Zambia

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This article is about the African nation. Zambia_sentence_0

For the 18th-century BC king of Isin, see Zambiya. Zambia_sentence_1

For the part of East Prussia, see Sambia Peninsula. Zambia_sentence_2

Zambia_table_infobox_0

Republic of ZambiaZambia_header_cell_0_0_0
Capital

and largest cityZambia_header_cell_0_1_0

LusakaZambia_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesZambia_header_cell_0_2_0 EnglishZambia_cell_0_2_1
Recognised regional languagesZambia_header_cell_0_3_0 ListZambia_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2010)Zambia_header_cell_0_4_0 ListZambia_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2010)Zambia_header_cell_0_5_0 Zambia_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Zambia_header_cell_0_6_0 ZambianZambia_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentZambia_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary presidential constitutional republicZambia_cell_0_7_1
PresidentZambia_header_cell_0_8_0 Edgar LunguZambia_cell_0_8_1
Vice PresidentZambia_header_cell_0_9_0 Inonge WinaZambia_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureZambia_header_cell_0_10_0 National AssemblyZambia_cell_0_10_1
Independence from the United KingdomZambia_header_cell_0_11_0
HistoryZambia_header_cell_0_12_0 Zambia_cell_0_12_1
North-Western RhodesiaZambia_header_cell_0_13_0 27 June 1890Zambia_cell_0_13_1
Barotziland-North-Western RhodesiaZambia_header_cell_0_14_0 28 November 1899Zambia_cell_0_14_1
North-Eastern RhodesiaZambia_header_cell_0_15_0 29 January 1900Zambia_cell_0_15_1
Amalgamation of Northern RhodesiaZambia_header_cell_0_16_0 17 August 1911Zambia_cell_0_16_1
Federation of Rhodesia and NyasalandZambia_header_cell_0_17_0 1 August 1953Zambia_cell_0_17_1
Republic of ZambiaZambia_header_cell_0_18_0 24 October 1964Zambia_cell_0_18_1
Current constitutionZambia_header_cell_0_19_0 5 January 2016Zambia_cell_0_19_1
EstablishedZambia_header_cell_0_20_0 1964Zambia_cell_0_20_1
Area Zambia_header_cell_0_21_0
TotalZambia_header_cell_0_22_0 752,618 km (290,587 sq mi) (38th)Zambia_cell_0_22_1
Water (%)Zambia_header_cell_0_23_0 1Zambia_cell_0_23_1
PopulationZambia_header_cell_0_24_0
2018 estimateZambia_header_cell_0_25_0 17,351,708 (65th)Zambia_cell_0_25_1
2010 censusZambia_header_cell_0_26_0 13,092,666Zambia_cell_0_26_1
DensityZambia_header_cell_0_27_0 17.2/km (44.5/sq mi) (191st)Zambia_cell_0_27_1
GDP (PPP)Zambia_header_cell_0_28_0 2019 estimateZambia_cell_0_28_1
TotalZambia_header_cell_0_29_0 $75.857 billionZambia_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaZambia_header_cell_0_30_0 $4,148Zambia_cell_0_30_1
GDP (nominal)Zambia_header_cell_0_31_0 2019 estimateZambia_cell_0_31_1
TotalZambia_header_cell_0_32_0 $23.946 billionZambia_cell_0_32_1
Per capitaZambia_header_cell_0_33_0 $1,307Zambia_cell_0_33_1
Gini (2015)Zambia_header_cell_0_34_0 57.1

highZambia_cell_0_34_1

HDI (2018)Zambia_header_cell_0_35_0 0.591

medium · 143rdZambia_cell_0_35_1

CurrencyZambia_header_cell_0_36_0 Zambian kwacha (ZMW)Zambia_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneZambia_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC+2 (CAT)Zambia_cell_0_37_1
Driving sideZambia_header_cell_0_38_0 leftZambia_cell_0_38_1
Calling codeZambia_header_cell_0_39_0 +260Zambia_cell_0_39_1
ISO 3166 codeZambia_header_cell_0_40_0 ZMZambia_cell_0_40_1
Internet TLDZambia_header_cell_0_41_0 .zmZambia_cell_0_41_1

Zambia (/ˈzæmbiə, ˈzɑːm-/), officially the Republic of Zambia (Tonga: Cisi ca Zambia; Nyanja: Dziko la Zambia), is a landlocked country in Southern-Central Africa (although some sources consider it part of East Africa). Zambia_sentence_3

Its neighbours are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west. Zambia_sentence_4

The capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. Zambia_sentence_5

The population is concentrated mainly around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country. Zambia_sentence_6

Originally inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. Zambia_sentence_7

Following European explorers in the eighteenth century, the British colonised the region into the British protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century. Zambia_sentence_8

These were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. Zambia_sentence_9

For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company. Zambia_sentence_10

On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Zambia_sentence_11

Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Zambia_sentence_12

Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating closely with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Angola, and Namibia. Zambia_sentence_13

From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". Zambia_sentence_14

Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of social-economic growth and government decentralisation. Zambia_sentence_15

Levy Mwanawasa, Chiluba's chosen successor, presided over Zambia from January 2002 until his death on 19th August 2008 and is credited with campaigns to reduce corruption and increase the standard of living. Zambia_sentence_16

