Yusuf al-Qaradawi

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Yusuf al-Qaradawi_table_infobox_0

Sheikh Prof. Dr.

Yusuf 'Abdullah al-Qaradawi

يوسف عبد الله القرضاويYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_0_0
TitleYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_1_0 SheikhYusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_1_1
PersonalYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_2_0
BornYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_3_0 Yusuf 'Abdullah al-Qaradawi
(1926-09-09) 9 September 1926 (age 94)

Saft Turab, Kingdom of Egypt (now Egypt)Yusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_3_1

ReligionYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_4_0 IslamYusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_4_1
ChildrenYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_5_0 Abdul Rahman Yusuf

Ilham Al-QaradawiYusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_5_1

EraYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_6_0 ModernYusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_6_1
RegionYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_7_0 EgyptYusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_7_1
DenominationYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_8_0 SunniYusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_8_1
MovementYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_9_0 ModernismYusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_9_1
Notable work(s)Yusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_10_0 Fiqh al-Zakat, al-Halal wa al-Haram fi al-Islam, Fiqh al-Jihad, Fiqh al-Awlawiyyat, Fiqh al-Dawlah, Madkhal li-Ma'rifat al-Islam and othersYusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_10_1
Alma materYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_11_0 Al-Azhar University (Cairo, Egypt)Yusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_11_1
OccupationYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_12_0 Islamic scholar

Professor DoctorYusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_12_1

Muslim leaderYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_13_0
AwardsYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_14_0 King Faisal International Prize (Saudi Arabia)

Prize of the Islamic University (Malaysia)

International Holy Quran Award (Dubai)

the Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Prize (Brunei)

Al-Owais Prize (UAE)

Medal of Independence, First Class (Jordan)

Top 10 in The 500 Most Influential Muslims, (United Kingdom)

Top 20 Intellectuals Worldwide by Foreign Policy magazine, (Washington, D.C., United States)Yusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_14_1

WebsiteYusuf al-Qaradawi_header_cell_0_15_0 Yusuf al-Qaradawi_cell_0_15_1

Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي‎, romanized: Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī; or Yusuf al-Qardawi; born 9 September 1926) is an Egyptian Islamic scholar based in Doha, Qatar, and chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_0

His influences include Hassan al-Banna, Abul A'la Maududi and Naeem Siddiqui. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_1

He is best known for his programme الشريعة والحياة, al-Sharīʿa wa al-Ḥayāh ("Sharia and Life"), broadcast on Al Jazeera, which has an estimated audience of 40–60 million worldwide. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_2

He is also known for IslamOnline, a website he helped to found in 1997 and for which he serves as chief religious scholar. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_3

Al-Qaradawi has published more than 120 books, including The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam and Islam: The Future Civilization. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_4

He has also received eight international prizes for his contributions to Islamic scholarship, and is considered one of the most influential such scholars living today. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_5

Al-Qaradawi has long had a prominent role within the intellectual leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood, an Egyptian political organization, although he has repeatedly stated that he is no longer a member and twice (in 1976 and 2004) turned down offers for the official role in the organization. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_6

Al-Qaradawi is sometimes described as a "moderate Islamist". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_7

Some of his views, such as his condoning of Palestinian suicide bombings against Israelis, have caused reactions from governments in the West: he was refused an entry visa to the United Kingdom in 2008, and barred from entering France in 2012. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_8

Biography Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_0

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_description_list_0

Al-Qaradawi was born in 1926 in Saft Turab village in the Nile Delta, now in Gharbia Governorate, Egypt, into a poor family of devout Muslim peasants. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_9

He became an orphan at the age of two, when he lost his father. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_10

Following his father's death, he was raised by his uncle. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_11

He read and memorized the entire Quran by the time he was nine years old. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_12

He then joined the Institute of Religious Studies at Tanta, and graduated after nine years of study. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_13

While in Tanta, Al-Qaradawi first encountered Hassan al Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, when al Banna gave a lecture at his school. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_14

Al-Qaradawi has written of the lasting impact of this encounter, describing al Banna as "brilliantly radiating, as if his words were revelation or live coals from the light of prophecy." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_15

After graduating from the Institute of Religious Studies he moved on to study Islamic Theology at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo, from which he graduated in 1953. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_16

He earned a diploma in Arabic Language and Literature in 1958 at the Advanced Arabic Studies Institute. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_17

He enrolled in the graduate program in the Department of Quran and Sunnah Sciences of the Faculty of Religion's Fundamentals (Usul al-Din), and graduated with a master's degree in Quranic Studies in 1960. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_18

In 1962, he was sent by Al-Azhar University to Qatar to head the Qatari Secondary Institute of Religious Studies. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_19

He completed his PhD thesis titled Zakah and its effect on solving social problems in 1973 with First Merit and was awarded his PhD degree from Al-Azhar. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_20

His connection with the MB led to imprisonment under King Farouq in 1949, then three more times during the reign of former President Gamal Abdul Nasser. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_21

He left Egypt for Qatar in 1961, and did not return until the overthrow of the military regime by the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_22

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_description_list_1

In 1977, he laid the foundation for the Faculty of Shari'ah and Islamic Studies in the University of Qatar and became the faculty's dean. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_23

In the same year he founded the Centre of Seerah and Sunna Research. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_24

He also served at the Institute of Imams, Egypt under the Egyptian Ministry of Religious Endowments as supervisor before moving back to Doha as Dean of the Islamic Department at the Faculties of Shariah and Education in Qatar, where he continued until 1990. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_25

His next appointment was in Algeria as Chairman of the Scientific Council of Islamic University and Higher Institutions in 1990–91. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_26

He returned to Qatar once more as Director of the Seerah and Sunnah Center at Qatar University, a post he still occupies today. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_27

In 1997, Al-Qaradawi helped found the European Council for Fatwa and Research, a council of important and influential Muslim scholars dedicated to researching and writing fatwas in support of Western Muslim minority communities based in Ireland, and he serves as its head. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_28

He also serves as the chairman of International Union for Muslim Scholars (IUMS). Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_29

In the wake of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution he returned to Egypt for the first time since leaving in 1961. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_30

Al-Qaradawi is a principal shareholder and former Sharia adviser to Bank Al-Taqwa, a member bank of the Lugano-Switzerland Al-Taqwa group, a bank that the U.S. states finances terrorism and that the UN Security Council had listed as associated with Al Qaeda. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_31

On 2 August 2010, the bank was removed from a list of entities and individuals associated with Al Qaeda maintained by the Security Council. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_32

Al-Qaradawi finished 3rd in a 2008 poll on who was the world's leading public intellectual. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_33

