Zaidiyyah

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For the surname Zaidi and other uses, see Zaidi (disambiguation). Zaidiyyah_sentence_0

Zaidiyyah, Zaidism, or Zaidi Shi'ism (Arabic: الزيدية‎ az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi (occasionally known as Fiver Shias) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to the Ibadi and Mutazila schools. Zaidiyyah_sentence_1

Zaidiyyah emerged in the eighth century from Shi'a Islam. Zaidiyyah_sentence_2

Zaidis are named after Zayd ibn ʻAlī, the grandson of Husayn ibn ʻAlī and the son of the fourth Imam Ali ibn 'Husain. Zaidiyyah_sentence_3

Followers of the Zaydi Islamic jurisprudence are called Zaydi Shia and make up about 50% of Muslims in Yemen, with the greatest majority of Shia Muslims in that country being of the Zaydi school of thought. Zaidiyyah_sentence_4

Origin Zaidiyyah_section_0

The Zaydi madhab emerged in reverence of Zayd's failed uprising against the Umayyad Caliph, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (ruling 724–743 AD), which set a precedent for revolution against corrupt rulers. Zaidiyyah_sentence_5

It might be said that Zaydis find it difficult to remain passive in an unjust world, or in the words of a modern influential Zaydi leader, Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, to "sit in their houses". Zaidiyyah_sentence_6

Zaydis are the oldest branch of the Shia and are currently the second largest group after Twelvers. Zaidiyyah_sentence_7

Zaidis do not believe in the infallibility of Imāms, but promote their leadership and divine inspiration. Zaidiyyah_sentence_8

Zaydis believe that Zayd ibn Ali in his last hour was betrayed by the people in Kufa. Zaidiyyah_sentence_9

Zaydis as of 2014 constitute roughly 0.5% of the world's Muslim population. Zaidiyyah_sentence_10

Law Zaidiyyah_section_1

In matters of Islamic jurisprudence, the Zaydis follow Zayd ibn ’Ali's teachings which are documented in his book Majmu’ al-Fiqh (Arabic: مجموع الفِقه‎). Zaidiyyah_sentence_11

Zaydi fiqh is similar to the Hanafi school of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence. Zaidiyyah_sentence_12

Abu Hanifa, a Sunni madhab shaykh, was favorable and even donated towards the Zaydi cause. Zaidiyyah_sentence_13

Zaidis dismiss religious dissimulation (taqiyya). Zaidiyyah_sentence_14

Theology Zaidiyyah_section_2

In matters of theology, the Zaydis are close to the Mu'tazili school, though they are not exactly Mu'tazilite. Zaidiyyah_sentence_15

There are a few issues between both schools, most notably the Zaydi doctrine of the Imamate, which is rejected by the Mu'tazilites. Zaidiyyah_sentence_16

Of the Shi'a, Zaydis are most similar to Sunnis since Zaydism shares similar doctrines and jurisprudential opinions with Sunni scholars. Zaidiyyah_sentence_17

Zaydis’ theological literature puts an emphasis on justice and human responsibility, and its political implications, i.e. Muslims have an ethical and legal obligation by their religion to rise up and depose unjust leaders including unrighteous sultans and caliphs. Zaidiyyah_sentence_18

Beliefs Zaidiyyah_section_3

In the context of the Shi'a belief in spiritual leadership or Imamate, Zaydis believe that the leader of the Ummah or Muslim community must be Fatimids: descendants of Muhammad through his only surviving daughter Fatimah, whose sons were Hasan ibn ʻAlī and Husayn ibn ʻAlī. Zaidiyyah_sentence_19

These Shi'a called themselves Zaydi to differentiate themselves from other Shias who refused to take up arms with Zayd ibn Ali. Zaidiyyah_sentence_20

Zaydis believe Zayd ibn Ali was the rightful successor to the Imamate because he led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate, who he believed were tyrannical and corrupt. Zaidiyyah_sentence_21

Muhammad al-Baqir did not engage in political action and the followers of Zayd believed that a true Imām must fight against corrupt rulers. Zaidiyyah_sentence_22

The renowned Muslim jurist Abu Hanifa who is credited for the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam, delivered a fatwā or legal statement in favour of Zayd in his rebellion against the Umayyad ruler. Zaidiyyah_sentence_23

He also urged people in secret to join the uprising and delivered funds to Zayd. Zaidiyyah_sentence_24

Unlike the Twelver and Isma'ili Shia, Zaydis do not believe in the infallibility of Imāms and do not believe that the Imāmate must pass from father to son but believe it can be held by any descendant of Hasan ibn ʻAlī or Husayn ibn ʻAlī. Zaidiyyah_sentence_25

