Zimbabwe

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For other uses, see ZWE (disambiguation). Zimbabwe_sentence_1

Zimbabwe (/zɪmˈbɑːbweɪ, -wi/), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, formerly Rhodesia, and Zimbabwe Rhodesia, is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. Zimbabwe_sentence_2

The capital and largest city is Harare. Zimbabwe_sentence_3

The second largest city is Bulawayo. Zimbabwe_sentence_4

A country of roughly 14 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most common. Zimbabwe_sentence_5

Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms such as the Rozvi and Mthwakazi kingdoms, as well as being a major route for migration and trade. Zimbabwe_sentence_6

The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during 1890 when they conquered Mashonaland and later in 1893 Matabeleland after a fierce resistance by Matabele people known as the First Matabele War. Zimbabwe_sentence_7

Company rule ended in 1923 with the establishment of Southern Rhodesia as a self-governing British colony. Zimbabwe_sentence_8

In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. Zimbabwe_sentence_9

The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe_sentence_10

Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government under Robert Mugabe, and from which it withdrew in December 2003. Zimbabwe_sentence_11

The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). Zimbabwe_sentence_12

It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its great prosperity. Zimbabwe_sentence_13

Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU–PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Zimbabwe_sentence_14

Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Zimbabwe_sentence_15

Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Zimbabwe_sentence_16

Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". Zimbabwe_sentence_17

The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. Zimbabwe_sentence_18

On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. Zimbabwe_sentence_19

On 19 November 2017, ZANU–PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice-President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. Zimbabwe_sentence_20

On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. Zimbabwe_sentence_21

On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, which was won by the ZANU–PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Zimbabwe_sentence_22

Nelson Chamisa who was leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_23

The court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory, making him the newly elected president after Mugabe. Zimbabwe_sentence_24

Etymology Zimbabwe_section_0

Further information: Great Zimbabwe and Rhodesia (name) Zimbabwe_sentence_25

The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Zimbabwe_sentence_26

Two different theories address the origin of the word. Zimbabwe_sentence_27

Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones" (dzimba = plural of imba, "house"; mabwe = plural of bwe, "stone"). Zimbabwe_sentence_28

The Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Zimbabwe_sentence_29

Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and usually references chiefs' houses or graves. Zimbabwe_sentence_30

Zimbabwe was formerly known as Southern Rhodesia (1898), Rhodesia (1965), and Zimbabwe Rhodesia (1979). Zimbabwe_sentence_31

The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to officially use the name in 1961. Zimbabwe_sentence_32

The term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. Zimbabwe_sentence_33

According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. Zimbabwe_sentence_34

A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo. Zimbabwe_sentence_35

It was initially unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the generally preferred term of the black nationalist movement. Zimbabwe_sentence_36

In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and that was that". Zimbabwe_sentence_37

The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Zimbabwe_sentence_38

Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union (led by Robert Mugabe from 1975), and the Zimbabwe African People's Union (led by Joshua Nkomo from its founding in the early 1960s). Zimbabwe_sentence_39

History Zimbabwe_section_1

Main article: History of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_40

Before 1887 Zimbabwe_section_2

Further information: Bantu expansion Zimbabwe_sentence_41

Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago. Zimbabwe_sentence_42

The earliest known inhabitants were probably San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. Zimbabwe_sentence_43

The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2,000 years ago. Zimbabwe_sentence_44

Societies speaking proto-Shona languages first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands. Zimbabwe_sentence_45

The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Shona states, beginning around the 10th century. Zimbabwe_sentence_46

Around the early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian Ocean coast, helping to develop the Kingdom of Mapungubwe in the 11th century. Zimbabwe_sentence_47

This was the precursor to the Shona civilisations that would dominate the region during the 13th to 15th centuries, evidenced by ruins at Great Zimbabwe, near Masvingo, and by other smaller sites. Zimbabwe_sentence_48

The main archaeological site uses a unique dry stone architecture. Zimbabwe_sentence_49

The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of trading states which had developed in Zimbabwe by the time the first European explorers arrived from Portugal. Zimbabwe_sentence_50

These states traded gold, ivory, and copper for cloth and glass. Zimbabwe_sentence_51

From about 1300 until 1600 the Kingdom of Zimbabwe eclipsed Mapungubwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_52

This Shona state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe's stone architecture, which survives to this day at the ruins of the kingdom's capital of Great Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_53

From c. 1450 to 1760 Zimbabwe gave way to the Kingdom of Mutapa. Zimbabwe_sentence_54

This Shona state ruled much of the area of present-day Zimbabwe, plus parts of central Mozambique. Zimbabwe_sentence_55

It is known by many names including the Mutapa Empire, also known as Mwene Mutapa or Monomotapa as well as "Munhumutapa", and was renowned for its strategic trade routes with the Arabs and Portugal. Zimbabwe_sentence_56

The Portuguese sought to monopolise this influence and began a series of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century. Zimbabwe_sentence_57

As a direct response to increased European presence in the interior a new Shona state emerged, known as the Rozwi Empire (1684–1834). Zimbabwe_sentence_58

Relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi (meaning "destroyers") expelled the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean plateau by force of arms. Zimbabwe_sentence_59

They continued the stone-building traditions of the Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding muskets to their arsenal and recruiting a professional army to defend recent conquests. Zimbabwe_sentence_60

Around 1821 the Zulu general Mzilikazi of the Khumalo clan successfully rebelled against King Shaka and established his own clan, the Ndebele. Zimbabwe_sentence_61

The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaal, leaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane. Zimbabwe_sentence_62

When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal in 1836, they drove the tribe even further northward, with the assistance of Tswana Barolong warriors and Griqua commandos. Zimbabwe_sentence_63

By 1838 the Ndebele had conquered the Rozwi Empire, along with the other smaller Shona states, and reduced them to vassaldom. Zimbabwe_sentence_64

After losing their remaining South African lands in 1840, Mzilikazi and his tribe permanently settled in the southwest of present-day Zimbabwe in what became known as Matabeleland, establishing Bulawayo as their capital. Zimbabwe_sentence_65

Mzilikazi then organised his society into a military system with regimental kraals, similar to those of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions. Zimbabwe_sentence_66

Mzilikazi died in 1868; following a violent power struggle, his son Lobengula succeeded him. Zimbabwe_sentence_67

Colonial era and Rhodesia (1888–1964) Zimbabwe_section_3

Main articles: Company rule in Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Zimbabwe_sentence_68

UDI and civil war (1965–1980) Zimbabwe_section_4

Main articles: Rhodesia, Rhodesian Bush War, Zimbabwe Rhodesia, and Lancaster House Agreement Zimbabwe_sentence_69

After the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI), the British government petitioned the United Nations for sanctions against Rhodesia pending unsuccessful talks with Smith's administration in 1966 and 1968. Zimbabwe_sentence_70

In December 1966, the organisation complied, imposing the first mandatory trade embargo on an autonomous state. Zimbabwe_sentence_71

These sanctions were expanded again in 1968. Zimbabwe_sentence_72

The United Kingdom deemed the Rhodesian declaration an act of rebellion, but did not re-establish control by force. Zimbabwe_sentence_73

A guerrilla war subsequently ensued when Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), supported actively by communist powers and neighbouring African nations, initiated guerrilla operations against Rhodesia's predominantly white government. Zimbabwe_sentence_74

ZAPU was supported by the Soviet Union, the Warsaw Pact and associated nations such as Cuba, and adopted a Marxist–Leninist ideology; ZANU meanwhile aligned itself with Maoism and the bloc headed by the People's Republic of China. Zimbabwe_sentence_75

Smith declared Rhodesia a republic in 1970, following the results of a referendum the previous year, but this went unrecognised internationally. Zimbabwe_sentence_76

Meanwhile, Rhodesia's internal conflict intensified, eventually forcing him to open negotiations with the militant communists. Zimbabwe_sentence_77

In March 1978, Smith reached an accord with three African leaders, led by Bishop Abel Muzorewa, who offered to leave the white population comfortably entrenched in exchange for the establishment of a biracial democracy. Zimbabwe_sentence_78

As a result of the Internal Settlement, elections were held in April 1979, concluding with the United African National Council (UANC) carrying a majority of parliamentary seats. Zimbabwe_sentence_79

On 1 June 1979, Muzorewa, the UANC head, became prime minister and the country's name was changed to Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Zimbabwe_sentence_80

The Internal Settlement left control of the Rhodesian Security Forces, civil service, judiciary, and a third of parliament seats to whites. Zimbabwe_sentence_81

On 12 June, the United States Senate voted to lift economic pressure on the former Rhodesia. Zimbabwe_sentence_82

Following the fifth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), held in Lusaka, Zambia from 1 to 7 August in 1979, the British government invited Muzorewa, Mugabe, and Nkomo to participate in a constitutional conference at Lancaster House. Zimbabwe_sentence_83

The purpose of the conference was to discuss and reach an agreement on the terms of an independence constitution, and provide for elections supervised under British authority allowing Zimbabwe Rhodesia to proceed to legal independence. Zimbabwe_sentence_84

With Lord Carrington, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs of the United Kingdom, in the chair, these discussions were mounted from 10 September to 15 December in 1979, producing a total of 47 plenary sessions. Zimbabwe_sentence_85

On 21 December 1979, delegations from every major interest represented reached the Lancaster House Agreement, effectively ending the guerrilla war. Zimbabwe_sentence_86