After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected President in 2008. Zambia_sentence_17

Holding the office for only three years, Banda stepped down after his defeat in the 2011 elections by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata. Zambia_sentence_18

Sata died on 28 October 2014, making him the second Zambian president to die in office. Zambia_sentence_19

Guy Scott served briefly as interim president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. Zambia_sentence_20

Zambia contains vast amounts of natural resources such as minerals, wildlife, forestry, freshwater and arable land. Zambia_sentence_21

In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries. Zambia_sentence_22

The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is headquartered in Lusaka. Zambia_sentence_23

Etymology Zambia_section_0

Further information: Rhodesia (name) Zambia_sentence_24

The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911. Zambia_sentence_25

It was renamed Zambia at independence in 1964. Zambia_sentence_26

The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river (Zambezi may mean "Grand River"). Zambia_sentence_27

History Zambia_section_1

Main article: History of Zambia Zambia_sentence_28

Politics Zambia_section_2

Main article: Politics of Zambia Zambia_sentence_29

Politics in Zambia take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Zambia is both head of state and head of government in a pluriform multi-party system. Zambia_sentence_30

The government exercises executive power, while legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Zambia_sentence_31

Zambia became a republic immediately upon attaining independence in October 1964. Zambia_sentence_32

From 2011 to 2014, Zambia's president had been Michael Sata, until Sata died on 28 October 2014. Zambia_sentence_33

After Sata's death, Vice President Guy Scott, a Zambian of Scottish descent, became acting President of Zambia. Zambia_sentence_34

On 24 January 2015, it was announced that Edgar Chagwa Lungu had won the election to become the 6th President in a tightly contested race. Zambia_sentence_35

He won 48.33% of the vote, a lead of 1.66% over his closest rival, Hakainde Hichilema, with 46.67%. Zambia_sentence_36

9 other candidates all got less than 1% each. Zambia_sentence_37

Foreign relations Zambia_section_3

Further information: Foreign relations of Zambia Zambia_sentence_38

After independence in 1964, the foreign relations of Zambia were mostly focused on supporting liberation movements in other countries in Southern Africa, such as the African National Congress and SWAPO. Zambia_sentence_39

During the Cold War, Zambia was a member of the Non-Aligned Movement. Zambia_sentence_40

Military Zambia_section_4

Main article: Zambian Defence Force Zambia_sentence_41

The Zambian Defence Force (ZDF) consists of the Zambia Army (ZA), the Zambia Air Force (ZAF), and the Zambian National Service (ZNS). Zambia_sentence_42

The ZDF is designed primarily against external threats. Zambia_sentence_43

In 2019, Zambia signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Zambia_sentence_44

Administrative divisions Zambia_section_5

Further information: Provinces of Zambia Zambia_sentence_45

Zambia is divided into ten provinces, which are further divided into 117 districts, 156 constituencies and 1,281 wards. Zambia_sentence_46

Zambia_description_list_0

Zambia_ordered_list_1

  1. Central ProvinceZambia_item_1_0
  2. CopperbeltZambia_item_1_1
  3. Eastern ProvinceZambia_item_1_2
  4. LuapulaZambia_item_1_3
  5. LusakaZambia_item_1_4
  6. MuchingaZambia_item_1_5
  7. North-Western ProvinceZambia_item_1_6
  8. Northern ProvinceZambia_item_1_7
  9. Southern ProvinceZambia_item_1_8
  10. Western ProvinceZambia_item_1_9

Human rights Zambia_section_6

See also: Human rights in Zambia and LGBT rights in Zambia Zambia_sentence_47

The government is sensitive to the opposition and other criticism and has been quick to prosecute critics using the legal pretext that they had incited public disorder. Zambia_sentence_48

Libel laws are used to suppress free speech and the press. Zambia_sentence_49

Same-sex sexual activity is illegal for both males and females in Zambia. Zambia_sentence_50

A 2010 survey revealed that only 2% of Zambians find homosexuality to be morally acceptable. Zambia_sentence_51

In December 2019, it was reported that United States Ambassador to Zambia Daniel Lewis Foote was "horrified" by Zambia's jailing of same-sex couple Japhet Chataba and Steven Samba. Zambia_sentence_52

After an appeal failed and the couple was sentenced to 15 years in prison, Foote asked the Zambian government to review both the case and the country's anti-homosexuality laws. Zambia_sentence_53

Foote faced a backlash and canceled public appearances after he was threatened on social media, and was subsequently recalled after President Lungu declared him persona non grata. Zambia_sentence_54

Geography Zambia_section_7

Main articles: Geography of Zambia and Geology of Zambia Zambia_sentence_55

Zambia is a landlocked country in southern Africa, with a tropical climate, and consists mostly of high plateaus with some hills and mountains, dissected by river valleys. Zambia_sentence_56

At 752,614 km (290,586 sq mi) it is the 39th-largest country in the world, slightly smaller than Chile. Zambia_sentence_57

The country lies mostly between latitudes and 18°S, and longitudes 22° and 34°E. Zambia_sentence_58