History Zaidiyyah_section_4

See Battle of Fakhkh and Alid revolt of 762–763 for further information. Zaidiyyah_sentence_26

Status of Caliphs and the Sahaba Zaidiyyah_section_5

There was a difference of opinion among the companions and supporters of Zayd ibn 'Ali, such as Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad, Sulayman ibn Jarir, Kathir al-Nawa al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih, concerning the status of the first three Caliphs who succeeded to the political and administrative authority of Muhammad. Zaidiyyah_sentence_27

The earliest group, called Jarudiyya (named for Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad), was opposed to the approval of certain companions of Muhammad. Zaidiyyah_sentence_28

They held that there was sufficient description given by the Prophet that all should have recognised 'Ali as the rightful Caliph. Zaidiyyah_sentence_29

They therefore consider the Companions wrong in failing to recognise 'Ali as the legitimate Caliph and deny legitimacy to Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Usman; however, they avoid denouncing them. Zaidiyyah_sentence_30

The Jarudiyya were active during the late Umayyad Caliphate and early Abbasid Caliphate. Zaidiyyah_sentence_31

Its views, although predominant among the later Zaydis, especially in Yemen under the Hadawi sub-sect, became extinct in Iraq and Iran due to forced conversion of the present religious sects to Twelver Shi'ism by the Safavid Dynasty. Zaidiyyah_sentence_32

The second group, the Sulaymaniyya, named for Sulayman ibn Jarir, held that the Imamate should be a matter to be decided by consultation. Zaidiyyah_sentence_33

They felt that the companions, including Abu Bakr and 'Umar, had been in error in failing to follow 'Ali but it did not amount to sin. Zaidiyyah_sentence_34

The third group is known as the Tabiriyya, Batriyya or Salihiyya for Kathir an-Nawa al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih. Zaidiyyah_sentence_35

Their beliefs are virtually identical to those of the Sulaymaniyya, except they see Uthman also as in error but not in sin. Zaidiyyah_sentence_36

Non-Zaidi accounts state the term Rafida was a term used by Zayd ibn Ali on those who rejected him in his last hours for his refusal to condemn the first two Caliphs of the Muslim world, Abu Bakr and Umar. Zaidiyyah_sentence_37

Zayd bitterly scolds the "rejectors" (Rafidha) who deserted him, an appellation used by Salafis to refer to Twelver Shi'ites to this day. Zaidiyyah_sentence_38

Twelver Shia references to Zayd Zaidiyyah_section_6

While not one of the 12 Imams embraced by the Twelver denomination and current largest branch of Shi'ite Islam, Zayd ibn Ali features in historical accounts within Twelver literature in a positive light. Zaidiyyah_sentence_39

In Twelver Shia accounts, Imam Ali al-Ridha narrated how his grandfather Ja'far al-Sadiq also supported Zayd ibn Ali's struggle: Zaidiyyah_sentence_40

Jafar al-Sadiq's love for Zayd ibn Ali was so immense, he broke down and cried upon reading the letter informing him of his death and proclaimed: Zaidiyyah_sentence_41

Empires Zaidiyyah_section_7

Justanids Zaidiyyah_section_8

The Justanids (Persian: جستانیان‎) were the rulers of a part of Daylam (the mountainous district of Gilan) from 791 to the late 11th-century. Zaidiyyah_sentence_42

After Marzuban ibn Justan converted to Islam in 805, the ancient family of Justan's became connected to the Zaydi Alids of the Daylam region. Zaidiyyah_sentence_43

The Justanids adopted the Zaydi form of Shi'ism. Zaidiyyah_sentence_44

Karkiya dynasty Zaidiyyah_section_9

The Karkiya dynasty, or Kia dynasty, was a Zaydi Shia dynasty which ruled over Bia pish (eastern Gilan) from the 1370s to 1592. Zaidiyyah_sentence_45

They claimed Sasanian ancestry as well. Zaidiyyah_sentence_46

Alid dynasty Zaidiyyah_section_10

Alid dynasty of Tabaristan. Zaidiyyah_sentence_47

See Alid dynasties of northern Iran. Zaidiyyah_sentence_48

Idrisid dynasty Zaidiyyah_section_11

The Idrisid dynasty was a Zaydi dynasty centered around modern-day Morocco. Zaidiyyah_sentence_49

It was named after its first leader Idriss I. Zaidiyyah_sentence_50

Banu Ukhaidhir Zaidiyyah_section_12

The Banu Ukhaidhir was a dynasty that ruled in al-Yamamah (central Arabia) from 867 to at least the mid-eleventh century. Zaidiyyah_sentence_51