The poll, Top 100 Public Intellectuals, was of the readers of Prospect Magazine (UK) and Foreign Policy (United States). Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_34

2011 return to Egypt Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_1

After the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, Qaradawi made his first public appearance in Egypt after 1981. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_35

In Tahrir Square, he led Friday prayers on 18 February, addressing an audience estimated to exceed two million Egyptians. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_36

It began with an address of "O Muslims and Copts", referring to Egypt's Coptic Christian minority instead of the customary opening for Islamic Friday sermons "O Muslims". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_37

He was reported to have said, "Egyptian people are like the genie who came out of the lamp and who have been in prison for 30 years." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_38

He also demanded the release of political prisoners in Egyptian prisons, praised the Copts for protecting Muslims in their Friday prayer, and called for the new military rulers to quickly restore civilian rule. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_39

He referred to Mubarak as a Tyrannical Pharaoh. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_40

On 21 February 2011, he talked about the protests in Libya and issued a fatwa permitting the killing of Muammar Gaddafi: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_41

He also called on Libyan ambassadors around the world to distance themselves from Gaddafi's government. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_42

In the Jerusalem Post, Barry Rubin drew a parallel between Qaradawi's sermon and the Ayatollah Khomeini returning from exile to Iran. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_43

He also said that Qaradawi was encouraging the Muslim Brotherhood to suppress opposition when he made reference to Munafiq (self-professed Muslims who are actually unbelievers) in his sermon. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_44

Brookings Institution member Shadi Hamid says that Qaradawi is in the mainstream of Egyptian society, and that he also has appeal among Egyptians who are not Islamist. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_45

Views and statements Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_2

Religious and sectarian views Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_3

Muslim sects Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_4

Extremism Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_5

Al-Qaradawi has written on the danger of extremist groups of Islam, in his dissertation on the subject Islamic Awakening between Rejection and Extremism. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_46

In it he warns of the dangers of blind obedience, bigotry and intolerance; rigidity—which deprives people of clarity of vision and the opportunity for dialogue with others; commitment to excessiveness, including the excessive application of minor or controversial Islamic issues to people in non-Muslim countries or to people who have only recently converted to Islam; harshness in the treatment of people, roughness in the manner of approach, and crudeness in calling people to Islam, all which are contrary to the teachings of the Qur'an and Sunnah. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_47

On the other hand, Al-Qaradawi himself has advocated extremism and anti-semitism, denouncing Jews for their "corruption" and describing Adolf Hitler as having put Jews "in their place", while others believe Al-Qaradawi is merely "not afraid to state firmly that 'Palestinian martyr operations are a weapon of the weak'". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_48

Sufism Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_6

Al-Qaradawi has been an avid caller to what he calls "Islamic Sufism", praising those who practice it as pious. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_49

Shi'as Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_7

Al-Qaradawi has disparaged Shi'ites as innovators (mubtadiʿūn) and warned of the "Shiitization" of the Middle East, saying Shiite Muslims were "invading" Sunni societies. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_50

In response, the Iranian Mehr News Agency described Qaradawi as "a spokesman for international Freemasonry and rabbis". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_51

Fellow members of the International Union of Muslim Scholars such as Mohammad Salim Al-Awa criticized Qaradawi for promoting divisions among Muslims. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_52

In May 2013, al-Qaradawi has also verbally attacked the Alawite sect, which many describe as an offshoot of Shia Islam and of which President Bashir al-Assad is a member, as "more infidel than Christians and Jews" (أكفر من اليهود والنصارى). Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_53

However, in 2010, al-Qaradawi met with Shi'a scholar Ayatollah Hassan al-Saffar and urged to work their differences and come together and promote peace and disregard for sectarian strife like what the hardline are doing to create more dissension and discord between Shi'a and Sunni. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_54

Salafism (Wahhabism) Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_8

Al-Qaradawi has been a staunch critic of Wahhabism (a movement that often describes itself as Salafism). Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_55

He says that their origins are not in the salaf (the first three generations of Muslims), but in the Arabian Najd Islamic leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Saudi Arabia's founder Ibn Saud, and so is only 200-years-old not 1,400 years. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_56

Wahhabism was founded (Al-Qaradawi states) with the help of British imperialists who toppled the mainstream Sunni Islam Ottoman Empire and later Hussein bin Ali (Sharif of Mecca) who're the original Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques in charge of Makkah's Al-Masjid al-Haram and Madinah's Al-Masjid an-Nabawi for over a thousand years since the time of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad whom is also the Prophet's direct descendant. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_57

Qaradawi preached that the Wahhabists funding and proselytizing has spread terrorism in the form of Islamic State, Boko Haram, Al-Qaeda, Taliban, Al-Shabaab, Abu Sayyaf and similar groups. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_58

Further information: International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_59

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_description_list_2

Al-Qaradawi also claims that rather than opposing extremist terrorism, Israel and America have funded and supported these groups by funding them since the 1970s to the present day to pursue their (Western) political agenda in controlling the vast wealth of oil, gas, coal and mine to further destabilized the natural-resource-rich Middle East and beyond. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_60

Qaradawi also said that if more terrorist attacks were to occur, Israel will greatly benefit from it as it will give boosts to the sales of Israeli security companies and firms to promote their high-tech equipment globally in both hard and software forms. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_61

Qaradawi stated that the deceitful evil implications of those countries' complicity with this group is irreversible and has no end in sight. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_62

He compared them (takfiri groups) to dogs from Hell-fire for using religion to kill the innocents. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_63

He further said that Ash'aris, Maturidis can overcome their tiny existence. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_64

He issued a fatwa (edict) in 2014 denouncing the Islamic State (Daesh) declaration of "caliphate" and its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as "invalid, null and void" from every aspect, every angle of the Islamic Sharia Law. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_65

Non-Muslims Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_9

Al-Qaradawi has (at times) called for dialogue with non-Muslims. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_66

He also puts emphasis on conversations with the West, including Jews, Christians, and secularists. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_67

He writes that this effort should differentiate itself from a debate, for the latter does not often result in mutual cooperation. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_68

Regarding the rights and citizenship of non-Muslim minorities, Qaradawi has said, "those people who live under the protection of an Islamic government enjoy special privileges. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_69

They are referred to as 'the Protected People' (dhimmi) ... Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_70

In modern terminology, dhimmies are 'citizens' of the Islamic state. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_71

From the earliest period of Islam to the present day, Muslims are in unanimous agreement that they enjoy the same rights and carry the same responsibilities as Muslims themselves, while being free to practice their own faiths." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_72