On 11 December 1979, the Rhodesian House of Assembly voted 90 to nil to revert to British colonial status (the 'aye' votes included Ian Smith himself). Zimbabwe_sentence_87

The bill then passed the Senate and was assented to by the President. Zimbabwe_sentence_88

With the arrival of Lord Soames, the new Governor, just after 2 p.m. on 12 December 1979, Britain formally took control of Zimbabwe Rhodesia as the Colony of Southern Rhodesia, although on 13 December Soames declared that during his mandate the name Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia would continue to be used. Zimbabwe_sentence_89

Britain lifted sanctions on 12 December, and the United Nations on 16 December, before calling on its member states to do likewise on 21 December. Zimbabwe_sentence_90

Thus Zambia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Angola and Botswana lifted sanctions on 22–23 December; Australia partly pre-empted this, lifting all but trade sanctions on 18 December, and trade sanctions on 21 December. Zimbabwe_sentence_91

During the elections of February 1980, Robert Mugabe and the ZANU party secured a landslide victory. Zimbabwe_sentence_92

Prince Charles, as the representative of Britain, formally granted independence to the new nation of Zimbabwe at a ceremony in Harare in April 1980. Zimbabwe_sentence_93

Independence era (1980–present) Zimbabwe_section_5

Zimbabwe's first president after its independence was Canaan Banana in what was originally a mainly ceremonial role as Head of State. Zimbabwe_sentence_94

Robert Mugabe, leader of the ZANU party, was the country's first Prime Minister and Head of Government. Zimbabwe_sentence_95

Gukurahundi genocide (1983-87) Zimbabwe_section_6

Opposition to what was perceived as a Shona takeover immediately erupted around Matabeleland. Zimbabwe_sentence_96

The Matabele unrest led to what has become known as Gukurahundi (Shona: "the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains"). Zimbabwe_sentence_97

The Fifth Brigade, a North Korean-trained elite unit that reported directly to the Zimbabwean Prime Minister, entered Matabeleland and massacred thousands of civilians accused of supporting "dissidents". Zimbabwe_sentence_98

Estimates for the number of deaths during the five-year Gukurahundi campaign ranged from 3,750 to 80,000. Zimbabwe_sentence_99

Thousands of others were tortured in military internment camps. Zimbabwe_sentence_100

The campaign officially ended in 1987 after Nkomo and Mugabe reached a unity agreement that merged their respective parties, creating the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF). Zimbabwe_sentence_101

Elections in March 1990 resulted in another victory for Mugabe and the ZANU–PF party, which claimed 117 of the 120 contested seats. Zimbabwe_sentence_102

During the 1990s, students, trade unionists, and other workers often demonstrated to express their growing discontent with Mugabe and ZANU–PF party policies. Zimbabwe_sentence_103

In 1996, civil servants, nurses, and junior doctors went on strike over salary issues. Zimbabwe_sentence_104

The general health of the population also began to significantly decline; by 1997 an estimated 25% of the population had been infected by HIV in a pandemic that was affecting most of southern Africa. Zimbabwe_sentence_105

Land redistribution re-emerged as the main issue for the ZANU–PF government around 1997. Zimbabwe_sentence_106

Despite the existence of a "willing-buyer-willing-seller" land reform programme since the 1980s, the minority white Zimbabwean population of around 0.6% continued to hold 70% of the country's most fertile agricultural land. Zimbabwe_sentence_107

In 2000, the government pressed ahead with its Fast Track Land Reform programme, a policy involving compulsory land acquisition aimed at redistributing land from the minority white population to the majority black population. Zimbabwe_sentence_108

Confiscations of white farmland, continuous droughts, and a serious drop in external finance and other supports led to a sharp decline in agricultural exports, which were traditionally the country's leading export-producing sector. Zimbabwe_sentence_109

Some 58,000 independent black farmers have since experienced limited success in reviving the gutted cash crop sectors through efforts on a smaller scale. Zimbabwe_sentence_110

President Mugabe and the ZANU–PF party leadership found themselves beset by a wide range of international sanctions. Zimbabwe_sentence_111

In 2002, the nation was suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations due to the reckless farm seizures and blatant election tampering. Zimbabwe_sentence_112

The following year, Zimbabwean officials voluntarily terminated its Commonwealth membership. Zimbabwe_sentence_113

In 2001, The US enacted the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act (ZDERA). Zimbabwe_sentence_114

It came into effect in 2002 and froze credit to the Zimbabwean government. Zimbabwe_sentence_115

The bill was sponsored by Bill Frist and co-sponsored by US senators Hillary Clinton, Joe Biden, Russ Feingold, and Jesse Helms. Zimbabwe_sentence_116

Through ZDERA Section 4C ("Multilateral Financing Restriction"), the Secretary of the Treasury is ordered to direct US Directors at the International Financial Institutions listed in Section 3, "to oppose and vote against-- (1) any extension by the respective institution of any loan, credit, or guarantee to the Government of Zimbabwe; or (2) any cancellation or reduction of indebtedness owed by the Government of Zimbabwe to the United States or any international financial institution." Zimbabwe_sentence_117

By 2003, the country's economy had collapsed. Zimbabwe_sentence_118

It is estimated that up to a quarter of Zimbabwe's 11 million people had fled the country. Zimbabwe_sentence_119

Three-quarters of the remaining Zimbabweans were living on less than one US dollar a day. Zimbabwe_sentence_120

Following elections in 2005, the government initiated "Operation Murambatsvina", an effort to crack down on illegal markets and slums emerging in towns and cities, leaving a substantial section of urban poor homeless. Zimbabwe_sentence_121

The Zimbabwean government has described the operation as an attempt to provide decent housing to the population, although according to critics such as Amnesty International, authorities have yet to properly substantiate their claims. Zimbabwe_sentence_122

On 29 March 2008, Zimbabwe held a presidential election along with a parliamentary election. Zimbabwe_sentence_123

The results of this election were withheld for two weeks, after which it was generally acknowledged that the Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai (MDC-T) had achieved a majority of one seat in the lower house of parliament. Zimbabwe_sentence_124

On 10 July 2008, Russia and China vetoed UN Zimbabwe sanctions pushed by Britain and the US. Zimbabwe_sentence_125

The US drafted the file, which would have placed an arms embargo on Mugabe's regime. Zimbabwe_sentence_126

However, nine of 15 countries on the UN council opposed it, including Vietnam, South Africa, and Libya, which argued that Zimbabwe was not a 'threat to international peace and security.' Zimbabwe_sentence_127

In late 2008, problems in Zimbabwe reached crisis proportions in the areas of living standards, public health (with a major cholera outbreak in December) and various basic affairs. Zimbabwe_sentence_128

During this period NGOs took over from government as a primary provider of food during this period of food insecurity in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_129

In September 2008, a power-sharing agreement was reached between Tsvangirai and President Mugabe, permitting the former to hold the office of prime minister. Zimbabwe_sentence_130

Due to ministerial differences between their respective political parties, the agreement was not fully implemented until 13 February 2009. Zimbabwe_sentence_131

By December 2010, Mugabe was threatening to completely expropriate remaining privately owned companies in Zimbabwe unless "western sanctions" were lifted. Zimbabwe_sentence_132

A 2011 survey by Freedom House suggested that living conditions had improved since the power-sharing agreement. Zimbabwe_sentence_133

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs stated in its 2012–2013 planning document that the "humanitarian situation has improved in Zimbabwe since 2009, but conditions remain precarious for many people". Zimbabwe_sentence_134

On 17 January 2013, Vice-President John Nkomo died of cancer at St Anne's Hospital, Harare at the age of 78. Zimbabwe_sentence_135

A new constitution approved in the Zimbabwean constitutional referendum, 2013 curtails presidential powers. Zimbabwe_sentence_136

Mugabe was re-elected president in the July 2013 Zimbabwean general election which The Economist described as "rigged." Zimbabwe_sentence_137

and the Daily Telegraph as "stolen". Zimbabwe_sentence_138

The Movement for Democratic Change alleged massive fraud and tried to seek relief through the courts. Zimbabwe_sentence_139

In a surprising moment of candour at the ZANU–PF congress in December 2014, President Robert Mugabe accidentally let slip that the opposition had in fact won the contentious 2008 polls by an astounding 73%. Zimbabwe_sentence_140

After winning the election, the Mugabe ZANU–PF government re-instituted one party rule, doubled the civil service and, according to The Economist, embarked on "misrule and dazzling corruption". Zimbabwe_sentence_141

A 2017 study conducted by the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) concluded that due to the deterioration of government and the economy "the government encourages corruption to make up for its inability to fund its own institutions" with widespread and informal police roadblocks to issue fines to travellers being one manifestation of this. Zimbabwe_sentence_142

In July 2016 nationwide protests took place regarding the economic collapse in the country, and the finance minister admitted "Right now we literally have nothing." Zimbabwe_sentence_143

In November 2017, the army led a coup d'état following the dismissal of Vice-President Emmerson Mnangagwa, placing Mugabe under house arrest. Zimbabwe_sentence_144

The army denied that their actions constituted a coup. Zimbabwe_sentence_145

Mugabe resigned on 21 November 2017, after leading the country for 37 years. Zimbabwe_sentence_146