Hammudid dynasty Zaidiyyah_section_13

The Hammudid dynasty was a Zaydi dynasty in the 11th century in southern Spain. Zaidiyyah_sentence_52

Muttawakili Zaidiyyah_section_14

Muttawakili Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of Yemen or, retrospectively, as North Yemen, existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen. Zaidiyyah_sentence_53

Its capital was Sana`a until 1948, then Ta'izz. Zaidiyyah_sentence_54

Community and former States Zaidiyyah_section_15

Since the earliest form of Zaydism was Jaroudiah, many of the first Zaidi states were supporters of its position, such as those of the Iranian Alavids of Mazandaran Province and the Buyid dynasty of Gilan Province and the Arab dynasties of the Banu Ukhaidhir of al-Yamama (modern Saudi Arabia) and the Rassids of Yemen. Zaidiyyah_sentence_55

The Idrisid dynasty in the western Maghreb were another Arab Zaydi dynasty, ruling 788–985. Zaidiyyah_sentence_56

The Alavids established a Zaydi state in Deylaman and Tabaristan (northern Iran) in 864; it lasted until the death of its leader at the hand of the Sunni Samanids in 928. Zaidiyyah_sentence_57

Roughly forty years later, the state was revived in Gilan (Northwest Iran) and survived until 1126. Zaidiyyah_sentence_58

From the 12th-13th centuries, Zaydi communities acknowledged the Imams of Yemen or rival Imams within Iran. Zaidiyyah_sentence_59

The Buyid dynasty was initially Zaidi as were the Banu Ukhaidhir rulers of al-Yamama in the 9th and 10th centuries. Zaidiyyah_sentence_60

The leader of the Zaidi community took the title of Caliph. Zaidiyyah_sentence_61

As such, the ruler of Yemen was known as the Caliph. Zaidiyyah_sentence_62

Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, a descendant of Imam Hasan ibn Ali, founded this Rassid state at Sa'da, al-Yaman, in c. 893-7. Zaidiyyah_sentence_63

The Rassid Imamate continued until the middle of the 20th century, when a 1962 revolution deposed the Imam. Zaidiyyah_sentence_64

After the fall of the Zaydi Imamate in 1962 many Zaydi Shia in northern Yemen had converted to Sunni Islam. Zaidiyyah_sentence_65

The Rassid state was founded under Jarudiyya thought; however, increasing interactions with Hanafi and Shafi'i schools of Sunni Islam led to a shift to Sulaimaniyyah thought, especially among the Hadawi sub-sect. Zaidiyyah_sentence_66

In the 21st century, the most prominent Zaidi movement is the Shabab Al Mu'mineen, commonly known as Houthis, who have been engaged in an uprising against the Yemeni Government in which the Army has lost 743 men and thousands of innocent civilians have been killed or displaced by government forces and Houthi, causing a grave humanitarian crisis in north Yemen. Zaidiyyah_sentence_67

Some Persian and Arab legends record that Zaidis fled to China from the Umayyads during the 8th century. Zaidiyyah_sentence_68

Houthi Yemen Zaidiyyah_section_16

Main article: Houthis Zaidiyyah_sentence_69

Since 2004 in Yemen, Zaidi fighters have been waging an uprising against factions belonging to the Sunni majority group in the country. Zaidiyyah_sentence_70

The Houthis, as they are often called, have asserted that their actions are for the defense of their community from the government and discrimination, though the Yemeni government in turn accused them of wishing to bring it down and institute religious law. Zaidiyyah_sentence_71

On 20 September 2014, an agreement was signed in Sana'a under UN patronage essentially giving the Houthis control of the government after a decade of conflict. Zaidiyyah_sentence_72

Tribal militias then moved swiftly to consolidate their position in the capital, with the group officially declaring direct control over the state on 6 February 2015. Zaidiyyah_sentence_73

This outcome followed the removal of Yemen's President Ali Abdullah Saleh in 2012 in the wake of protracted Arab Spring protests. Zaidiyyah_sentence_74

Saudi Arabia has exercised the predominant external influence in Yemen since the withdrawal of Nasser's Egyptian expeditionary force marking the end of the bitter North Yemen Civil War. Zaidiyyah_sentence_75

There is a wide array of domestic opponents to Houthi rule in Yemen, ranging from the conservative Sunni Islah Party to the secular socialist Southern Movement to the radical Islamists of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and now ISIS in Yemen. Zaidiyyah_sentence_76

Imams of Zaidis Zaidiyyah_section_17

Further information: Imams of Yemen Zaidiyyah_sentence_77

Timeline indicating Zaidi Imams amongst other Shia Imams: Zaidiyyah_sentence_78

Zaydi (early period) Imams as listed in Al-Masaabeeh fee As-Seerah by Ahmad bin Ibrahim: Zaidiyyah_sentence_79