In his book titled The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, al-Qaradawi wrote, "Islam does not prohibit Muslims to be kind and generous to peoples of other religions, even if they are idolaters and polytheists, ... it looks upon the People of the Book, that is, Jews and Christians, with special regard, whether they reside in a Muslim society or outside it. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_73

The Qur'an never addresses them without saying, 'O People of the Book' or 'O You who have been given the Book', indicating that they were originally people of a revealed religion. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_74

For this reason there exists a relationship of mercy and spiritual kinship between them and the Muslims." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_75

Jews Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_10

Al-Qaradawi has strongly opposed Zionism and Israel but made conflicting statements on the Jewish people. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_76

In May 2008, al-Qaradawi told visiting Rabbis from the Haredi, Anti-Zionist Neturei Karta sect, "there is no enmity between Muslims and Jews ... Jews who believe in the authentic Torah are very close to Muslims." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_77

He has also expressed his belief that relations between Muslims and Jews became strained with the emergence of Zionism and the establishment of Israel. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_78

"Muslims are against the expansionist, oppressive Zionist movement, not the Jews." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_79

Reportedly, in 1998 the Associated Press quoted al-Qaradawi writing, "There should be no dialogue with these people [Israelis] except with swords." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_80

In August 2005, The Wall Street Journal reported that the Dublin-based European Council for Fatwa and Research, of which al-Qaradhawi is president, had used the antisemitic Protocols of the Elders of Zion in its theological deliberations. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_81

Al-Qaradawi's remarks were sharply criticized by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), which accused him of inciting violence against Jews. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_82

In a 9 January 2009 sermon during the Gaza War, shown on Al-Jazeera, Qaradawi prayed (as translated by MEMRI): Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_83

In a sermon broadcast on Qatar TV on 26 April 2013 (as translated by MEMRI), Qaradawi announced that he would not participate in an inter-faith dialogue if Jews were present, stating, "If you invite the Jews, I will not participate. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_84

I will participate in a Muslim-Christian meeting, but with the Jews there should be no debate." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_85

Qaradawi stated that there can be "no debate whatsoever with those who have committed injustice" and "Those Jews have committed clear injustice against us. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_86

They have shed our blood, killed our children, displaced our people, seized our lands, and usurped our rights." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_87

Later in his sermon, Qaradawi restated: "I cannot be a part of a conference in which wrongdoing Jews participate. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_88

They have committed great injustice, and I cannot possibly shake hands with them. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_89

Their hands are soiled with blood. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_90

They have murderous, violent, and oppressive hands. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_91

I cannot soil my hands by shaking theirs." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_92

Al-Qaradawi's statements were described as in a Jewish Political Studies Review article, which connected his belief in Jewish conspiracies to the appeals to violence against them. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_93

The conspiracies al-Qaradawi is described as endorsing are "the Jews as the greatest enemies of Islam; alleges a Jewish plot to take over the entire Middle East, including Mecca and Medina; blames the Jews for the abolition of the Islamic Caliphate in 1924 and the spread of communism; and accuses the Jews of planning to tear down the al-Aqsa Mosque". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_94

Views on the Holocaust Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_11

Al-Qaradawi has defended the mass murder of millions during the Holocaust as a "punishment." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_95

In a statement that aired on Al-Jazeera TV on 28 January 2009 during the Gaza War, al-Qaradawi said the following regarding Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust (as translated by MEMRI): Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_96

Apostasy from Islam Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_12

Al-Qaradawi says that Apostasy in Islam – Muslims leaving Islam – is a grave danger to the Muslim community and that it is the duty of all Muslims "is to combat apostasy in all its forms and wherefrom it comes, giving it no chance to pervade in the Muslim world". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_97

In February 2013, Qaradawi stated on Egyptian television that the application of the death penalty for those who leave Islam is a necessity, stating, "If they had gotten rid of the apostasy punishment, Islam wouldn't exist today." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_98

Qaradawi also cited several speeches and writings by Muhammad and his followers, such as Surah Al-Ma'idah 5:33, which he quoted as "The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His apostle is that they should be murdered or crucified." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_99

Qaradawi further explained, " ... many hadiths, not only one or two, but many, narrated by a number of Muhammad's companions state that any apostate should be killed. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_100

Ibn 'Abbas's hadith: 'Kill whoever changes his faith [from Islam].'" Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_101

However, Islamopedia online states that while Al-Qaradawi considers execution as a penalty in principle, only apostates that combine other crimes with apostasy (e.g., "incit[ing] a war against Islam") are to be executed. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_102

He follows classical tradition in advocating that apostates to be given a chance to repent before being executed. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_103

Finally, while al-Qaradawi believes that the Muslim community is not allowed to punish "intellectual apostasy" or "hidden apostasy" -- where the apostates do not "swagger" about their conversion -- he still strongly condemns it. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_104

He says "These people are not noticed when they invade or begin to disseminate their falsehood, but they are mostly felt when they affect the minds. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_105

They do not use guns in their attacks, however, their attacks are fierce and cunning." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_106

Nevertheless, he concedes, "Erudite scholars and well versed jurists ... can not take an action in face of such professional criminals who have firmly established themselves and have not left a chance for law to be enforced on them." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_107

He states their punishment should be left to the judgement of God in the Hereafter. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_108

Political views Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_13

Civil state v. theocracy Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_14

Al-Qaradawi has spoken in favor of democracy in the Muslim world, speaking of a need for reform of political climates in the Middle East specifically. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_109

On 22 February 2011, he held an exclusive interview with OnIslam.net, dismissing the allegation that he wanted a religious state established in Egypt: "On the contrary, my speech supported establishing a civil state with a religious background, I am totally against theocracy. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_110

We are not a state for mullahs." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_111

Terrorism Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_15

After the September 11 attacks, al-Qaradawi urged Muslims to donate blood for the victims and said: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_112

He denies that Palestinian suicide bombing attacks constitute terrorism, claiming, "when Palestinians face such unjust aggression, they tend to stem bloodletting and destruction and not to claim the lives of innocent civilians," but qualifies that with "I do agree with those who do not allow such martyr operations to be carried out outside the Palestinian territories." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_113

Al-Qaradawi has suggested the legitimate use of (defensive) suicide bombings against enemy combatants in modern times if the defending combatants have no other means of self-defense. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_114

The Oxford-based Malaysian Islamic Scholar, Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_115 Afifi al-Akiti, rules that there is no Islamic legal precedent for this view and that female soldiers can only be killed in direct combat. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_116

With regards to suicide bombings he says that they are "breaching the scholarly consensus ... because to endanger one's life is one thing and to commit suicide during the attack is obviously another". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_117