Although under the Constitution of Zimbabwe Mugabe should be succeeded by Vice-President Phelekezela Mphoko, a supporter of Grace Mugabe, ZANU–PF chief whip Lovemore Matuke stated to the Reuters news agency that Mnangagwa would be appointed as president. Zimbabwe_sentence_147

In December 2017 the website Zimbabwe News, calculating the cost of the Mugabe era using various statistics, said that at the time of independence in 1980, the country was growing economically at about five per cent a year, and had done so for quite a long time. Zimbabwe_sentence_148

If this rate of growth had been maintained for the next 37 years, Zimbabwe would have in 2016 a GDP of US$52 billion. Zimbabwe_sentence_149

Instead it had a formal sector GDP of only US$14 billion, a cost of US$38 billion in lost growth. Zimbabwe_sentence_150

The population growth in 1980 was among the highest in Africa at about 3.5 per cent per annum, doubling every 21 years. Zimbabwe_sentence_151

Had this growth been maintained, the population would have been 31 million. Zimbabwe_sentence_152

Instead, as of 2018, it is about 13 million. Zimbabwe_sentence_153

The discrepancies were believed to be partly caused by death from starvation and disease, and partly due to decreased fertility. Zimbabwe_sentence_154

The life expectancy has halved, and death from politically motivated violence sponsored by government exceeds 200,000 since 1980. Zimbabwe_sentence_155

The Mugabe government has directly or indirectly caused the deaths of at least three million Zimbabweans in 37 years. Zimbabwe_sentence_156

According to World Food Programme, over two million people are facing starvation because of the recent droughts the country is going through. Zimbabwe_sentence_157

Geography Zimbabwe_section_7

Government Zimbabwe_section_8

Main articles: Politics of Zimbabwe and Elections in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_158

Zimbabwe is a republic with a presidential system of government. Zimbabwe_sentence_159

The semi-presidential system was abolished with the adoption of a new constitution after a referendum in March 2013. Zimbabwe_sentence_160

Under the constitutional changes in 2005, an upper chamber, the Senate, was reinstated. Zimbabwe_sentence_161

The House of Assembly is the lower chamber of Parliament. Zimbabwe_sentence_162

Former President Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (commonly abbreviated ZANU–PF) has been the dominant political party in Zimbabwe since independence. Zimbabwe_sentence_163

In 1987 then-prime minister Mugabe revised the constitution, abolishing the ceremonial presidency and the prime ministerial posts to form an executive president, a Presidential system. Zimbabwe_sentence_164

His ZANU party has won every election since independence, in the 1990 election the second-placed party, Edgar Tekere's Zimbabwe Unity Movement, obtained 20% of the vote. Zimbabwe_sentence_165

During the 1995 parliamentary elections most opposition parties, including the ZUM, boycotted the voting, resulting in a near-sweep by the ruling party. Zimbabwe_sentence_166

When the opposition returned to the polls in 2000, they won 57 seats, only five fewer than ZANU. Zimbabwe_sentence_167

Presidential elections were again held in 2002 amid allegations of vote-rigging, intimidation and fraud. Zimbabwe_sentence_168

The 2005 Zimbabwe parliamentary elections were held on 31 March and multiple claims of vote rigging, election fraud and intimidation were made by the MDC and Jonathan Moyo, calling for investigations into 32 of the 120 constituencies. Zimbabwe_sentence_169

Jonathan Moyo participated in the elections despite the allegations and won a seat as an independent member of Parliament. Zimbabwe_sentence_170

General elections were again held in Zimbabwe on 30 March 2008. Zimbabwe_sentence_171

The official results required a run-off between Mugabe and Morgan Tsvangirai, the opposition leader; the MDC challenged these results, claiming widespread election fraud by the Mugabe government. Zimbabwe_sentence_172

The run-off was scheduled for 27 June 2008. Zimbabwe_sentence_173

On 22 June, citing the continuing unfairness of the process and refusing to participate in a "violent, illegitimate sham of an election process", Tsvangirai pulled out of the presidential run-off, the ZEC held the run-off and President Mugabe received a landslide majority. Zimbabwe_sentence_174

The MDC-T led by Morgan Tsvangirai is now the majority in the Lower chamber of Parliament. Zimbabwe_sentence_175

The MDC split into two factions. Zimbabwe_sentence_176

One faction (MDC-M), now led by Arthur Mutambara contested the elections to the Senate, while the other, led by Tsvangirai, opposed to contesting the elections, stating that participation in a rigged election is tantamount to endorsing Mugabe's claim that past elections were free and fair. Zimbabwe_sentence_177

The opposition parties have resumed participation in national and local elections as recently as 2006. Zimbabwe_sentence_178

The two MDC camps had their congresses in 2006 with Tsvangirai being elected to lead MDC-T, which has become more popular than the other group. Zimbabwe_sentence_179

Mutambara, a robotics professor and former NASA robotics specialist has replaced Welshman Ncube who was the interim leader of MDC-M after the split. Zimbabwe_sentence_180

Morgan Tsvangirai did not participate in the Senate elections, while the Mutambara faction participated and won five seats in the Senate. Zimbabwe_sentence_181

The Mutambara formation has been weakened by defections from MPs and individuals who are disillusioned by their manifesto. Zimbabwe_sentence_182

As of 2008, the Movement for Democratic Change has become the most popular, with crowds as large as 20,000 attending their rallies as compared to between 500 and 5,000 for the other formation. Zimbabwe_sentence_183

On 28 April 2008, Tsvangirai and Mutambara announced at a joint news conference in Johannesburg that the two MDC formations were co-operating, enabling the MDC to have a clear parliamentary majority. Zimbabwe_sentence_184

Tsvangirai said that Mugabe could not remain President without a parliamentary majority. Zimbabwe_sentence_185

On the same day, Silaigwana announced that the recounts for the final five constituencies had been completed, that the results were being collated and that they would be published on 29 April. Zimbabwe_sentence_186

In mid-September 2008, after protracted negotiations overseen by the leaders of South Africa and Mozambique, Mugabe and Tsvangirai signed a power-sharing deal which would see Mugabe retain control over the army. Zimbabwe_sentence_187

Donor nations have adopted a 'wait-and-see' attitude, wanting to see real change being brought about by this merger before committing themselves to funding rebuilding efforts, which are estimated to take at least five years. Zimbabwe_sentence_188

On 11 February 2009 Tsvangirai was sworn in as Prime Minister by President Mugabe. Zimbabwe_sentence_189

In November 2008, the government of Zimbabwe spent US$7.3 million donated by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Zimbabwe_sentence_190

A representative of the organisation declined to speculate on how the money was spent, except that it was not for the intended purpose, and the government has failed to honour requests to return the money. Zimbabwe_sentence_191

In February 2013, Zimbabwe's election chief, Simpson Mtambanengwe, resigned due to ill health. Zimbabwe_sentence_192

His resignation came months before the country's constitutional referendum and elections. Zimbabwe_sentence_193

The Status of Zimbabwe politics has been thrown into question by a coup taking place in November 2017, ending Mugabe's 30 year presidential incumbency. Zimbabwe_sentence_194

Emmerson Mnangagwa was appointed president following this coup, and officially elected with 50.8% of the vote in the 2018 Zimbabwean general election, avoiding a run-off and making him the 3rd President of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_195

The government has received negative comments among its citizen for always shutting down the internet in the past amid protests such as the one planned on the 31st of July. Zimbabwe_sentence_196

2020. Zimbabwe_sentence_197

Human rights Zimbabwe_section_9

Main article: Human rights in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_198

See also: Child marriage in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_199

Armed forces Zimbabwe_section_10

Administrative divisions Zimbabwe_section_11

Main articles: Provinces of Zimbabwe, Districts of Zimbabwe, and Wards of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_200

Zimbabwe has a centralised government and is divided into eight provinces and two cities with provincial status, for administrative purposes. Zimbabwe_sentence_201

Each province has a provincial capital from where government administration is usually carried out. Zimbabwe_sentence_202

Zimbabwe_table_general_0

ProvinceZimbabwe_header_cell_0_0_0 CapitalZimbabwe_header_cell_0_0_1
BulawayoZimbabwe_cell_0_1_0 BulawayoZimbabwe_cell_0_1_1
HarareZimbabwe_cell_0_2_0 HarareZimbabwe_cell_0_2_1
ManicalandZimbabwe_cell_0_3_0 MutareZimbabwe_cell_0_3_1
Mashonaland CentralZimbabwe_cell_0_4_0 BinduraZimbabwe_cell_0_4_1
Mashonaland EastZimbabwe_cell_0_5_0 MaronderaZimbabwe_cell_0_5_1
Mashonaland WestZimbabwe_cell_0_6_0 ChinhoyiZimbabwe_cell_0_6_1
MasvingoZimbabwe_cell_0_7_0 Masvingo cityZimbabwe_cell_0_7_1
Matabeleland NorthZimbabwe_cell_0_8_0 Lupane DistrictZimbabwe_cell_0_8_1
Matabeleland SouthZimbabwe_cell_0_9_0 GwandaZimbabwe_cell_0_9_1
MidlandsZimbabwe_cell_0_10_0 GweruZimbabwe_cell_0_10_1

The names of most of the provinces were generated from the Mashonaland and Matabeleland divide at the time of colonisation: Mashonaland was the territory occupied first by the British South Africa Company Pioneer Column and Matabeleland the territory conquered during the First Matabele War. Zimbabwe_sentence_203