Zambia is drained by two major river basins: the Zambezi/Kafue basin in the center, west, and south covering about three-quarters of the country; and the Congo basin in the north covering about one-quarter of the country. Zambia_sentence_59

A very small area in the northeast forms part of the internal drainage basin of Lake Rukwa in Tanzania. Zambia_sentence_60

In the Zambezi basin, there are a number of major rivers flowing wholly or partially through Zambia: the Kabompo, Lungwebungu, Kafue, Luangwa, and the Zambezi itself, which flows through the country in the west and then forms its southern border with Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Zambia_sentence_61

Its source is in Zambia but it diverts into Angola, and a number of its tributaries rise in Angola's central highlands. Zambia_sentence_62

The edge of the Cuando River floodplain (not its main channel) forms Zambia's southwestern border, and via the Chobe River that river contributes very little water to the Zambezi because most are lost by evaporation. Zambia_sentence_63

Two of the Zambezi's longest and largest tributaries, the Kafue and the Luangwa, flow mainly in Zambia. Zambia_sentence_64

Their confluences with the Zambezi are on the border with Zimbabwe at Chirundu and Luangwa town respectively. Zambia_sentence_65

Before its confluence, the Luangwa River forms part of Zambia's border with Mozambique. Zambia_sentence_66

From Luangwa town, the Zambezi leaves Zambia and flows into Mozambique, and eventually into the Mozambique Channel. Zambia_sentence_67

The Zambezi falls about 100 metres (328 ft) over the 1.6 km (0.99 mi) wide Victoria Falls, located in the south-west corner of the country, subsequently flowing into Lake Kariba. Zambia_sentence_68

The Zambezi valley, running along the southern border, is both deep and wide. Zambia_sentence_69

From Lake Kariba going east, it is formed by grabens and like the Luangwa, Mweru-Luapula, Mweru-wa-Ntipa and Lake Tanganyika valleys, is a rift valley. Zambia_sentence_70

The north of Zambia is very flat with broad plains. Zambia_sentence_71

In the west the most notable being the Barotse Floodplain on the Zambezi, which floods from December to June, lagging behind the annual rainy season (typically November to April). Zambia_sentence_72

The flood dominates the natural environment and the lives, society, and culture of the inhabitants and those of other smaller, floodplains throughout the country. Zambia_sentence_73

In Eastern Zambia the plateau which extends between the Zambezi and Lake Tanganyika valleys is tilted upwards to the north, and so rises imperceptibly from about 900 m (2,953 ft) in the south to 1,200 m (3,937 ft) in the centre, reaching 1,800 m (5,906 ft) in the north near Mbala. Zambia_sentence_74

These plateau areas of northern Zambia have been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as a large section of the Central Zambezian miombo woodlands ecoregion. Zambia_sentence_75

Eastern Zambia shows great diversity. Zambia_sentence_76

The Luangwa Valley splits the plateau in a curve north-east to south-west, extended west into the heart of the plateau by the deep valley of the Lunsemfwa River. Zambia_sentence_77

Hills and mountains are found by the side of some sections of the valley, notably in its north-east the Nyika Plateau (2,200 m or 7,218 ft) on the Malawi border, which extend into Zambia as the Mafinga Hills, containing the country's highest point, Mafinga Central (2,339 m or 7,674 ft). Zambia_sentence_78

The Muchinga Mountains, the watershed between the Zambezi and Congo drainage basins, run parallel to the deep valley of the Luangwa River and form a sharp backdrop to its northern edge, although they are almost everywhere below 1,700 m (5,577 ft). Zambia_sentence_79

Their culminating peak Mumpu is at the western end and at 1,892 m (6,207 ft) is the highest point in Zambia away from the eastern border region. Zambia_sentence_80

The border of the Congo Pedicle was drawn around this mountain. Zambia_sentence_81

The southernmost headstream of the Congo River rises in Zambia and flows west through its northern area firstly as the Chambeshi and then, after the Bangweulu Swamps as the Luapula, which forms part of the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Zambia_sentence_82

The Luapula flows south then west before it turns north until it enters Lake Mweru. Zambia_sentence_83

The lake's other major tributary is the Kalungwishi River, which flows into it from the east. Zambia_sentence_84

The Luvua River drains Lake Mweru, flowing out of the northern end to the Lualaba River (Upper Congo River). Zambia_sentence_85

Lake Tanganyika is the other major hydrographic feature that belongs to the Congo basin. Zambia_sentence_86

Its south-eastern end receives water from the Kalambo River, which forms part of Zambia's border with Tanzania. Zambia_sentence_87

This river has Africa's second highest uninterrupted waterfall, the Kalambo Falls. Zambia_sentence_88

Climate Zambia_section_8

Main article: Climate of Zambia Zambia_sentence_89

Zambia is located on the plateau of Central Africa, between 1000 and 1600 m above sea level. Zambia_sentence_90

The average altitude of 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) generally has a moderate climate. Zambia_sentence_91

The climate of Zambia is tropical, modified by elevation. Zambia_sentence_92

In the Köppen climate classification, most of the country is classified as humid subtropical or tropical wet and dry, with small stretches of semi-arid steppe climate in the south-west and along the Zambezi valley. Zambia_sentence_93