With regards to male soldiers he states, "It goes without saying that they are considered combatants as soon as they arrive on the battlefield even if they are not in direct combat – provided of course that the remaining conventions of war have been observed throughout, and that all this is during a valid war when there is no ceasefire." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_118

Western governments have met al-Qaradawi to request release of European civilians kidnapped in Iraq and have thanked him officially, praising his cooperation. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_119

The French Foreign Minister Michel Barnier wrote to al-Qaradawi: "With such a clear condemnation of the abduction of the French hostages you have sent a clear-cut message demonstrating respect for the tenets of Islam." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_120

Israeli-Palestinian conflict Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_16

Al-Qaradawi supports suicide attacks on all Israelis, including women since he views the Israeli society as a "completely military" society that did not include any civilians. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_121

He also considers pregnant women and their unborn babies to be valid targets on the ground that the babies could grow up to join the Israeli Army. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_122

In another statement, Al-Qaradawi condoned Palestinian attacks on Israelis only if Israel continues its oppression and averts peace. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_123

A resolution issued by The Islamic Fiqh Council affiliated to the Saudi-run Muslim World League in its 14th session, held in Doha (Qatar) on 11–16 January 2003 has upheld his views on the matter. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_124

Defending bombings against Israeli civilians, al-Qaradawi told BBC Newsnight in 2005 that: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_125

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_unordered_list_3

  • "An Israeli woman is not like women in our societies, because she is a soldier."Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_3_0
  • "I consider this type of martyrdom operation as an evidence of God's justice."Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_3_1
  • "Allah Almighty is Just; through His infinite Wisdom He has given the weak a weapon the strong do not have and that is their ability to turn their bodies into bombs as Palestinians do."Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_3_2

At the press conference held by the organizations sponsoring his visit to London, al-Qaradawi reiterated his view that suicide attacks are a justified form of resistance to Israeli occupation of the rightfully Palestinian territories. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_126

He has also justified his views by stating that all Israeli civilians are potential soldiers, since Israel is a "militarized society". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_127

Because of these views, al-Qaradawi has been accused by Western countries and Israel of supporting terrorism. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_128

In an interview with the newspaper Al Raya in April 2001, al-Qaradawi declared that suicide (or "martyrdom") bombings conducted by Palestinians against Israelis "are not suicide operations. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_129

These are heroic martyrdom operations, and the heroes who carry them out don't embark on this action out of hopelessness and despair but are driven by an overwhelming desire to cast terror and fear into the hearts of the oppressors." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_130

On the other hand, Al-Qaradawi opposes attacks outside of the Palestinian Territories and Israel, and against non-Israeli targets. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_131

For example, on 20 March 2005, he condemned a car bombing that had occurred in Doha, Qatar the previous day. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_132

One Briton, Jon Adams was killed. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_133

Al-Qaradawi issued a statement saying: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_134

According to IslamOnline, Qaradawi released a fatwa on 14 April 2004 stating boycott of American and Israeli products was an obligation for all who are able. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_135

The fatwa reads in part : Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_136

On 8 May 2013, Qaradawi visited Gaza and gave a speech in support of Hamas. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_137

He asked all of the Palestinian people to work with other Arab people and Muslims around the world to destroy Israel, saying inflammatory things such as "Our wish should be that we carry out Jihad to death" and "We should seek to liberate Palestine, all of Palestine, inch by inch." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_138

More recently according to The Investigative Project on Terrorism report wrote by Anti-Islam journalist Steven Emerson, al-Qaradawi published a message in Arabic on his website which was translated by The Investigative Project on Terrorism in which he called on Muslims to join the "greatest battle of liberation" against Israel and against the Jews in general. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_139

The preacher allegedly protested the closure of Temple Mount after the assassination attempt that killed an Israeli activist, where the third holiest shrine for Islam is located, namely Jerusalem's Al-Aqsa mosque. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_140

Along the same line citing from New York-based Jewish-run ADL (Anti-Defamation League) report, on 24 January 2011 al-Qaradawi had voiced his desire to see Jerusalem conquered in a fatwa in which he claimed that it was the Muslims' duty to "defend" Jerusalem with "their lives, their money and all they pos-sess, or else they will be subject to Allah's punishment." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_141

In July 2015, al-Qaradawi argued on the TV show Ala-Masouliyati (I Am Responsible) that it is permissible for suicide bombers to self-detonate if requested by a group. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_142

Conversely, individuals are prohibited from carrying out suicide bombings on their own. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_143

On the subject of the Western Wall, Qaradawi said: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_144

Iraq war Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_17

In 2004 the International Union of Muslim Scholars, an organization chaired by al-Qaradawi which counts a great number of prominent individual affiliated to the Muslim Brotherhood and/or Hamas among its members, ruled that "resisting occupation troops in Iraq is a 'duty' on able Muslims in and outside the war-torn country and that aiding the occupier is impermissible." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_145

In an address aired on Qatar TV on 5 January 2007, al-Qaradawi questioned the trial of Saddam Hussein under American supervision in Iraq, but agreed to it if it were conducted by the Iraqi people "after liberating Iraq from American colonialism". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_146

He also suggested that the trial was "an act of vengeance by the Americans" for his missile attacks on Israel. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_147

He strongly criticized the way Saddam was hanged: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_148

Hezbollah Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_18

In 2006, in response to Muslim scholar Abdullah Ibn Jibreen's fatwa declaring that it was forbidden for Muslims to support or pray for Hezbollah because they are Shia, al-Qaradawi said that supporting Hezbollah is a religious duty for all Muslims and that resistance, whether in Palestine or Lebanon, is the most noble act. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_149

He added "Shias agree with the Sunnis in the main principles of Islam while the differences are only over the branches" and also called upon the Sunnis and Shia of Iraq to end the civil war. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_150

Seven years later, during the Syrian Civil War, Qaradawi urged all Sunnis to fight Hezbollah, attacking Hezbollah's leader Hassan Nasrallah and Iran: "The leader of the Party of Satan comes to fight the Sunnis ... Now we know what the Iranians want ... Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_151

They want continued massacres to kill Sunnis." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_152

Qaradawi also stated that he now regretted having advocated rapprochement between Sunnis and Shias and his 2006 defense of Hezbollah. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_153

Arab Spring Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_19

Qaradawi declared his support for the rebels led by the National Transitional Council in the 2011 Libyan civil war, urging Arab nations to recognize them and "to confront the tyranny of the regime in Tripoli". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_154

He suggested weapons be sent to the rebels to assist the, and said "Our Islamic nation should stand against injustice and corruption and I urge the Egyptian government to extend a helping hand to Libyan people and not to Gaddafi." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_155