This corresponds roughly to the precolonial territory of the Shona people and the Matabele people, although there are significant ethnic minorities in most provinces. Zimbabwe_sentence_204

Each province is headed by a Provincial Governor, appointed by the President. Zimbabwe_sentence_205

The provincial government is run by a Provincial Administrator, appointed by the Public Service Commission. Zimbabwe_sentence_206

Other government functions at provincial level are carried out by provincial offices of national government departments. Zimbabwe_sentence_207

The provinces are subdivided into 59 districts and 1,200 wards (sometimes referred to as municipalities). Zimbabwe_sentence_208

Each district is headed by a District Administrator, appointed by the Public Service Commission. Zimbabwe_sentence_209

There is also a Rural District Council, which appoints a chief executive officer. Zimbabwe_sentence_210

The Rural District Council is composed of elected ward councillors, the District Administrator and one representative of the chiefs (traditional leaders appointed under customary law) in the district. Zimbabwe_sentence_211

Other government functions at district level are carried out by district offices of national government departments. Zimbabwe_sentence_212

At the ward level there is a Ward Development Committee, comprising the elected ward councillor, the kraalheads (traditional leaders subordinate to chiefs) and representatives of Village Development Committees. Zimbabwe_sentence_213

Wards are subdivided into villages, each of which has an elected Village Development Committee and a Headman (traditional leader subordinate to the kraalhead). Zimbabwe_sentence_214

Economy Zimbabwe_section_12

Main article: Economy of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_215

Minerals, gold, and agriculture are the main foreign exports of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_216

Tourism also plays a key role in its economy. Zimbabwe_sentence_217

The mining sector remains very lucrative, with some of the world's largest platinum reserves being mined by Anglo American plc and Impala Platinum. Zimbabwe_sentence_218

The Marange diamond fields, discovered in 2006, are considered the biggest diamond find in over a century. Zimbabwe_sentence_219

They have the potential to improve the fiscal situation of the country considerably, but almost all revenues from the field have disappeared into the pockets of army officers and ZANU–PF politicians. Zimbabwe_sentence_220

In terms of carats produced, the Marange field is one of the largest diamond producing projects in the world, estimated to produce 12 million carats in 2014 worth over $350 million. Zimbabwe_sentence_221

Zimbabwe is the biggest trading partner of South Africa on the continent. Zimbabwe_sentence_222

Taxes and tariffs are high for private enterprises, while state enterprises are strongly subsidised. Zimbabwe_sentence_223

State regulation is costly to companies; starting or closing a business is slow and costly. Zimbabwe_sentence_224

Government spending was predicted to reach 67% of GDP in 2007. Zimbabwe_sentence_225

Tourism was an important industry for the country, but has been failing in recent years. Zimbabwe_sentence_226

The Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force released a report in June 2007, estimating 60% of Zimbabwe's wildlife has died since 2000 due to poaching and deforestation. Zimbabwe_sentence_227

The report warns that the loss of life combined with widespread deforestation is potentially disastrous for the tourist industry. Zimbabwe_sentence_228

The ICT sector of Zimbabwe has been growing at a fast pace. Zimbabwe_sentence_229

A report by the mobile internet browser company, Opera, in June/July 2011 has ranked Zimbabwe as Africa's fastest growing market. Zimbabwe_sentence_230

Since 1 January 2002, the government of Zimbabwe has had its lines of credit at international financial institutions frozen, through US legislation called the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001 (ZDERA). Zimbabwe_sentence_231

Section 4C instructs the Secretary of the Treasury to direct directors at international financial institutions to veto the extension of loans and credit to the Zimbabwean government. Zimbabwe_sentence_232

According to the United States, these sanctions target only seven specific businesses owned or controlled by government officials and not ordinary citizens. Zimbabwe_sentence_233

Zimbabwe maintained positive economic growth throughout the 1980s (5% GDP growth per year) and 1990s (4.3% GDP growth per year). Zimbabwe_sentence_234

The economy declined from 2000: 5% decline in 2000, 8% in 2001, 12% in 2002 and 18% in 2003. Zimbabwe_sentence_235

Zimbabwe's involvement from 1998 to 2002 in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy. Zimbabwe_sentence_236

From 1999 to 2009, Zimbabwe saw the lowest ever economic growth with an annual GDP decrease of 6.1%. Zimbabwe_sentence_237

The downward spiral of the economy has been attributed mainly to mismanagement and corruption by the government and the eviction of more than 4,000 white farmers in the controversial land confiscations of 2000. Zimbabwe_sentence_238

The Zimbabwean government and its supporters attest that it was Western policies to avenge the expulsion of their kin that sabotaged the economy. Zimbabwe_sentence_239

By 2005, the purchasing power of the average Zimbabwean had dropped to the same levels in real terms as 1953. Zimbabwe_sentence_240

In 2005, the government, led by central bank governor Gideon Gono, started making overtures that white farmers could come back. Zimbabwe_sentence_241

There were 400 to 500 still left in the country, but much of the land that had been confiscated was no longer productive. Zimbabwe_sentence_242

By 2016 there were about 300 farms owned by white farmers left out of the original 4,500. Zimbabwe_sentence_243

The farms left were either too remote or their owners had paid for protection or collaborated with the regime. Zimbabwe_sentence_244

In January 2007, the government issued long-term leases to some white farmers. Zimbabwe_sentence_245

At the same time, however, the government also continued to demand that all remaining white farmers, who were given eviction notices earlier, vacate the land or risk being arrested. Zimbabwe_sentence_246

Mugabe pointed to foreign governments and alleged "sabotage" as the cause of the fall of the Zimbabwean economy, as well as the country's 80% formal unemployment rate. Zimbabwe_sentence_247

Inflation rose from an annual rate of 32% in 1998, to an official estimated high of 11,200,000% in August 2008 according to the country's Central Statistical Office. Zimbabwe_sentence_248

This represented a state of hyperinflation, and the central bank introduced a new 100 trillion dollar note. Zimbabwe_sentence_249

On 29 January 2009, in an effort to counteract runaway inflation, acting Finance Minister Patrick Chinamasa announced that Zimbabweans will be permitted to use other, more stable currencies to do business, alongside the Zimbabwe dollar. Zimbabwe_sentence_250

In an effort to combat inflation and foster economic growth the Zimbabwean dollar was suspended indefinitely on 12 April 2009. Zimbabwe_sentence_251

In 2016 Zimbabwe allowed trade in the United States dollar and various other currencies such as the rand (South Africa), the pula (Botswana), the euro, and the Pound Sterling (UK). Zimbabwe_sentence_252

In February 2019, RBZ Governor introduced a new local currency, the RTGS Dollar in a move to address some of the Zimbabwean economic and financial challenges. Zimbabwe_sentence_253

After the formation of the Unity Government and the adoption of several currencies instead of the Zimbabwe dollar in 2009, the Zimbabwean economy rebounded. Zimbabwe_sentence_254

GDP grew by 8–9% a year between 2009 and 2012. Zimbabwe_sentence_255

In November 2010, the IMF described the Zimbabwean economy as "completing its second year of buoyant economic growth". Zimbabwe_sentence_256

By 2014, Zimbabwe had recovered to levels seen in the 1990s but between 2012 and 2016 growth faltered. Zimbabwe_sentence_257

Zimplats, the nation's largest platinum company, has proceeded with US$500 million in expansions, and is also continuing a separate US$2 billion project, despite threats by Mugabe to nationalise the company. Zimbabwe_sentence_258

The pan-African investment bank IMARA released a favourable report in February 2011 on investment prospects in Zimbabwe, citing an improved revenue base and higher tax receipts. Zimbabwe_sentence_259

In late January 2013, the Zimbabwean finance ministry reported that they had only $217 in their treasury and would apply for donations to finance the coming elections that is estimated to cost US$107 million. Zimbabwe_sentence_260

As of October 2014, Metallon Corporation was Zimbabwe's largest gold miner. Zimbabwe_sentence_261

The group is looking to increase its production to 500,000 troy ounces per annum by 2019. Zimbabwe_sentence_262

Inflation in Zimbabwe was 42% in 2018. Zimbabwe_sentence_263

In June 2019, the inflation rate reached 175%, leading to mass unrest across the country and in Harare. Zimbabwe_sentence_264

Agriculture Zimbabwe_section_13

Zimbabwe's commercial farming sector was traditionally a source of exports and foreign exchange, and provided 400,000 jobs. Zimbabwe_sentence_265

However, the government's land reform program badly damaged the sector, turning Zimbabwe into a net importer of food products. Zimbabwe_sentence_266

For example, between 2000 and 2016, annual wheat production fell from 250,000 tons to 60,000 tons, maize was reduced from two million tons to 500,000 tons and cattle slaughtered for beef fell from 605,000 to 244,000. Zimbabwe_sentence_267

Coffee production, once a prized export commodity, came to a virtual halt after seizure or expropriation of white-owned coffee farms in 2000 and has never recovered. Zimbabwe_sentence_268

For the past ten years, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has been assisting Zimbabwe's farmers to adopt conservation agriculture techniques, a sustainable method of farming that can help increase yields. Zimbabwe_sentence_269

By applying the three principles of minimum soil disturbance, legume-based cropping and the use of organic mulch, farmers can improve infiltration, reduce evaporation and soil erosion, and build up organic soil content. Zimbabwe_sentence_270