There are two main seasons, the rainy season (November to April) corresponding to summer, and the dry season (May/June to October/November), corresponding to winter. Zambia_sentence_94

The dry season is subdivided into the cool dry season (May/June to August), and the hot dry season (September to October/November). Zambia_sentence_95

The modifying influence of altitude gives the country pleasant subtropical weather rather than tropical conditions during the cool season of May to August. Zambia_sentence_96

However, average monthly temperatures remain above 20 °C (68 °F) over most of the country for eight or more months of the year. Zambia_sentence_97

Biodiversity Zambia_section_9

There are numerous ecosystems in Zambia, such as forest, thicket, woodland and grassland vegetation types. Zambia_sentence_98

Zambia has approximately 12,505 identified species — 63% animal species, 33% plant species and 4% bacterial species and other microorganisms. Zambia_sentence_99

There are an estimated 3,543 species of wild flowering plants, consisting of sedges, herbaceous plants and woody plants . Zambia_sentence_100

The Northern and North-Western provinces of the country especially have the highest diversity of flowering plants. Zambia_sentence_101

Approximately 53% of flowering plants are rare and occur throughout the country. Zambia_sentence_102

A total of 242 mammal species are found in the country, with most occupying the woodland and grassland ecosystems. Zambia_sentence_103

The Rhodesian giraffe and Kafue lechwe are some of the well-known subspecies that are endemic to Zambia. Zambia_sentence_104

An estimated 757 bird species have been seen in the country, of which 600 are either resident or Afrotropic migrants; 470 breed in the country; and 100 are non-breeding migrants. Zambia_sentence_105

The Zambian barbet is a species endemic to Zambia. Zambia_sentence_106

Roughly 490 known fish species, belonging to 24 fish families, have been reported in Zambia, with Lake Tanganyika having the highest number of endemic species. Zambia_sentence_107

Demographics Zambia_section_10

Main article: Demographics of Zambia Zambia_sentence_108

As of the 2010 Zambian census, Zambia's population was 13,092,666. Zambia_sentence_109

Zambia is ethnically diverse, with 73 distinct tribes. Zambia_sentence_110

During its occupation by the British between 1911 and 1963, the country attracted immigrants from Europe and the Indian subcontinent, the latter of whom came as indentured workers. Zambia_sentence_111

While most Europeans left after the collapse of white minority rule, many Asians remained. Zambia_sentence_112

In the first census—conducted on 7 May 1911—there were a total of 1,497 Europeans; 39 Asiatics and an estimated 820,000 Africans. Zambia_sentence_113

Black Africans were not counted in the six censuses conducted in 1911, 1921, 1931, 1946, 1951, and 1956, prior to independence. Zambia_sentence_114

By 1956 there were 65,277 Europeans; 5,450 Asiatics; 5,450 Coloureds and an estimated 2,100,000 Africans. Zambia_sentence_115

In the 2010 population census, 99.2% were Black Africans and 0.8% consisted of major racial groups. Zambia_sentence_116

Zambia is one of the most highly urbanised countries in sub-Saharan Africa with 44% of the population concentrated along the major transport corridors, while rural areas are sparsely populated. Zambia_sentence_117

The fertility rate was 6.2 as of 2007 (6.1 in 1996, 5.9 in 2001–02). Zambia_sentence_118

Largest towns Zambia_section_11

Further information: List of cities and towns in Zambia Zambia_sentence_119

The onset of industrial copper mining on the Copperbelt in the late 1920s triggered rapid urbanisation. Zambia_sentence_120

Although urbanisation was overestimated during the colonial period, it was substantial. Zambia_sentence_121

Mining townships on the Copperbelt soon dwarfed existing centres of population and continued to grow rapidly following Zambian independence. Zambia_sentence_122

Economic decline on the Copperbelt from the 1970s to the 1990s has altered patterns of urban development but the country's population remains concentrated around the railway and roads running south from the Copperbelt through Kapiri Mposhi, Lusaka, Choma and Livingstone. Zambia_sentence_123

Ethnic groups Zambia_section_12

The population comprises approximately 73 ethnic groups, most of which are Bantu-speaking. Zambia_sentence_124

Almost 90% of Zambians belong to the nine main ethnolinguistic groups: the Nyanja-Chewa, Bemba, Tonga, Tumbuka, Lunda, Luvale, Kaonde, Nkoya and Lozi. Zambia_sentence_125

In the rural areas, ethnic groups are concentrated in particular geographic regions. Zambia_sentence_126

Many groups are small and not well known. Zambia_sentence_127

However, all the ethnic groups can be found in significant numbers in Lusaka and the Copperbelt. Zambia_sentence_128

In addition to the linguistic dimension, tribal identities are relevant in Zambia. Zambia_sentence_129

These tribal identities are often linked to family allegiance or to traditional authorities. Zambia_sentence_130

The tribal identities are nested within the main language groups. Zambia_sentence_131

Immigrants, mostly British or South African, as well as some white Zambian citizens of British descent, live mainly in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are either employed in mines, financial and related activities or retired. Zambia_sentence_132

There were 70,000 Europeans in Zambia in 1964, but many have since left the country. Zambia_sentence_133

Zambia has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians and Chinese. Zambia_sentence_134