In response to the 2011 Bahrain protests, Qaradawi was reluctant to give support: "The protests in Bahrain are sectarian in nature. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_156

The Shias are revolting against the Sunnis." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_157

He claimed that Shia protesters attack Sunnis and occupied their mosques. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_158

He acknowledged that the Shia majority had legitimate concerns in regards to fairness with the Sunnis: "I want them to be real citizens of their country." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_159

Qaradawi said that all Arabs should back up the protesters in the 2011 Syrian uprising, saying "Today the train of revolution has reached a station that it had to reach: The Syria station," and "It is not possible for Syria to be separated from the history of the Arab community." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_160

He declared his support for the protests against what he called Syria's "oppressive regime", claiming "atrocities" were committed by it. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_161

He called for victory against the ruling Ba'ath party and claimed the army would be the major factor in the revolt. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_162

He claimed that when he offered to mediate negotiations between the Muslim Brotherhood and the Syrian government, someone deliberately sabotaged it. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_163

Qaradawi also expressed his support for the No Fly zone put in place by western nations over Libya, saying "The operation in Libya is to protect the civilians from Gaddafi's tyranny" and slamming Arab League leader Amr Moussa for criticism of it. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_164

Women, gender and other issues Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_20

Commenting on the role women played in social active issues: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_165

Rape Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_21

According to Kamal Badr, Qaradawi advocates that rape victims be protected by society: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_166

Wife beating Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_22

Al-Qaradawi told The Guardian that wife beating was neither "obligatory nor desirable" but that he "accepts it as a method of last resort – though only lightly". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_167

He stated on Channel 4 News that it was justifiable in certain circumstances but the "ideal was for Muslim men never to beat their wives, and if husbands wrongly beat their wives, they have the right to fight back". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_168

The British newspaper The Daily Telegraph writes that al-Qaradawi, in his book The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, states that wife-beating is permissible after the failure of all other means of persuasion. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_169

In such circumstances, a husband may beat his wife "lightly with his hands, avoiding her face and other sensitive areas". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_170

Female genital mutilation (FGM) Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_23

Qaradawi says female genital mutilation surgery is forbidden in Islam. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_171

He calls on ending and banned to Female Circumcision in some parts of the Muslim world, especially in rural Africa where most still practice it. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_172

His views were supported by Sheikhs in Al-Azhar. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_173

Female masturbation Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_24

Qaradawi urged women to not masturbate and said that its dangerous to insert things into the vagina. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_174

Homosexuality Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_25

On 5 June 2006, on the Al Jazeera program Sharia and Life, al-Qaradawi (a regular on the program) reiterated orthodox views on homosexuality. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_175

When asked about the punishment for people who "practise liwaat (sodomy) or sihaaq (lesbian activity)", al-Qaradawi replied: "The same punishment as any sexual pervert – the same as the fornicator." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_176

(MEMRI translation). Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_177

The punishment for fornication is lashing. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_178

In an interview with Der Spiegel, Qaradawi said that his attitude towards homosexuality is the same as that found in Christianity. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_179

In the interview he stated, "One year ago, there was a demonstration against me in London because I spoke out against homosexuality. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_180

People seem to have forgotten that it wasn't me who came up with this mindset. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_181

It's part of God's order spoken of by Moses and even mentioned by Jesus." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_182

However, there are rigorous scholarly debates among the Islamic School of Law (Fiqh) as to whether LGBT are define by genetic disorders and that it may be permissible or not for those who're scientifically-medically-proven to be part of the LGBT category as with hermaphrodite denoting whether a person is incline towards the naturality of female or male instinct. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_183

Same for Mukhannathun (Transgender), in which there are many prophetic Hadith that allows male who have inclinations towards being female (effeminate) that occurred during the Islamic prophet Muhammad's time and that they were accepted as part of the larger community in Madinah having equal rights. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_184

Qaradawi is one of many among the leading Islamic scholars who is in this ongoing debate. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_185

Punishment of stoning Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_26

Al-Qaradawi calls "stoning" un-Islamic for it has nothing to do with Islam at all but laws made by the religion of Judaism; Jewish Religious Laws. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_186

He says there are more than dozens of verses in the Torah that support stoning for adulterers, fornicators, LGBT people, and for many other reasons. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_187

Honor killing Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_27

Al-Qaradawi says that honor killing is a tradition that was carried out thousands of years ago by ancient civilization; the Romans, the Dark Ages, Chinese Emperors, etc. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_188

He says, it has nothing to do with Islam; neither Qur'an nor Sunnah (Prophetic Hadith). Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_189

He calls on those who done it to be punishable with death for their crime; a life for a life. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_190

Mawlid (Muhammad's birthday) Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_28

Al-Qaradawi fully supports and advocates Mawlid. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_191

He says that to use the birth date of Muhammad in remembrance of his life story is not Bid'ah (Innovation). Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_192

In fact, it is encouraged in Islam to do good action (Man Sanna Sunnatun Hassanah) based on a Sahih Hadith. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_193

And that Allah (God) himself have said in Al-Qur'an, Chapter 21, Verse 107: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_194

Al-Qaradawi explains that Allah (God) is talking about Muhammad's miracle birth as the verse mentions "sent you". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_195

In other words, his presence, his birth, his coming. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_196

A "mercy" (rahmah) to the worlds. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_197

Means mercy to all mankind. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_198

It means everything; all of his creations (all creatures). Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_199

It's in this Sahih Hadith that Sheikh Prof. Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradawi emphasizes that good innovative actions is strongly encouraged for as long as it doesn't goes against the Sharia (Islamic Law). Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_200

What more involving religion itself than worldly good deeds like holding an old person's hand while crossing the road guiding him/her to safety and many more. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_201

It's encouraging for both. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_202

He says these is the true meaning and emphasis of Islam, to be the religion of mercy (rahmah) and to do more good than just good so that others may lead by our good examples and that they may successively follows them till End of Time. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_203

Niqab Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_29

Al-Qaradawi says that niqab (veil) is not obligatory in Islam. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_204

He has pointed out that a woman's face is not an awrah. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_205

He calls those who don the niqabs as following tradition and culture before Islam came to Arabia. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_206

Those people, be it male or female at that time, had to cover their faces from dusty desert and from inhaling dust especially during sandstorms. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_207

Al-Azhar's Grand Imam, also an Egyptian Grand Mufti Sheikh Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, have also called out that niqab has nothing to do with Islam. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_208

Organ transplant Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_30

At the same time Qaradawi issued a fatwa (edict) that organ transplant from living to a living person is permissible in Islam but through donation as donation is considered charity. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_209

As for a dead person, only when the brain stops, the transplant can then be carried out. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_210