Between 2005 and 2011, the number of smallholders practising conservation agriculture in Zimbabwe increased from 5,000 to more than 150,000. Zimbabwe_sentence_271

Cereal yields rose between 15 and 100 per cent across different regions. Zimbabwe_sentence_272

Tourism Zimbabwe_section_14

Water supply and sanitation Zimbabwe_section_15

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_273

Water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe is defined by many small scale successful programs but also by a general lack of improved water and sanitation systems for the majority of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_274

According to the World Health Organization in 2012, 80% of Zimbabweans had access to improved, i.e. clean, drinking-water sources, and only 40% of Zimbabweans had access to improved sanitation facilities. Zimbabwe_sentence_275

Access to improved water supply and sanitation is distinctly less in rural areas. Zimbabwe_sentence_276

There are many factors which continue to determine the nature, for the foreseeable future, of water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_277

Three major factors are the severely depressed state of the Zimbabwean economy, the reluctance of foreign aid organisations to build and finance infrastructure projects, and the political instability of the Zimbabwean state. Zimbabwe_sentence_278

Science and technology Zimbabwe_section_16

Main article: Science and technology in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_279

Zimbabwe has relatively well-developed national infrastructure and a long-standing tradition of promoting research and development (R&D), as evidenced by the levy imposed on tobacco-growers since the 1930s to promote market research. Zimbabwe_sentence_280

The country also has a well-developed education system, with one in 11 adults holding a tertiary degree. Zimbabwe_sentence_281

Given the country's solid knowledge base and abundant natural resources, Zimbabwe has the potential to figure among the countries leading growth in sub-Saharan Africa by 2020. Zimbabwe_sentence_282

To do so, however, Zimbabwe will need to correct a number of structural weaknesses. Zimbabwe_sentence_283

For instance, it lacks the critical mass of researchers needed to trigger innovation. Zimbabwe_sentence_284

Although the infrastructure is in place to harness research and development to Zimbabwe's socio-economic development, universities and research institutions lack the financial and human resources to conduct research and the regulatory environment hampers the transfer of new technologies to the business sector. Zimbabwe_sentence_285

The economic crisis has precipitated an exodus of university students and professionals in key areas of expertise (medicine, engineering, etc.) that is of growing concern. Zimbabwe_sentence_286

More than 22% of Zimbabwean tertiary students were completing their degrees abroad in 2012, compared to a 4% average for sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. Zimbabwe_sentence_287

In 2012, there were 200 researchers (head count) employed in the public sector, one-quarter of whom were women. Zimbabwe_sentence_288

This is double the continental average (91 in 2013) but only one-quarter the researcher density of South Africa (818 per million inhabitants). Zimbabwe_sentence_289

The government has created the Zimbabwe Human Capital Website to provide information for the diaspora on job and investment opportunities in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_290

Despite the fact that human resources are a pillar of any research and innovation policy, the Medium Term Plan 2011–2015 did not discuss any explicit policy for promoting postgraduate studies in science and engineering. Zimbabwe_sentence_291

The scarcity of new PhDs in science and engineering fields from the University of Zimbabwe in 2013 was symptomatic of this omission. Zimbabwe_sentence_292

Nor does the development agenda to 2018, the Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Economic Transformation, contain any specific targets for increasing the number of scientists and engineers, or the staffing requirements for industry and other productive sectors. Zimbabwe_sentence_293

In addition, the lack of co-ordination and coherence among governance structures has led to a multiplication of research priorities and poor implementation of existing policies. Zimbabwe_sentence_294

The country's Second Science and Technology Policy was launched in June 2012, after being elaborated with UNESCO assistance. Zimbabwe_sentence_295

It replaces the earlier policy dating from 2002. Zimbabwe_sentence_296

The 2012 policy prioritises biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs), space sciences, nanotechnology, indigenous knowledge systems, technologies yet to emerge and scientific solutions to emergent environmental challenges. Zimbabwe_sentence_297

The Second Science and Technology Policy also asserts the government commitment to allocating at least 1% of GDP to research and development, focusing at least 60% of university education on developing skills in science and technology and ensuring that school pupils devote at least 30% of their time to studying science subjects. Zimbabwe_sentence_298

In 2014, Zimbabwe counted 21 publications per million inhabitants in internationally catalogued journals, according to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded). Zimbabwe_sentence_299

This placed Zimbabwe sixth out of the 15 SADC countries, behind Namibia (59), Mauritius (71), Botswana (103) and, above all, South Africa (175) and the Seychelles (364). Zimbabwe_sentence_300

The average for sub-Saharan Africa was 20 scientific publications per million inhabitants, compared to a global average of 176 per million. Zimbabwe_sentence_301

Demographics Zimbabwe_section_17

Main article: Demographics of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_302

Zimbabwe_table_general_1

Population in ZimbabweZimbabwe_table_caption_1
YearZimbabwe_header_cell_1_0_0 MillionZimbabwe_header_cell_1_0_1
1950Zimbabwe_cell_1_1_0 2.7Zimbabwe_cell_1_1_1
2000Zimbabwe_cell_1_2_0 11.9Zimbabwe_cell_1_2_1
2018Zimbabwe_cell_1_3_0 14.4Zimbabwe_cell_1_3_1

Zimbabwe's total population is 12.97 million. Zimbabwe_sentence_303

According to the United Nations World Health Organization, the life expectancy for men was 56 years and the life expectancy for women was 60 years of age (2012). Zimbabwe_sentence_304

In 2006 an association of doctors in Zimbabwe made calls for then-President Mugabe to make moves to assist the ailing health service. Zimbabwe_sentence_305

The HIV infection rate in Zimbabwe was estimated to be 14% for people aged 15–49 in 2009. Zimbabwe_sentence_306

UNESCO reported a decline in HIV prevalence among pregnant women from 26% in 2002 to 21% in 2004. Zimbabwe_sentence_307

Some 85% of Zimbabweans are Christian; 62% of the population attends religious services regularly. Zimbabwe_sentence_308

The largest Christian churches are Anglican, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist and Methodist. Zimbabwe_sentence_309

As in other African countries, Christianity may be mixed with enduring traditional beliefs. Zimbabwe_sentence_310

Ancestral worship is the most practised non-Christian religion, involving spiritual intercession; the mbira dzavadzimu, which means "voice of the ancestors", an instrument related to many lamellophones ubiquitous throughout Africa, is central to many ceremonial proceedings. Zimbabwe_sentence_311

Mwari simply means "God the Creator" (musika vanhu in Shona). Zimbabwe_sentence_312

Around 1% of the population is Muslim. Zimbabwe_sentence_313

Ethnic groups Zimbabwe_section_18

Bantu-speaking ethnic groups make up 98% of the population. Zimbabwe_sentence_314

The majority people, the Shona, comprise 70%. Zimbabwe_sentence_315

The Ndebele are the second most populous with 20% of the population. Zimbabwe_sentence_316

The Ndebele descended from Zulu migrations in the 19th century and the other tribes with which they intermarried. Zimbabwe_sentence_317

Up to one million Ndebele may have left the country over the last five years, mainly for South Africa. Zimbabwe_sentence_318

Other Bantu ethnic groups make up the third largest with 2 to 5%: these are Venda, Tonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau, Nambya, Tswana, Xhosa and Lozi. Zimbabwe_sentence_319

Minority ethnic groups include white Zimbabweans, who make up less than 1% of the total population. Zimbabwe_sentence_320

White Zimbabweans are mostly of British origin, but there are also Afrikaner, Greek, Portuguese, French and Dutch communities. Zimbabwe_sentence_321

The white population dropped from a peak of around 278,000 or 4.3% of the population in 1975 to possibly 120,000 in 1999, and was estimated to be no more than 50,000 in 2002, and possibly much less. Zimbabwe_sentence_322

The 2012 census lists the total white population at 28,782 (roughly 0.22% of the population), one-tenth of its 1975 estimated size. Zimbabwe_sentence_323

Most emigration has been to the United Kingdom (between 200,000 and 500,000 Britons are of Rhodesian or Zimbabwean origin), South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Zimbabwe_sentence_324

Coloureds form 0.5% of the population, and various Asian ethnic groups, mostly of Indian and Chinese origin, are also 0.5%. Zimbabwe_sentence_325

According to 2012 Census report, 99.7% of the population is of African origin. Zimbabwe_sentence_326

Official fertility rates over the last decade were 3.6 (2002 Census), 3.8 (2006) and 3.8 (2012 Census). Zimbabwe_sentence_327

Largest cities Zimbabwe_section_19

Refugee crisis Zimbabwe_section_20

The economic meltdown and repressive political measures in Zimbabwe have led to a flood of refugees into neighbouring countries. Zimbabwe_sentence_328

An estimated 3.4 million Zimbabweans, a quarter of the population, had fled abroad by mid-2007. Zimbabwe_sentence_329

Some 3,000,000 of these left for South Africa and Botswana. Zimbabwe_sentence_330

Apart from the people who fled into the neighbouring countries, there are approximately 36,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs). Zimbabwe_sentence_331

There is no comprehensive survey, although the following figures are available: Zimbabwe_sentence_332

Zimbabwe_table_general_2

SurveyZimbabwe_header_cell_2_0_0 NumberZimbabwe_header_cell_2_0_1 DateZimbabwe_header_cell_2_0_2 SourceZimbabwe_header_cell_2_0_3
National SurveyZimbabwe_cell_2_1_0 880–960,000Zimbabwe_cell_2_1_1 2007Zimbabwe_cell_2_1_2 Zimbabwe Vulnerability Assessment CommitteeZimbabwe_cell_2_1_3
Former Farm WorkersZimbabwe_cell_2_2_0 1,000,000Zimbabwe_cell_2_2_1 2008Zimbabwe_cell_2_2_2 UNDPZimbabwe_cell_2_2_3
Victims of Operation MurambatsvinaZimbabwe_cell_2_3_0 570,000Zimbabwe_cell_2_3_1 2005Zimbabwe_cell_2_3_2 UNZimbabwe_cell_2_3_3
People Displaced by Political ViolenceZimbabwe_cell_2_4_0 36,000Zimbabwe_cell_2_4_1 2008Zimbabwe_cell_2_4_2 UNZimbabwe_cell_2_4_3

The above surveys do not include people displaced by Operation Chikorokoza Chapera or beneficiaries of the fast-track land reform programme but who have since been evicted. Zimbabwe_sentence_333

Languages Zimbabwe_section_21

Main article: Languages of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_334

English is the main language used in the education and judiciary systems. Zimbabwe_sentence_335

The Bantu languages Shona and Ndebele are the principal indigenous languages of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_336

Shona is spoken by 70% of the population, Ndebele by 20%. Zimbabwe_sentence_337

Other minority Bantu languages include Venda, Tsonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau and Nambya. Zimbabwe_sentence_338

Less than 2.5%, mainly the white and "coloured" (mixed race) minorities, consider English their native language. Zimbabwe_sentence_339

Shona has a rich oral tradition, which was incorporated into the first Shona novel, Feso by Solomon Mutswairo, published in 1956. Zimbabwe_sentence_340

English is spoken primarily in the cities, but less so in rural areas. Zimbabwe_sentence_341

Radio and television news now broadcast in Shona, Sindebele and English. Zimbabwe_sentence_342

Due to its large border with Mozambique, there is a large community of Portuguese speakers in Zimbabwe, mainly in the border areas with Mozambique and in major cities, such as Harare and Bulawayo. Zimbabwe_sentence_343

Beginning in 2017, teaching Portuguese was included in secondary education of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_344

Zimbabwe has 16 official languages and under the constitution, an Act of Parliament may prescribe other languages as officially recognised languages. Zimbabwe_sentence_345

Religions Zimbabwe_section_22

Main article: Religion in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_346

According to the 2017 Inter Censal Demography Survey by the Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency 69.2 per cent of Zimbabweans belong to Protestant Christianity, 8.0 per cent are Roman Catholic, in total 84.1 per cent follow one of the denominations of Christianity. Zimbabwe_sentence_347

10.2 per cent of the population does not belong to any religion, while the 0.7 per cent is Muslim. Zimbabwe_sentence_348

Culture Zimbabwe_section_23

Main article: Culture of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_349

Zimbabwe has many different cultures which may include beliefs and ceremonies, one of them being Shona, Zimbabwe's largest ethnic group. Zimbabwe_sentence_350

The Shona people have many sculptures and carvings which are made with the finest materials available. Zimbabwe_sentence_351

Zimbabwe first celebrated its independence on 18 April 1980. Zimbabwe_sentence_352

Celebrations are held at either the National Sports Stadium or Rufaro Stadium in Harare. Zimbabwe_sentence_353

The first independence celebrations were held in 1980 at the Zimbabwe Grounds. Zimbabwe_sentence_354

At these celebrations, doves are released to symbolise peace and fighter jets fly over and the national anthem is sung. Zimbabwe_sentence_355

The flame of independence is lit by the president after parades by the presidential family and members of the armed forces of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_356

The president also gives a speech to the people of Zimbabwe which is televised for those unable to attend the stadium. Zimbabwe_sentence_357

Zimbabwe also has a national beauty pageant, the Miss Heritage Zimbabwe contest which has been held annually ever since 2012. Zimbabwe_sentence_358

Arts Zimbabwe_section_24

Main article: Zimbabwean art Zimbabwe_sentence_359

See also: Music of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_360

Traditional arts in Zimbabwe include pottery, basketry, textiles, jewellery and carving. Zimbabwe_sentence_361

Among the distinctive qualities are symmetrically patterned woven baskets and stools carved out of a single piece of wood. Zimbabwe_sentence_362

Shona sculpture has become better known after finding initial popularity in the 1940s. Zimbabwe_sentence_363

Most subjects of carved figures of stylised birds and human figures among others are made with sedimentary rocks such as soapstone, as well as harder igneous rocks such as serpentine and the rare stone verdite. Zimbabwe_sentence_364

Zimbabwean artefacts can be found in countries like Singapore, China and Canada. Zimbabwe_sentence_365

e.g. Dominic Benhura's statue in the Singapore Botanic Gardens. Zimbabwe_sentence_366

Shona sculpture in has survived through the ages and the modern style is a fusion of African folklore with European influences. Zimbabwe_sentence_367

World-renowned Zimbabwean sculptors include Nicholas, Nesbert and Anderson Mukomberanwa, Tapfuma Gutsa, Henry Munyaradzi and Locardia Ndandarika. Zimbabwe_sentence_368

Internationally, Zimbabwean sculptors have managed to influence a new generation of artists, particularly Black Americans, through lengthy apprenticeships with master sculptors in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_369

Contemporary artists like New York sculptor M. Scott Johnson and California sculptor Russel Albans have learned to fuse both African and Afro-diasporic aesthetics in a way that travels beyond the simplistic mimicry of African Art by some Black artists of past generations in the United States. Zimbabwe_sentence_370

Several authors are well known within Zimbabwe and abroad. Zimbabwe_sentence_371

Charles Mungoshi is renowned in Zimbabwe for writing traditional stories in English and in Shona and his poems and books have sold well with both the black and white communities. Zimbabwe_sentence_372

Catherine Buckle has achieved international recognition with her two books African Tears and Beyond Tears which tell of the ordeal she went through under the 2000 Land Reform. Zimbabwe_sentence_373

The first Prime Minister of Rhodesia, Ian Smith, wrote two books – The Great Betrayal and Bitter Harvest. Zimbabwe_sentence_374

The book The House of Hunger by Dambudzo Marechera won an award in the UK in 1979 and the Nobel Prize-winning author Doris Lessing's first novel The Grass Is Singing, the first four volumes of The Children of Violence sequence, as well as the collection of short stories African Stories are set in Rhodesia. Zimbabwe_sentence_375

In 2013 NoViolet Bulawayo's novel We Need New Names was shortlisted for the Booker Prize. Zimbabwe_sentence_376

The novel tells the story of the devastation and emigration caused by the brutal suppression of Zimbabwean civilians during the Gukurahundi in the early 1980s. Zimbabwe_sentence_377

Notable artists include Henry Mudzengerere and Nicolas Mukomberanwa. Zimbabwe_sentence_378

A recurring theme in Zimbabwean art is the metamorphosis of man into beast. Zimbabwe_sentence_379

Zimbabwean musicians like Thomas Mapfumo, Oliver Mtukudzi, the Bhundu Boys; Stella Chiweshe, Alick Macheso and Audius Mtawarira have achieved international recognition. Zimbabwe_sentence_380

Among members of the white minority community, Theatre has a large following, with numerous theatrical companies performing in Zimbabwe's urban areas. Zimbabwe_sentence_381

Cuisine Zimbabwe_section_25

Like in many African countries, the majority of Zimbabweans depend on a few staple foods. Zimbabwe_sentence_382

"Mealie meal", also known as cornmeal, is used to prepare sadza or isitshwala, as well as porridge known as bota or ilambazi. Zimbabwe_sentence_383

Sadza is made by mixing the cornmeal with water to produce a thick paste/porridge. Zimbabwe_sentence_384

After the paste has been cooking for several minutes, more cornmeal is added to thicken the paste. Zimbabwe_sentence_385

This is usually eaten as lunch or dinner, usually with sides such as gravy, vegetables (spinach, chomolia, or spring greens/collard greens), beans, and meat (stewed, grilled, roasted, or sundried). Zimbabwe_sentence_386

Sadza is also commonly eaten with curdled milk (sour milk), commonly known as "lacto" (mukaka wakakora), or dried Tanganyika sardine, known locally as kapenta or matemba. Zimbabwe_sentence_387

Bota is a thinner porridge, cooked without the additional cornmeal and usually flavoured with peanut butter, milk, butter, or jam. Zimbabwe_sentence_388

Bota is usually eaten for breakfast. Zimbabwe_sentence_389

Graduations, weddings, and any other family gatherings will usually be celebrated with the killing of a goat or cow, which will be barbecued or roasted by the family. Zimbabwe_sentence_390

Even though the Afrikaners are a small group (10%) within the white minority group, Afrikaner recipes are popular. Zimbabwe_sentence_391

Biltong, a type of jerky, is a popular snack, prepared by hanging bits of spiced raw meat to dry in the shade. Zimbabwe_sentence_392

Boerewors is served with sadza. Zimbabwe_sentence_393

It is a long sausage, often well-spiced, composed of beef rather than pork, and barbecued. Zimbabwe_sentence_394

As Zimbabwe was a British colony, some people there have adopted some colonial-era English eating habits. Zimbabwe_sentence_395