There are 13,000 Indians in Zambia. Zambia_sentence_135

This minority group has a massive impact on the economy controlling the manufacturing sector. Zambia_sentence_136

An estimated 80,000 Chinese are resident in Zambia. Zambia_sentence_137

In recent years, several hundred dispossessed white farmers have left Zimbabwe at the invitation of the Zambian government, to take up farming in the Southern province. Zambia_sentence_138

Zambia has a minority of coloureds of mixed race. Zambia_sentence_139

During colonialism, segregation separated coloureds, blacks and whites in public places including schools, hospitals, and in housing. Zambia_sentence_140

There has been an increase in interracial relationships due to Zambia's growing economy importing labor. Zambia_sentence_141

Coloureds are not recorded on the census but are considered a minority in Zambia. Zambia_sentence_142

According to the World Refugee Survey 2009 published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Zambia had a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 88,900. Zambia_sentence_143

The majority of refugees in the country came from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (47,300 refugees from the DRC living in Zambia in 2007), Angola (27,100; see Angolans in Zambia), Zimbabwe (5,400) and Rwanda (4,900). Zambia_sentence_144

Beginning in May 2008, the number of Zimbabweans in Zambia began to increase significantly; the influx consisted largely of Zimbabweans formerly living in South Africa who were fleeing xenophobic violence there. Zambia_sentence_145

Nearly 60,000 refugees live in camps in Zambia, while 50,000 are mixed in with the local populations. Zambia_sentence_146

Refugees who wish to work in Zambia must apply for permits which can cost up to $500 per year. Zambia_sentence_147

Religion Zambia_section_13

Further information: Religion in Zambia Zambia_sentence_148

Zambia is a Christian nation according to the 1996 constitution, but a wide variety of religious traditions exist. Zambia_sentence_149

Traditional religious thoughts blend easily with Christian beliefs in many of the country's syncretic churches. Zambia_sentence_150

About three-fourths of the population is Protestant while about 20% follow Roman Catholicism. Zambia_sentence_151

Christian denominations include Catholicism, Anglicanism, Pentecostalism, New Apostolic Church, Lutheranism, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Branhamites, and a variety of Evangelical denominations. Zambia_sentence_152

These grew, adjusted and prospered from the missionary settlements (Portuguese and Catholicism in the east from Mozambique) and Anglicanism (British influences) from the south. Zambia_sentence_153

Except for some technical positions (e.g. physicians), Western missionary roles have been assumed by native believers. Zambia_sentence_154

After Frederick Chiluba (a Pentecostal Christian) became president in 1991, Pentecostal congregations expanded considerably around the country. Zambia_sentence_155

Zambia has one of the largest percentage of Seventh-day Adventist per capita in the world, accounting for about 1 in 18 Zambians. Zambia_sentence_156

The Lutheran Church of Central Africa has over 11,000 members in the country. Zambia_sentence_157

Counting only active preachers, Jehovah's Witnesses in Zambia have over 204,000 adherents with over 930,000 attending their annual observance of Christ's death in 2018. Zambia_sentence_158

These have been preaching there since 1911. Zambia_sentence_159

One in 11 Zambians is a member of the New Apostolic Church. Zambia_sentence_160

With membership above 1,200,000 the Zambia district of the church is the third-largest after Congo East and East Africa (Nairobi). Zambia_sentence_161

Followers of the Baháʼí Faith in Zambia number over 160,000, or 1.5% of the population. Zambia_sentence_162

The William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation run by the Baháʼí community is particularly active in areas such as literacy and primary health care. Zambia_sentence_163

Approximately 1% of the population is Muslims, most of whom live in urban areas and play a large economic role in the country. Zambia_sentence_164

There are about 500 people who belong to the Ahmadiyya sect. Zambia_sentence_165

There is also a small Jewish community, composed mostly of Ashkenazis. Zambia_sentence_166

Languages Zambia_section_14

Main article: Languages of Zambia Zambia_sentence_167

The official language of Zambia is English, which is used for official business and instruction in schools. Zambia_sentence_168

The main local language, especially in Lusaka, is Nyanja (Chewa), followed by Bemba. Zambia_sentence_169

In the Copperbelt Bemba is the main language and Nyanja second. Zambia_sentence_170

Bemba and Nyanja are spoken in the urban areas in addition to other indigenous languages which are commonly spoken in Zambia. Zambia_sentence_171

These include Lozi, Kaonde, Tonga, Lunda and Luvale, which feature on the Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) local languages section. Zambia_sentence_172

The total number of languages spoken in Zambia is 73. Zambia_sentence_173

Urbanisation has had a dramatic effect on some of the indigenous languages, including the assimilation of words from other languages. Zambia_sentence_174

Urban dwellers sometimes differentiate between urban and rural dialects of the same language by prefixing the rural languages with 'deep'. Zambia_sentence_175

Most will thus speak Bemba and Nyanja in the Copperbelt; Nyanja is dominantly spoken in Lusaka and Eastern Zambia. Zambia_sentence_176

English is used in official communications and is the language of choice at home among – now common – interethnic families. Zambia_sentence_177

This evolution of languages has led to Zambian slang heard throughout Lusaka and other major cities. Zambia_sentence_178