Zaidiyyah_ordered_list_0

  1. Ali ibn Abi TalibZaidiyyah_item_0_0
  2. Al-Hasan Ibn AliZaidiyyah_item_0_1
  3. Al-Husayn bin Ali ibn Abi TalibZaidiyyah_item_0_2
  4. Hasan Al-Muthana bin Al-Hassan bin AliZaidiyyah_item_0_3
  5. Zayd bin Ali ibn Husayn bin AliZaidiyyah_item_0_4
  6. Yahya bin Zayd bin Ali bin Al-HusaynZaidiyyah_item_0_5
  7. Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Hasan Al-MuthanaZaidiyyah_item_0_6
  8. Ibrahim bin Abdillah bin Al-Hasan Al-MuthanaZaidiyyah_item_0_7
  9. Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Al-Hasan Al-MuthanaZaidiyyah_item_0_8
  10. Al-Hasan bin Ibrahim bin Abdullah bin Al-Hasan Al-MuthanaZaidiyyah_item_0_9
  11. Al-Husayn bin Ali bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan Al-MuthanaZaidiyyah_item_0_10
  12. Isa bin Zayd bin Ali bin Al-HusaynZaidiyyah_item_0_11
  13. Yahya bin Abdullah bin Al-Hasan Al-MuthanaZaidiyyah_item_0_12
  14. Idris bin Abdullah bin Al-Hasan Al-MuthanaZaidiyyah_item_0_13
  15. Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Al-Hasan Al-MuthanaZaidiyyah_item_0_14
  16. Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Zayd bin Ali bin Al-HusaynZaidiyyah_item_0_15
  17. Muhammad bin Sulayman bin Dawud bin Al-Hasan Al-MuthanaZaidiyyah_item_0_16
  18. Al-Qasim bin Ibrahim bin Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Al-Hasan Al-MuthanaZaidiyyah_item_0_17
  19. Yahya bin Al-Husayn bin Al-Qasim Al-HadiZaidiyyah_item_0_18
  20. Abul Qasim Muhammad bin Yahya bin Al-HusaynZaidiyyah_item_0_19
  21. Ahmad bin Yahya bin Al-HusaynZaidiyyah_item_0_20
  22. Al-Hasan bin An-Nasir AhmadZaidiyyah_item_0_21
  23. Yahya ibn UmarZaidiyyah_item_0_22
  24. Hasan ibn ZaydZaidiyyah_item_0_23
  25. Muhammad ibn ZaydZaidiyyah_item_0_24
  26. Hasan ibn Ali al-UtrushZaidiyyah_item_0_25
  27. Hasan ibn Qasim or Abu Muhammad Hasan ibn QasimZaidiyyah_item_0_26
  28. Ahmad ibn Hasan or Abu 'l-Husayn Ahmad ibn HasanZaidiyyah_item_0_27
  29. Ja'far ibn Hasan or Abu 'l-Qasim Ja'far ibn HasanZaidiyyah_item_0_28
  30. Muhammad ibn Ahmad or Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Abu 'l-Husayn AhmadZaidiyyah_item_0_29
  31. Husayn ibn Ahmad or Abu Ja'far Husayn ibn Abu 'l-Husayn AhmadZaidiyyah_item_0_30
  32. Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-UkhaidhirZaidiyyah_item_0_31
  33. Yusuf ibn MuhammadZaidiyyah_item_0_32
  34. Isma'il ibn YusufZaidiyyah_item_0_33
  35. Al-Hasan ibn YusufZaidiyyah_item_0_34
  36. Ahmad ibn al-HasanZaidiyyah_item_0_35
  37. Abu 'l-Muqallid Ja'farZaidiyyah_item_0_36
  38. Idris IIZaidiyyah_item_0_37
  39. Muhammad ibn IdrisZaidiyyah_item_0_38
  40. Ali ibn MuhammadZaidiyyah_item_0_39
  41. Yahya ibn MuhammadZaidiyyah_item_0_40
  42. Yahya ibn YahyaZaidiyyah_item_0_41
  43. Ali ibn UmarZaidiyyah_item_0_42
  44. Yahya ibn Al-QassimZaidiyyah_item_0_43
  45. Yahya ibn Idris ibn UmarZaidiyyah_item_0_44
  46. Al-Hajjam al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-QassimZaidiyyah_item_0_45
  47. Al Qasim GannumZaidiyyah_item_0_46
  48. Abu l-Aish AhmadZaidiyyah_item_0_47
  49. Al-Hasan ibn KannunZaidiyyah_item_0_48

See also Zaidiyyah_section_18

Zaidiyyah_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaidiyyah.