beirut: Muʼassasah al-Risālah Nāshirūn. 2001. ISBN 978-9953-400-10-5.
- Fī fiqh al-aqallīyāt al-Muslimah : ḥayāt al-Muslimīn wasaṭ al-mujtamaʻāt al-ukhra. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2001. ISBN 978-977-09-0735-1.
- Riʻāyat al-bīʼah fī sharīʻat al-Islām. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2001. ISBN 978-977-09-0691-0.
- al-Sunnah wa-al-bidʻah. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2003. ISBN 978-977-225-134-6.
- Fī wadāʻ al-aʻlām. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr. 2003. ISBN 978-1-59239-141-7.
- al-Islām alladhī nadʻū ilayh. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2004. ISBN 978-977-225-182-7.
- al-Ṣaḥwah al-Islāmīyah : bayna al-āmāl wa-al-maḥādhīr. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2004. ISBN 978-977-225-179-7.
- Miʼat suʼāl ʻan al-ḥajj wa-al-ʻumrah wa-al-uḍḥiyah wa-al-ʻīdayn. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2004. ISBN 978-977-225-177-3.
- al-Islām wa-'l-ʻunf : naẓarāt taʼṣīlīya. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2005. ISBN 978-977-09-1211-9.
- Naḥnu wa-al-Gharb : asʼilah shāʼikah wa-ajwibah ḥāsimah. Cairo: Dār al-Tawzīʻ wa-al-Nashr al-Islāmīyah. 2006. ISBN 978-977-265-696-7.
- al-Islām kamā nuʼminu bihī ḍawābiṭ wa-malāmih. Cairo: Dār Nahḍat Miṣr li-ṭ-Ṭibāʻa wa'n-Nashr wa-'t-Tauzi. 2006. ISBN 978-977-14-3357-6.
- Dirāsah fī fiqh maqāṣid al-sharīʻah : bayna al-maqāṣid al-kullīyah wa-al-nuṣūṣ al-juzʼīyah. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2006. ISBN 978-977-09-1481-6.
- Kayfa nataʻāmalu maʻa al-Qurʼān al-ʻAẓīm. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2006. ISBN 978-977-09-0496-1.
- al-Dīn wa-al-siyāsah : taʼṣīl wa-radd shubuhāt. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2007. ISBN 978-977-09-1971-2.
- Fiqh al-Jihād: Dirāsah Muqāranah li-Aḥkāmih wa Falsafatih fī Ḍaw' al-Qur'ān wa al-Sunnah. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2009. ISBN 978-977-225-246-6.
- al-Waraʻ wa-al-zuhd. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2010. ISBN 978-977-225-269-5.
- Fiqh al-wasaṭīyah al-Islāmīyah wa-al-tajdīd : maʻālim wa-manārāt. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2010. ISBN 978-977-09-2902-5.
- Ḥayāt al-marʼah al-Muslimah : fī iṭār al-ḥudūd al-sharʻīyah. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2011.
- al-Sunnah wa-muwājahat ḥamalāt al-tashkīk. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2011. ISBN 978-977-225-313-5.
He has also published some excerpts of his poetry in the book Nafahat wa Lafahat.
Al-Qaradawi has also been the subject of the book The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi published by Columbia University Press.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yusuf al-Qaradawi.