The majority of Zambians usually speak more than one language, the official language, English, and the most spoken language in the town or area they live in. Zambia_sentence_179

Portuguese has been introduced as a second language into the school curriculum due to the presence of a large Portuguese-speaking Angolan community. Zambia_sentence_180

French is commonly studied in private schools, while some secondary schools have it as an optional subject. Zambia_sentence_181

A German course has been introduced at the University of Zambia (UNZA). Zambia_sentence_182

Education Zambia_section_15

Main article: Education in Zambia Zambia_sentence_183

The right to equal and adequate education for all is enshrined within the Zambian constitution. Zambia_sentence_184

The Education Act of 2011 regulates equal and quality education. Zambia_sentence_185

The effectively oversees the provision of quality education through policy and regulation of the education curriculum. Zambia_sentence_186

Fundamentally, the aim of education in Zambia is to promote the full and well-rounded development of the physical, intellectual, social, affective, moral, and spiritual qualities of all learners. Zambia_sentence_187

The education system has three core structures: Early childhood education and Primary education (Grades 1 – 7), Secondary education (Grades 8 – 12) and Tertiary education. Zambia_sentence_188

Adult Literacy programs are available for semi-literate and illiterate individuals. Zambia_sentence_189

The government's annual expenditure on education has increased over the years, increasing from 16.1% in 2006 to 20.2% in 2015. Zambia_sentence_190

Health Zambia_section_16

Main articles: Health in Zambia and Healthcare in Zambia Zambia_sentence_191

Zambia is experiencing a generalised HIV/AIDS epidemic, with a national HIV prevalence rate of 12.40% among adults. Zambia_sentence_192

The maternal mortality rate was 398 per 100,000 live births in 2014, compared to 591 in 2007. Zambia_sentence_193

Over the same period, the under-5 mortality rate dropped to 75 from 119 per 1,000 live births. Zambia_sentence_194

The prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS for adults aged 15–49 decreased to 13 per cent in 2013/14, from 16 per cent in 2001/02. Zambia_sentence_195

Economy Zambia_section_17

Further information: Economy of Zambia Zambia_sentence_196

Presently, Zambia averages between $7.5 billion and $8 billion of exports annually. Zambia_sentence_197

It totalled $9.1 billion worth of exports in 2018 About 60.5% of Zambians live below the recognised national poverty line, with rural poverty rates standing at about 77.9% and urban rates at about 27.5%. Zambia_sentence_198

Unemployment and underemployment in urban areas are serious problems. Zambia_sentence_199

Most rural Zambians are subsistence farmers. Zambia_sentence_200

Zambia ranked 117th out of 128 countries on the 2007 Global Competitiveness Index, which looks at factors that affect economic growth. Zambia_sentence_201

Social indicators continue to decline, particularly in measurements of life expectancy at birth (about 40.9 years) and maternal mortality (830 per 100,000 pregnancies). Zambia_sentence_202

Zambia fell into poverty after international copper prices declined in the 1970s. Zambia_sentence_203

The socialist regime made up for falling revenue with several abortive attempts at International Monetary Fund structural adjustment programs (SAPs). Zambia_sentence_204

The policy of not trading through the main supply route and line of rail to the sea – the territory was known as Rhodesia (from 1965 to 1979), and now known as Zimbabwe – cost the economy greatly. Zambia_sentence_205

After the Kaunda regime, (from 1991) successive governments began limited reforms. Zambia_sentence_206

The economy stagnated until the late 1990s. Zambia_sentence_207

In 2007 Zambia recorded its ninth consecutive year of economic growth. Zambia_sentence_208

Inflation was 8.9%, down from 30% in 2000. Zambia_sentence_209

Zambia is still dealing with economic reform issues such as the size of the public sector, and improving Zambia's social sector delivery systems. Zambia_sentence_210

Economic regulations and red tape are extensive, and corruption is widespread. Zambia_sentence_211

The bureaucratic procedures surrounding the process of obtaining licences encourages the widespread use of facilitation payments. Zambia_sentence_212

Zambia's total foreign debt exceeded $6 billion when the country qualified for Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative (HIPC) debt relief in 2000, contingent upon meeting certain performance criteria. Zambia_sentence_213

Initially, Zambia hoped to reach the HIPC completion point, and benefit from substantial debt forgiveness, in late 2003. Zambia_sentence_214

In January 2003, the Zambian government informed the International Monetary Fund and World Bank that it wished to renegotiate some of the agreed performance criteria calling for privatisation of the Zambia National Commercial Bank and the national telephone and electricity utilities. Zambia_sentence_215

Although agreements were reached on these issues, subsequent overspending on civil service wages delayed Zambia's final HIPC debt forgiveness from late 2003 to early 2005, at the earliest. Zambia_sentence_216

In an effort to reach HIPC completion in 2004, the government drafted an austerity budget for 2004, freezing civil service salaries and increasing the number of taxes. Zambia_sentence_217

The tax hike and public sector wage freeze prohibited salary increases and new hires. Zambia_sentence_218

This sparked a nationwide strike in February 2004. Zambia_sentence_219

The Zambian government is pursuing an economic diversification program to reduce the economy's reliance on the copper industry. Zambia_sentence_220