For example, most people will have porridge in the morning, as well as 10 o'clock tea (midday tea). Zimbabwe_sentence_396

They will have lunch, often leftovers from the night before, freshly cooked sadza, or sandwiches (which is more common in the cities). Zimbabwe_sentence_397

After lunch, there is usually 4 o'clock tea (afternoon tea), which is served before dinner. Zimbabwe_sentence_398

It is not uncommon for tea to be had after dinner. Zimbabwe_sentence_399

Rice, pasta, and potato-based foods (french fries and mashed potato) also make up part of Zimbabwean cuisine. Zimbabwe_sentence_400

A local favourite is rice cooked with peanut butter, which is taken with thick gravy, mixed vegetables and meat. Zimbabwe_sentence_401

A potpourri of peanuts known as nzungu, boiled and sundried maize, black-eyed peas known as nyemba, and bambara groundnuts known as nyimo makes a traditional dish called mutakura. Zimbabwe_sentence_402

Mutakura can also be the above ingredients cooked individually. Zimbabwe_sentence_403

One can also find local snacks, such as maputi (roasted/popped maize kernels similar to popcorn), roasted and salted peanuts, sugar cane, sweet potato, pumpkin, and indigenous fruits, such as horned melon, gaka, adansonia, mawuyu, uapaca kirkiana, mazhanje (sugar plum), and many others. Zimbabwe_sentence_404

Sports Zimbabwe_section_26

Main article: Sport in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_405

Football (also known as soccer) is the most popular sport in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_406

The Warriors have qualified for the Africa Cup of Nations three times (2004, 2006, 2017), and won the Southern Africa championship on six occasions (2000, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2017, 2018) and the Eastern Africa cup once (1985). Zimbabwe_sentence_407

The team is ranked 115th in the world (Fifa World Rankings Nov 2018). Zimbabwe_sentence_408

Rugby union is a significant sport in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_409

The national side have represented the country at 2 Rugby World Cup tournaments in 1987 and 1991. Zimbabwe_sentence_410

The team are ranked 26 in the world by World Rugby. Zimbabwe_sentence_411

Cricket also has a following among the white minority. Zimbabwe_sentence_412

It is one of twelve Test cricket playing nations and an ICC full member as well. Zimbabwe_sentence_413

Notable cricket players from Zimbabwe include Andy Flower, Heath Streak and Brendan Taylor. Zimbabwe_sentence_414

Zimbabwe has won eight Olympic medals, one in field hockey with the women's team at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, and seven by swimmer Kirsty Coventry, three at the 2004 Summer Olympics and four at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Zimbabwe_sentence_415

Zimbabwe has also done well in the Commonwealth Games and All-Africa Games in swimming with Kirsty Coventry obtaining 11 gold medals in the different competitions. Zimbabwe_sentence_416

Zimbabwe has also competed at Wimbledon and the Davis Cup in tennis, most notably with the Black family, which comprises Wayne Black, Byron Black and Cara Black. Zimbabwe_sentence_417

Zimbabwe has also done well in golf. Zimbabwe_sentence_418

The Zimbabwean Nick Price held the official World Number 1 status longer than any player from Africa has ever done in the 24-year history of the ranking. Zimbabwe_sentence_419

Other sports played in Zimbabwe are basketball, volleyball, netball, and water polo, as well as squash, motorsport, martial arts, chess, cycling, polocrosse, kayaking and horse racing. Zimbabwe_sentence_420

However, most of these sports do not have international representatives but instead stay at a junior or national level. Zimbabwe_sentence_421

Zimbabwean professional rugby league players playing overseas are Masimbaashe Motongo and Judah Mazive. Zimbabwe_sentence_422

Former players include now SANZAAR CEO Andy Marinos who made an appearance for South Africa at the Super League World Nines and featured for the Sydney Bulldogs as well as Zimbabwe-born former Scotland rugby union international Scott Gray, who spent time at the Brisbane Broncos. Zimbabwe_sentence_423

Media Zimbabwe_section_27

Main article: Media of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_424

The media of Zimbabwe is now once again diverse, having come under tight restriction between 2002 and 2008 by the government during the growing economic and political crisis in the country. Zimbabwe_sentence_425

The Zimbabwean constitution promises freedom of the media and expression. Zimbabwe_sentence_426

Since the appointment of a new media and information minister in 2013 the media is facing less political interference and the supreme court has ruled some sections of the strict media laws as unconstitutional. Zimbabwe_sentence_427

In July 2009 the BBC and CNN were able to resume operations and report legally and openly from Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_428

CNN welcomed the move. Zimbabwe_sentence_429

The Zimbabwe Ministry of Media, Information and Publicity stated that, "the Zimbabwe government never banned the BBC from carrying out lawful activities inside Zimbabwe". Zimbabwe_sentence_430

The BBC also welcomed the move saying, "we're pleased at being able to operate openly in Zimbabwe once again". Zimbabwe_sentence_431

In 2010 the Zimbabwe Media Commission was established by the inclusive, power-sharing government. Zimbabwe_sentence_432

In May 2010 the Commission licensed three new privately owned newspapers, including the previously banned Daily News, for publication. Zimbabwe_sentence_433

Reporters Without Borders described the decisions as a "major advance". Zimbabwe_sentence_434

In June 2010 NewsDay became the first independent daily newspaper to be published in Zimbabwe in seven years. Zimbabwe_sentence_435

ZBC's monopoly in the broadcasting sector was ended with the licensing of two private radio stations in 2012. Zimbabwe_sentence_436

Since the 2002 Access to Information and Protection of Privacy Act (AIPPA) was passed, a number of privately owned news outlets were shut down by the government, including Daily News whose managing director Wilf Mbanga went on to form the influential The Zimbabwean. Zimbabwe_sentence_437

As a result, many press organisations have been set up in both neighbouring and Western countries by exiled Zimbabweans. Zimbabwe_sentence_438

Because the internet is unrestricted, many Zimbabweans are allowed to access online news sites set up by exiled journalists. Zimbabwe_sentence_439

Reporters Without Borders claims the media environment in Zimbabwe involves "surveillance, threats, imprisonment, censorship, blackmail, abuse of power and denial of justice are all brought to bear to keep firm control over the news." Zimbabwe_sentence_440

The main published newspapers are The Herald and The Chronicle which are printed in Harare and Bulawayo respectively. Zimbabwe_sentence_441

The heavy-handedness on the media has progressively relaxed since 2009. Zimbabwe_sentence_442

In its 2019 report, Reporters Without Borders ranked the Zimbabwean media as 127th out of 180. Zimbabwe_sentence_443

The government also bans many foreign broadcasting stations from Zimbabwe, including the CBC, Sky News, Channel 4, American Broadcasting Company, Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), and Fox News. Zimbabwe_sentence_444

News agencies and newspapers from other Western countries and South Africa have also been banned from the country. Zimbabwe_sentence_445

Scouting Zimbabwe_section_28

Main article: The Scout Association of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_446

It was in the Matabeleland region in Zimbabwe that, during the Second Matabele War, Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, and Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army, first met and began their lifelong friendship. Zimbabwe_sentence_447

In mid-June 1896, during a scouting patrol in the Matobo Hills, Burnham began teaching Baden-Powell woodcraft. Zimbabwe_sentence_448

Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training programme in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking, fieldcraft, and self-reliance. Zimbabwe_sentence_449

It was also during this time in the Matobo Hills that Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham. Zimbabwe_sentence_450

Scouting in the former Rhodesia and Nyasaland started in 1909 when the first Boy Scout troop was registered. Zimbabwe_sentence_451

Scouting grew quickly and in 1924 Rhodesia and Nyasaland sent a large contingent to the second World Scout Jamboree in Ermelunden, Denmark. Zimbabwe_sentence_452

In 1959, Rhodesia hosted the Central African Jamboree at Ruwa. Zimbabwe_sentence_453

In 2009, Scouts celebrated 100 years of Scouting in Zimbabwe and hundreds of Scouts camped at Gordon Park, a Scout campground and training area, as part of these celebrations. Zimbabwe_sentence_454

Besides scouting, there are also leadership, life skills and general knowledge courses and training experiences mainly for schoolchildren ranging from pre-school to final year high school students and sometimes those beyond high school. Zimbabwe_sentence_455

These courses and outings are held at, for example, Lasting Impressions ( on YouTube), Far and Wide Zimbabwe () and Chimanimani Outward Bound ( at the Wayback Machine (archived 16 June 2007)). Zimbabwe_sentence_456

National symbols Zimbabwe_section_29

The stone-carved Zimbabwe Bird appears on the national flags and the coats of arms of both Zimbabwe and Rhodesia, as well as on banknotes and coins (first on Rhodesian pound and then Rhodesian dollar). Zimbabwe_sentence_457

It probably represents the bateleur eagle or the African fish eagle. Zimbabwe_sentence_458

The famous soapstone bird carvings stood on walls and monoliths of the ancient city of Great Zimbabwe, built, it is believed, sometime between the 13th and 16th centuries by ancestors of the Shona. Zimbabwe_sentence_459

The ruins, which gave their name to modern Zimbabwe, cover some 730 hectares (1,800 acres) and are the largest ancient stone construction in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_460

Balancing Rocks are geological formations all over Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_461