Other views Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_31

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_description_list_4

In April 2008, at a conference in Qatar titled "Mecca: the Center of the Earth, Theory and Practice", al-Qaradawi advocated the implementation of Mecca Time to replace the Greenwich Meridian as the basis of the world time zone system. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_211

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_description_list_5

Al-Qaradawi called for a "Day of Anger" over the cartoons, but condemned violent actions in response to them. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_212

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_description_list_6

Al-Qaradawi is one of the Ulama signatories of the Amman Message, which gives a broad foundation for defining Muslim orthodoxy. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_213

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_description_list_7

Al-Qaradawi said, "Rushdie disgraced the honor of the Prophet and his family and defiled the values of Islam," but he never backed the fatwa calling for his death. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_214

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_description_list_8

In 1997, Qaradawi's affiliation with the Muslim Brotherhood led to his expulsion from Egypt, a country where this organisation was at the time prohibited. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_215

Al-Qaradawi was a follower of Hasan al-Banna during his youth and a longtime member of the Muslim Brotherhood. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_216

He has twice turned down offers to be its leader. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_217

In an interview on the Dream channel, al-Qaradawi states the following about his relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood (MB): Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_218

On 16 May 2015 al-Qaradawi has been sentenced to death in absentia by an Egyptian court along with the ousted President Mohamed Morsi and over 100 other Egyptians affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_219

As reported by the Interpol website, Qaradawi is wanted by the judicial authorities of Egypt for "Agreement, incitement and assistance to commit intentional murder, helping the prisoners to escape, arson, vandalism and theft." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_220

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_description_list_9

Qaradawi has criticised reality TV programs, saying that the aim of these is to 'mislead the [Muslim] nation'. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_221

Reception in the Muslim world Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_32

Al-Qaradawi, a forefront of contemporary Muslim thinkers and scholars. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_222

His vast contributions include more than 80 books and hundreds of articles on different Islamic issues, ranging from the fundamental principles and laws of Islam to the needs and challenges of modern Muslim societies. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_223

His knowledge, intellect, moderation and unrelenting efforts to bring Islam to a larger audience have gained him the respect of millions of Muslims and non-Muslims worldwide. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_224

His famous Television program Ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (Sharia and Life) has an estimated 700–800 million viewers worldwide. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_225

Despite his fame. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_226

In 2012, Qardawi traded barbs with fellow Muslim cleric Abu Abd al-Rahman Ibn Aqil al-Zahiri due to what Ibn Aqil perceived as hypocritical positions of Qardawi during the Arab Spring, a charge he denied. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_227

Pakistani scholar, Muhammad Taqi Usmani stated, "There is no doubt that I—as the lowest student of Islamic Fiqh—with my benefitting from the books of the outstanding Dr al-Qaradāwī to a very large extent, and my supreme wonderment at the majority of [his works], have found myself, in some particular issues, not in agreement with him in the results that he has arrived at, but these sorts of differences (ikhtilāf) in views based on juristic judgement (ijtihādī) are natural, and cannot be the [sole] basis for judging [their author] so long as the people of knowledge do not deem [the bearers of such opinions] to be weak intellectually, or in religion, and [in any case] the importance of these books and their value in scholarship and da'wa are not affected by this to even the slightest, most insignificant degree." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_228

In addition, he refers to some modern scholars by writing, "What we see today, very unfortunately, is that the one who brings forward elevated ideas in his writings and lofty theories in his speech and his sermons often does not rise above the level of the layman" but exempts Qardawi by saying, "As for the outstanding, erudite scholar, Dr Yūsuf al-Qaradāwī, may God (Most High) preserve him, God (Most High) has indeed made me fortunate enough to accompany him in travels and in residence, and sit with him and closely associate with him in long and repeated meetings. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_229

[From this] I found him manifest in his personality exemplary Islamic qualities, for he is a human being before he is a Muslim, and a devoted Muslim before he is a caller to Islam (dā'i), and a caller to Islam before he is a scholar and jurist." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_230

The Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı, which supports the Turkistan Islamic Party, attacked Yusuf al-Qaradawi and called his creed "perverted" and claimed that he was followed by "democratic polytheists". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_231

Qaradawi was attacked by Hani Al-Siba'i. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_232

Controversy Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_33

On Syria and Russia Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_34

Qaradawi stated that Russia is an "enemy of Islam" due to the country's military relations with the Syrian regime. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_233

His remarks drew harsh criticism from Muslims in Russia. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_234

According to Chechen President Ramzan Kadyrov, "Qaradawi's statements had given rise to amazement among the Muslims of Russia." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_235

Kadyrov asserted that Qaradawi's statements are mainly "directed against the Muslims of Russia, who are citizens of this country, were born here and live here, and who care about their country". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_236

Kadyrov claimed that "It is not Russia that is supplying weapons and money for the thousands of mercenaries from all over the world who have flooded Syria and are committing daily terrorist attacks, in which the blood of women, old people and children is shed," Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_237

Entry into western countries Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_35

Al-Qaradawi has been banned from entering the United States since 1999 and the United Kingdom since 2008, though he visited London in 2004. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_238

The lobby group MEMRI said it helped play a role in the measures. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_239

In July 2003, he visited Stockholm, Sweden, for a conference at the Stockholm Mosque arranged by the Muslim Association of Sweden. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_240

During the conference al-Qaradawi expressed his support for suicide attacks against Israeli civilians, calling the fight against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian Territories a "necessary Jihad". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_241

France announced in March 2012 it will not let him enter. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_242

Fatwa controversy with MEMRI Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_36

The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) (citing Asharq Al-Awsat), alleges that al-Qaradawi issued a Fatwa following the Iraqi insurgency, saying, Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_243

Al-Qaradawi, however, denies this allegation: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_244

Shaker Al-Nabulsi, a former Muslim who writes for the liberal site Ethal, called for the creation of a petition to the UN calling to put Qaradawi and his like on trial for incitement and support of terrorism. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_245

Alcohol fatwa controversy Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_37

Al-Qaradawi issued a fatwa in 2008, stating that the consumption of tiny amounts of alcohol (<0.5% concentration or 5/1000, such as found in energy drinks) was acceptable for Muslims, in beverages where the fermentation is natural and unavoidable and is too small to lead to intoxication. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_246

Terrorist allegations Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_38

In October 2004, according to Saudi Arabia's newspaper "The Arab News" based in New York and Jeddah, over 2,500 Muslim intellectuals from 23 countries signed a petition addressed to the United Nations to raise awareness on the use of religion for incitement to violence. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_247

Al-Qaradawi was mentioned among "the sheikhs of death," as the signatories defined those who manipulate religion to incite violence, for "providing a religious cover for terrorism." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_248

A charge al-Qaradawi dismissed as baseless and slanderous. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_249

For his stance, he was against Salafism (Wahhabism) extremist ideology culminating from Saudi Arabia itself. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_250

The sheikh has been banned from entering the U.S. since 1999. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_251

In 2008, the UK Home Office stated that al-Qaradawi was denied a visa to enter Britain for medical treatment because of fears that his preaching "could foster inter-community violence." Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_252

In March 2012, the French President Nicolas Sarkozy declared his decision to block the entry of extremists in the country after the Toulouse attacks, and specifically mentioned al-Qaradawi as one of those barred from entering France. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_253

Qaradawi chairs the Union of Good, a coalition of Islamic charities supporting Hamas' infrastructure, an organisation on the US State Department list of foreign terrorist organizations. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_254

In December 2014 the International Union of Muslim Scholars led by al-Qaradawi was expelled from the Cairo-based International Islamic Council for Da'wah and Relief based on the allegation that the group mixed religion and politics and supported terrorism. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_255

The Consortium Against Terrorist Finance reports that, in 2010, Qaradawi was listed as the chairman of the Sharia supervisory board of Qatar Islamic Bank, one of the Qatari sharia-compliant giants which has allegedly a long history of cooperation with controversial financial entities. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_256

He is also a former Sharia adviser and shareholder to Bank al-Taqwa, once listed by the U.S and the UN as a terrorist financier associated with al-Qaeda but delisted in 2010. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_257

Personal life Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_39

Al-Qaradawi was born in Egypt but lives in Qatar. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_258

He has three sons and four daughters, three of whom hold doctorates from British Universities. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_259

His daughter, Ilham Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, is an internationally recognized nuclear scientist. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_260

His son, Abdulrahman Yusuf al-Qaradawi, is a poet and a political activist in Egypt. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_261

Awards and recognition Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_40

Al-Qaradawi has been awarded by various countries and institutions for his contributions to Islamic society. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_262

Among them are Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_263

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_unordered_list_10

  • The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) Prize in Islamic Economics – 1991Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_10_3
  • King Faisal International Prize for Islamic Studies – 1994Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_10_4
  • Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah (Sultan of Brunei) Award for Islamic Jurisprudence – 1997Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_10_5
  • Sultan Al Owais Award for Cultural & Scientific Achievements – 1998–1999Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_10_6
  • Dubai International Holy Quran Award for Islamic Personality of the Year – 2000Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_10_7
  • The State Acknowledgement Award for contributions in the field of Islamic Studies from the Government of Qatar – 2008Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_10_8
  • Tokoh Ma'al Hijrah (Hijra of the Prophet) award by the Malaysian Government −2009Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_10_9

The Qatar Faculty of Islamic Studies, part of the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, instituted the "Sheikh Yusuf Al Qaradawi Scholarships" in 2009, awarding them to five students each year for post-graduate studies. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_264

It also named after him its newly established research centre, The Qaradawi Center for Islamic Moderation and Renewal. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_265

The State Merit Prize for Islamic Studies was issued to Qaradawi by the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage of Qatar on 3 November 2009. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_266

He is a trustee of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies and has been named as the technical consultant for a multimillion-dollar English-language film about Mohammed, produced by Barrie Osborne. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_267

A 2008 Foreign Policy online poll put him at No.3 in the list of the Top 20 Public Intellectuals worldwide. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_268

Books Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_41

Al-Qaradawi has authored more than 120 books and his academic style and objective thought are considered to be some of the main characteristics of his works. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_269

His most famous work is The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_270

Professor Mustafa al-Zarqa declared that owning a copy of it was "the duty of every Muslim family". Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_271

Fiqh al-Zakat Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_42

His book Fiqh al-Zakat is considered by some as the most comprehensive work in the area of zakat. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_272

Abul Ala Maududi commented on it as "the book of this century in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)" The prominent Deobandi Islamic scholar Muhammad Taqi Usmani, said this about the work: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_273

Fiqh al-Jihad Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_43

His book Fiqh al-Jihad has been widely commented on. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_274

The Guardian writes: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_275

This book has also been analyzed by University of Southern California professor Sherman Jackson and Tunisian Islamist scholar-politician Rachid Ghannouchi. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_276

His views on jihad have attracted criticism from some hard line groups. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_277

Major works Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_44

Yusuf al-Qaradawi wrote many books, some of which were translated into English: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_278

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_unordered_list_11

  • Islam: Modern Fatwas on Issues of Women and the Family (Fatawa Mu'asira fi Shu'un al-Mar'a wa al-Usrah) (Dar al-Shihab, Algeria, 1987)Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_10
  • , Doha (1996)Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_11
  • Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_12
  • The lawful and the prohibited in Islam=al-Halal wal-haram fil Islam. Indianapolis, IN, USA: American Trust Publications. 1999. ISBN 978-0-89259-016-2.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_13
  • The desired Muslim generation. Riyadh: International Islamic Publishing House. 1999. ISBN 978-9960-850-24-5.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_14
  • (in progress)Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_15
  • Non muslims in the Islamic society. Indianapolis, Ind., USA: American Trust Publications. 1985. ISBN 978-0-89259-049-0.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_16
  • Priorities of the Islamic movement in the coming phase. Cairo: al-Dār. 1992. ISBN 978-977-00-4083-6.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_17
  • Fiqh az-zakat : a comparative study : the rules, regulations and philosophy of Zakat in the light of the Qurʼan and Sunna. London: Dar Al Taqwa. 1999. ISBN 978-1-870582-12-4.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_18
  • Contemporary fatawa : current issues in Islamic fiqh. Newark, NJ: Islamic Book Service. 1999. ISBN 978-1-892004-00-0.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_19
  • Time in the life of a Muslim. London: Ta-Ha. 2000. ISBN 978-1-84200-007-6.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_20
  • Sincerity: The Essential Quality. MAS Publications. 2006.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_21
  • Approaching the Sunnah : comprehension & controversy. London Washington D.C: International Institute of Islamic Thought. 2007. ISBN 978-1-56564-418-2.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_22
  • Islamic awakening between rejection and extremism. Kuala Lumpur Herndon, Va: Islamic Book Trust The International Institute of Islamic Thought. 2010. ISBN 978-967-5062-53-7.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_23
  • Islam : an introduction. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust. 2010. ISBN 978-967-5062-35-3.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_24
  • Economic security in Islam. Kuala Lumpur: Dar Al Wahi Publication. 2010. ISBN 978-983-43614-9-5.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_11_25

Amongst his dozens of works in Arabic, we cite: Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_279

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_unordered_list_12

  • Ghayr al-Muslimīn fī al-mujtanaʻ al-Islāmi. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1977. ISBN 978-977-723-655-3.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_26
  • Ayna al-khalal. Cairo: Dār al-Ṣaḥwah. 1985. ISBN 978-977-14-3047-6.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_27
  • Awāmil al-saʻah wa-al-murūnah fī al-sharīʻah al-Islāmīyah. Cairo: Dār al-Ṣaḥwah. 1985. ISBN 978-977-14-3046-9.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_28
  • al-ʻIbādah fī al-Islām. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1985. ISBN 978-977-307-043-4.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_29
  • al-Nās wa-al-ḥaqq. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1986. ISBN 978-977-307-093-9.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_30
  • Bayʻ al-murābaḥah lil-āmir bi-al-shirāʼ ka-mā tujrīhi al-maṣārif al-Islāmīyah : dirāsah fī ḍawʼ al-nuṣūṣ wa-al-qawāʻid al-sharʻīyah. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1987. ISBN 978-977-307-086-1.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_31
  • al-Īmān wa-al-ḥayāh. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1990. ISBN 978-977-307-210-0.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_32
  • Malāmiḥ al-mujtamaʻ al-Muslim alladhī nanshuduh. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1993. ISBN 978-977-225-036-3.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_33
  • Dawr al-qiyam wa-al-akhlāq fī al-iqtiṣād al-Islāmi. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1995. ISBN 978-977-225-060-8.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_34
  • Fī fiqh al-awlawīyāt : dirāsah jadīdah fī ḍawʼ al-Qurʼān wa-al-sunnah. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1995. ISBN 978-977-225-068-4.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_35
  • al-Islām wa-al-fann. Cairo: Maktabat Wahba. 1996. ISBN 978-977-225-084-4.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_36
  • al-Aqallīyāt ad-dīnīya wa-l-ḥall al-islāmi. Cairo: Maktabat Wahba. 1996. ISBN 978-977-225-097-4.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_37
  • al-Mubashshirāt bi-intiṣār al-Islām. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 1996. ISBN 978-977-225-098-1.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_38
  • Min fiqh al-dawlah fī al-Islām : makānatuhā-- maʻālimuhā-- ṭabīʻatuhā, mawqifuhā min al-dīmuqrāṭīyah wa-al-taʻaddudīyah wa-al-marʼah wa-ghayr al-Muslimīn. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 1997. ISBN 978-977-09-0375-9.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_39
  • al-Ṣaḥwah al-Islāmīyah wa-humūm al-waṭan al-ʻArabi. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 1998. ISBN 978-977-09-0402-2.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_40
  • Thaqāfatunā bayna al-infitāḥ wa-al-inghilāq. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2000. ISBN 978-977-09-0658-3.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_41
  • al-Īmān bi-al-qadar. Beirut: Muʼassasah al-Risālah Nāshirūn. 2001. ISBN 978-9953-400-10-5.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_42
  • Fī fiqh al-aqallīyāt al-Muslimah : ḥayāt al-Muslimīn wasaṭ al-mujtamaʻāt al-ukhra. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2001. ISBN 978-977-09-0735-1.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_43
  • Riʻāyat al-bīʼah fī sharīʻat al-Islām. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2001. ISBN 978-977-09-0691-0.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_44
  • al-Sunnah wa-al-bidʻah. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2003. ISBN 978-977-225-134-6.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_45
  • Fī wadāʻ al-aʻlām. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr. 2003. ISBN 978-1-59239-141-7.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_46
  • al-Islām alladhī nadʻū ilayh. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2004. ISBN 978-977-225-182-7.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_47
  • al-Ṣaḥwah al-Islāmīyah : bayna al-āmāl wa-al-maḥādhīr. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2004. ISBN 978-977-225-179-7.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_48
  • Miʼat suʼāl ʻan al-ḥajj wa-al-ʻumrah wa-al-uḍḥiyah wa-al-ʻīdayn. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2004. ISBN 978-977-225-177-3.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_49
  • al-Islām wa-'l-ʻunf : naẓarāt taʼṣīlīya. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2005. ISBN 978-977-09-1211-9.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_50
  • Naḥnu wa-al-Gharb : asʼilah shāʼikah wa-ajwibah ḥāsimah. Cairo: Dār al-Tawzīʻ wa-al-Nashr al-Islāmīyah. 2006. ISBN 978-977-265-696-7.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_51
  • al-Islām kamā nuʼminu bihī ḍawābiṭ wa-malāmih. Cairo: Dār Nahḍat Miṣr li-ṭ-Ṭibāʻa wa'n-Nashr wa-'t-Tauzi. 2006. ISBN 978-977-14-3357-6.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_52
  • Dirāsah fī fiqh maqāṣid al-sharīʻah : bayna al-maqāṣid al-kullīyah wa-al-nuṣūṣ al-juzʼīyah. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2006. ISBN 978-977-09-1481-6.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_53
  • Kayfa nataʻāmalu maʻa al-Qurʼān al-ʻAẓīm. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2006. ISBN 978-977-09-0496-1.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_54
  • al-Dīn wa-al-siyāsah : taʼṣīl wa-radd shubuhāt. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2007. ISBN 978-977-09-1971-2.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_55
  • Fiqh al-Jihād: Dirāsah Muqāranah li-Aḥkāmih wa Falsafatih fī Ḍaw' al-Qur'ān wa al-Sunnah. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2009. ISBN 978-977-225-246-6.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_56
  • al-Waraʻ wa-al-zuhd. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2010. ISBN 978-977-225-269-5.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_57
  • Fiqh al-wasaṭīyah al-Islāmīyah wa-al-tajdīd : maʻālim wa-manārāt. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq. 2010. ISBN 978-977-09-2902-5.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_58
  • Ḥayāt al-marʼah al-Muslimah : fī iṭār al-ḥudūd al-sharʻīyah. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2011.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_59
  • al-Sunnah wa-muwājahat ḥamalāt al-tashkīk. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah. 2011. ISBN 978-977-225-313-5.Yusuf al-Qaradawi_item_12_60

He has also published some excerpts of his poetry in the book Nafahat wa Lafahat. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_280

Al-Qaradawi has also been the subject of the book The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi published by Columbia University Press. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_281

He is also profiled as one of the leading liberal voices in contemporary Islam in Charles Kurzman's book Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook, published by Oxford University Press. Yusuf al-Qaradawi_sentence_282

See also Yusuf al-Qaradawi_section_45

Yusuf al-Qaradawi_unordered_list_13


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yusuf al-Qaradawi.