This initiative seeks to exploit other components of Zambia's rich resource base by promoting agriculture, tourism, gemstone mining, and hydro-power. Zambia_sentence_221

In July 2018, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Zambia's President Edgar Lungu signed 12 agreements in capital Lusaka on areas ranging from trade and investment to tourism and diplomacy. Zambia_sentence_222

Mining Zambia_section_18

The Zambian economy has historically been based on the copper mining industry. Zambia_sentence_223

The output of copper had fallen to a low of 228,000 metric tons in 1998 after a 30-year decline in output due to lack of investment, low copper prices, and uncertainty over privatisation. Zambia_sentence_224

In 2002, following the privatisation of the industry, copper production rebounded to 337,000 metric tons. Zambia_sentence_225

Improvements in the world copper market have magnified the effect of this volume increase on revenues and foreign exchange earnings. Zambia_sentence_226

In 2003, exports of nonmetals increased by 25% and accounted for 38% of all export earnings, previously 35%. Zambia_sentence_227

The Zambian government has recently been granting licenses to international resource companies to prospect for minerals such as nickel, tin, copper, and uranium. Zambia_sentence_228

IThe government of Zambia hopes that nickel will take over from copper as the country's top metallic export. Zambia_sentence_229

In 2009, Zambia was badly hit by the world economic crisis. Zambia_sentence_230

Agriculture Zambia_section_19

Agriculture plays a very important part in Zambia's economy providing many more jobs than the mining industry. Zambia_sentence_231

A small number of white Zimbabwean farmers were welcomed into Zambia after their expulsion by Robert Mugabe, whose numbers had reached roughly 150 to 300 people as of 2004. Zambia_sentence_232

They farm a variety of crops including tobacco, wheat, and chili peppers on an estimated 150 farms. Zambia_sentence_233

The skills they brought, combined with general economic liberalisation under the late Zambian president Levy Mwanawasa, has been credited with stimulating an agricultural boom in Zambia. Zambia_sentence_234

In 2004, for the first time in 26 years, Zambia exported more corn than it imported. Zambia_sentence_235

Tourism Zambia_section_20

Further information: Tourism in Zambia Zambia_sentence_236

Zambia has some of nature's best wildlife and game reserves affording the country with abundant tourism potential. Zambia_sentence_237

The North Luangwa, South Luangwa and Kafue National Parks have one of the most prolific animal populations in Africa. Zambia_sentence_238

The Victoria Falls in the Southern part of the country is a major tourist attraction. Zambia_sentence_239

With 73 ethnic groups, there is also a myriad of traditional ceremonies that take place every year. Zambia_sentence_240

Energy Zambia_section_21

See also: List of power stations in Zambia Zambia_sentence_241

In 2009, Zambia generated 10.3 TWh of electricity and has been rated high in use of both Solar power and Hydroelectricity. Zambia_sentence_242

However, early 2015, Zambia began experiencing a serious energy shortage due to the poor 2014/2015 rain season, which resulted in low water levels at the Kariba dam and other major dams. Zambia_sentence_243

In September 2019, African Green Resources (AGR) announced that it would invest $150 million in 50 megawatt (MW) solar farm, along with irrigation dam and expanding the existing grain silo capacity by 80,000 tonnes. Zambia_sentence_244

Manufacturing Zambia_section_22

Culture Zambia_section_23

See also: African art § Zambia Zambia_sentence_245

Prior to the establishment of modern Zambia, the inhabitants lived in independent tribes, each with its own way of life. Zambia_sentence_246

One of the results of the colonial era was the growth of urbanisation. Zambia_sentence_247

Different ethnic groups started living together in towns and cities, influencing each other as well as adopting a lot of the European culture. Zambia_sentence_248

The original cultures have largely survived in rural areas with some outside influence such as Christianity being widely practiced. Zambia_sentence_249

In the urban setting, there is a continuous integration and evolution of these cultures to produce what is now called "Zambian culture". Zambia_sentence_250

Traditional culture is very visible through colourful annual Zambian traditional ceremonies. Zambia_sentence_251

Some of the more prominent are: Kuomboka and Kathanga (Western Province), Mutomboko (Luapula Province), Kulamba and Ncwala (Eastern Province), Lwiindi and Shimunenga (Southern Province), Lunda Lubanza (North Western), Likumbi Lyamize (North Western), Mbunda Lukwakwa (North Western Province), Chibwela Kumushi (Central Province), Vinkhakanimba (Muchinga Province), Ukusefya Pa Ng'wena (Northern Province). Zambia_sentence_252

Popular traditional arts are mainly in pottery, basketry (such as Tonga baskets), stools, fabrics, mats, wooden carvings, ivory carvings, wire craft, and copper crafts. Zambia_sentence_253

Most Zambian traditional music is based on drums (and other percussion instruments) with a lot of singing and dancing. Zambia_sentence_254

In the urban areas, foreign genres of music are popular, in particular Congolese rumba, African-American music and Jamaican reggae. Zambia_sentence_255

Several psychedelic rock artists emerged in the 1970s to create a genre known as Zam-rock, including WITCH, Musi-O-Tunya, Rikki Ililonga, Amanaz, the Peace, Chrissy Zebby Tembo, Blackfoot, and the Ngozi Family. Zambia_sentence_256

Media Zambia_section_24

Main articles: Media in Zambia and Telecommunications in Zambia Zambia_sentence_257

The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services In Zambia is responsible for the Zambian News Agency, while there are also numerous media outlets throughout the country which include; television stations, newspapers, FM radio stations, and Internet news websites. Zambia_sentence_258

Sports Zambia_section_25

Main article: Sport in Zambia Zambia_sentence_259

Zambia declared its independence on the day of the closing ceremony of the 1964 Summer Olympics, thereby becoming the first country ever to have entered an Olympic game as one country, and leave it as another. Zambia_sentence_260

In 2016, Zambia participated for the thirteenth time in the Olympic games. Zambia_sentence_261

Two medals were won. Zambia_sentence_262

The medals were won successively in boxing and on the track. Zambia_sentence_263

In 1984 Keith Mwila won a bronze medal in the light flyweight. Zambia_sentence_264

In 1996 Samuel Matete won a silver medal in the 400-metre hurdles. Zambia_sentence_265

Zambia has never participated in the Winter Olympics. Zambia_sentence_266

Football is the most popular sport in Zambia, and the Zambia national football team has had its triumphant moments in football history. Zambia_sentence_267

At the Seoul Olympics in 1988, the national team defeated the Italian national team with a score of 4–0. Zambia_sentence_268

Kalusha Bwalya, Zambia's most celebrated football player, and one of Africa's greatest football players in history scored a hat trick in that match. Zambia_sentence_269

However, to this day, many pundits say the greatest team Zambia has ever assembled was the one that perished on 28 April 1993 in a plane crash at Libreville, Gabon. Zambia_sentence_270

Despite this, in 1996, Zambia was ranked 15th on the official FIFA World Football Team rankings, the highest attained by any southern African team. Zambia_sentence_271

In 2012, Zambia won the African Cup of Nations for the first time after losing in the final twice. Zambia_sentence_272

They beat Côte d'Ivoire 8–7 in a penalty shoot-out in the final, which was played in Libreville, just a few kilometers away from the plane crash 19 years previously. Zambia_sentence_273

Rugby Union, boxing and cricket are also popular sports in Zambia. Zambia_sentence_274

Notably, at one point in the early 2000s, the Australia and South Africa national rugby teams were captained by players born in the same Lusaka hospital, George Gregan and Corné Krige. Zambia_sentence_275

Zambia boasts having the highest rugby poles in the world, located at Luanshya Sports Complex in Luanshya. Zambia_sentence_276

Rugby union in Zambia is a minor but growing sport. Zambia_sentence_277

They are currently ranked 73rd by the IRB and have 3,650 registered players and three formally organised clubs. Zambia_sentence_278

Zambia used to play cricket as part of Rhodesia. Zambia_sentence_279

Zambia has also strangely provided a shinty international, Zambian-born Eddie Tembo representing Scotland in the compromise rules Shinty/Hurling game against Ireland in 2008. Zambia_sentence_280

In 2011, Zambia was due to host the tenth All-Africa Games, for which three stadiums were to be built in Lusaka, Ndola, and Livingstone. Zambia_sentence_281

The Lusaka stadium would have a capacity of 70,000 spectators while the other two stadiums would hold 50,000 people each. Zambia_sentence_282

The government was encouraging the private sector to get involved in the construction of the sports facilities because of a shortage of public funds for the project. Zambia_sentence_283

Zambia later withdrew its bid to host the 2011 All-Africa Games, citing a lack of funds. Zambia_sentence_284

Hence, Mozambique took Zambia's place as host. Zambia_sentence_285

Zambia also produced the first black African (Madalitso Muthiya) to play in the United States Golf Open, one of the four major golf tournaments. Zambia_sentence_286

In 1989, the country's basketball team had its best performance when it qualified for the FIBA Africa Championship and thus finished as one of Africa's top ten teams. Zambia_sentence_287

In 2017, Zambia hosted and won the Pan-African football tournament U-20 African Cup of Nation for players age 20 and under. Zambia_sentence_288

Music and dance Zambia_section_26

Zambia's culture has been an integral part of their development post-independence such as the uprising of cultural villages and private museums. Zambia_sentence_289

The music which introduced dance is part of their cultural expression and it embodies the beauty and spectacle of life in Zambia, from the intricacies of the talking drums to the Kamangu drum used to announce the beginning of Malaila traditional ceremony. Zambia_sentence_290

Dance as a practice serves as a unifying factor bringing the people together as one. Zambia_sentence_291

Zamrock Zambia_section_27

is a musical genre that emerged in the 1970s, and has developed a cult following in the West. Zambia_sentence_292

Zamrock has been described as mixing traditional Zambian music with heavy repetitive riffs similar to groups such as Jimi Hendrix, James Brown, Black Sabbath, Rolling Stones, Deep Purple, and Cream. Zambia_sentence_293

Notable groups in the genre include Rikki Ililonga and his band Musi-O-Tunya, WITCH, Chrissy "Zebby" Tembo, and Paul Ngozi and his Ngozi Family. Zambia_sentence_294

See also Zambia_section_28

Zambia_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zambia.