The rocks are perfectly balanced without other supports. Zimbabwe_sentence_462

They are created when ancient granite intrusions are exposed to weathering, as softer rocks surrounding them erode away. Zimbabwe_sentence_463

They are often remarked on and have been depicted on both the banknotes of Zimbabwe and the Rhodesian dollar banknotes. Zimbabwe_sentence_464

The ones found on the current notes of Zimbabwe, named the Banknote Rocks, are located in Epworth, approximately 14 km (9 mi) south east of Harare. Zimbabwe_sentence_465

There are many different formations of the rocks, incorporating single and paired columns of 3 or more rocks. Zimbabwe_sentence_466

These formations are a feature of south and east tropical Africa from northern South Africa northwards to Sudan. Zimbabwe_sentence_467

The most notable formations in Zimbabwe are located in the Matobo National Park in Matabeleland. Zimbabwe_sentence_468

The National Anthem of Zimbabwe is "Blessed be the Land of Zimbabwe" (Shona: "Simudzai Mureza wedu WeZimbabwe"; Northern Ndebele: "Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe"). Zimbabwe_sentence_469

It was introduced in March 1994 after a nationwide competition to replace "Ishe Komborera Africa" as a distinctly Zimbabwean song. Zimbabwe_sentence_470

The winning entry was a song written by Professor Solomon Mutswairo and composed by Fred Changundega. Zimbabwe_sentence_471

It has been translated into all three of the main languages of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_472

Health Zimbabwe_section_30

See also: HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe and Zimbabwean cholera outbreak Zimbabwe_sentence_473

At independence, the policies of racial inequality were reflected in the disease patterns of the black majority. Zimbabwe_sentence_474

The first five years after independence saw rapid gains in areas such as immunisation coverage, access to health care, and contraceptive prevalence rate. Zimbabwe_sentence_475

Zimbabwe was thus considered internationally to have an achieved a good record of health development. Zimbabwe_sentence_476

Zimbabwe suffered occasional outbreaks of acute diseases (such as plague in 1994). Zimbabwe_sentence_477

The gains on the national health were eroded by structural adjustment in the 1990s, the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the economic crisis since the year 2000. Zimbabwe_sentence_478

In 2006, Zimbabwe had one of the lowest life expectancies in the world according to UN figure—44 for men and 43 for women, down from 60 in 1990, but recovered to 60 in 2015. Zimbabwe_sentence_479

The rapid drop was ascribed mainly to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Zimbabwe_sentence_480

Infant mortality rose from 6% in the late 1990s to 12.3% by 2004. Zimbabwe_sentence_481

By 2016 HIV/AIDS prevalence had been reduced to 13.5% compared to 40% in 1998. Zimbabwe_sentence_482

The health system has more or less collapsed. Zimbabwe_sentence_483

At the end of November 2008, some operations at three of Zimbabwe's four major referral hospitals had shut down, along with the Zimbabwe Medical School, and the fourth major hospital had two wards and no operating theatres working. Zimbabwe_sentence_484

Due to hyperinflation, those hospitals still open were not able to obtain basic drugs and medicines. Zimbabwe_sentence_485

The situation changed drastically after the Unity Government and the introduction of the multi-currency system in February 2009 although the political and economic crisis also contributed to the emigration of the doctors and people with medical knowledge. Zimbabwe_sentence_486

In August 2008 large areas of Zimbabwe were struck by the ongoing cholera epidemic. Zimbabwe_sentence_487

By December 2008 more than 10,000 people had been infected in all but one of Zimbabwe's provinces and the outbreak had spread to Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia. Zimbabwe_sentence_488

On 4 December 2008 the Zimbabwe government declared the outbreak to be a national emergency and asked for international aid. Zimbabwe_sentence_489

By 9 March 2009 The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 4,011 people had succumbed to the waterborne disease since the outbreak began in August 2008, and the total number of cases recorded had reached 89,018. Zimbabwe_sentence_490

In Harare, the city council offered free graves to cholera victims. Zimbabwe_sentence_491

There had been signs that the disease is abating, with cholera infections down by about 50% to around 4,000 cases a week. Zimbabwe_sentence_492

The 2014 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Zimbabwe was 614 compared to 960 in 2010–11 and 232 in 1990. Zimbabwe_sentence_493

The under five mortality rate, per 1,000 births was 75 in 2014 (94 in 2009). Zimbabwe_sentence_494

The number of midwives per 1,000 live births was unavailable in 2016 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women 1 in 42. Zimbabwe_sentence_495

Zimbabwe_table_general_3

PeriodZimbabwe_header_cell_3_0_0 Life expectancy in

YearsZimbabwe_header_cell_3_0_1

PeriodZimbabwe_header_cell_3_0_2 Life expectancy in

YearsZimbabwe_header_cell_3_0_3

1950–1955Zimbabwe_cell_3_1_0 48.5Zimbabwe_cell_3_1_1 1985–1990Zimbabwe_cell_3_1_2 60.2Zimbabwe_cell_3_1_3
1955–1960Zimbabwe_cell_3_2_0 50.6Zimbabwe_cell_3_2_1 1990–1995Zimbabwe_cell_3_2_2 54.7Zimbabwe_cell_3_2_3
1960–1965Zimbabwe_cell_3_3_0 52.5Zimbabwe_cell_3_3_1 1995–2000Zimbabwe_cell_3_3_2 47.4Zimbabwe_cell_3_3_3
1965–1970Zimbabwe_cell_3_4_0 54.1Zimbabwe_cell_3_4_1 2000–2005Zimbabwe_cell_3_4_2 44.1Zimbabwe_cell_3_4_3
1970–1975Zimbabwe_cell_3_5_0 55.8Zimbabwe_cell_3_5_1 2005–2010Zimbabwe_cell_3_5_2 48.4Zimbabwe_cell_3_5_3
1975–1980Zimbabwe_cell_3_6_0 57.8Zimbabwe_cell_3_6_1 2010–2015Zimbabwe_cell_3_6_2 57.6Zimbabwe_cell_3_6_3
1980–1985Zimbabwe_cell_3_7_0 60.5Zimbabwe_cell_3_7_1 Zimbabwe_cell_3_7_2 Zimbabwe_cell_3_7_3

Source: UN World Population Prospects Zimbabwe_sentence_496

Education Zimbabwe_section_31

Main article: Education in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_497

Due to large investments in education since independence, Zimbabwe has the highest adult literacy rate in Africa which in 2013 was 90.70%. Zimbabwe_sentence_498

This is lower than the 92% recorded in 2010 by the United Nations Development Programme and the 97.0% recorded in the 2002 census, while still substantially higher than 80.4% recorded in the 1992 census. Zimbabwe_sentence_499

The education department has stated that 20,000 teachers have left Zimbabwe since 2007 and that half of Zimbabwe's children have not progressed beyond primary school. Zimbabwe_sentence_500

The wealthier portion of the population usually send their children to independent schools as opposed to the government-run schools which are attended by the majority as these are subsidised by the government. Zimbabwe_sentence_501

School education was made free in 1980, but since 1988, the government has steadily increased the charges attached to school enrolment until they now greatly exceed the real value of fees in 1980. Zimbabwe_sentence_502

The Ministry of Education of Zimbabwe maintains and operates the government schools but the fees charged by independent schools are regulated by the cabinet of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_503

Zimbabwe's education system consists of two years of pre-school, seven years of primary and six years of secondary schooling before students can enter university in the country or abroad. Zimbabwe_sentence_504

The academic year in Zimbabwe runs from January to December, with three terms, broken up by one month holidays, with a total of 40 weeks of school per year. Zimbabwe_sentence_505

National examinations are written during the third term in November, with "O" level and "A" level subjects also offered in June. Zimbabwe_sentence_506

There are seven public (Government) universities as well as four church-related universities in Zimbabwe that are fully internationally accredited. Zimbabwe_sentence_507

The University of Zimbabwe, the first and largest, was built in 1952 and is located in the Harare suburb of Mount Pleasant. Zimbabwe_sentence_508

Notable alumni from Zimbabwean universities include Welshman Ncube; Peter Moyo (of Amabhubesi); Tendai Biti, Chenjerai Hove, Zimbabwean poet, novelist and essayist; and Arthur Mutambara. Zimbabwe_sentence_509

Many of the politicians in the government of Zimbabwe have obtained degrees from universities in USA or other universities abroad. Zimbabwe_sentence_510

National University of Science and Technology (NUST) is the second largest public research university in Zimbabwe located in Bulawayo. Zimbabwe_sentence_511

It was established in 1991. Zimbabwe_sentence_512

The National University of Science and Technology strives to become a flourishing and reputable institution not only in Zimbabwe and in Southern Africa but also among the international fraternity of Universities. Zimbabwe_sentence_513

Its guidance, cultural values is the encouragement of all its members and society of those attitudes of fair mindedness, understanding, tolerance and respect for people and views which are essential for the attainment and maintenance of justice, peace and harmony at all times. Zimbabwe_sentence_514

Africa University is a United Methodist related university institution located in Manicaland which attracts students from at least 36 African countries. Zimbabwe_sentence_515

The institution has been growing steadily and has steady study material and learning facilities. Zimbabwe_sentence_516

The highest professional board for accountants is the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Zimbabwe (ICAZ) with direct relationships with similar bodies in South Africa, Canada, the UK and Australia. Zimbabwe_sentence_517

A qualified Chartered Accountant from Zimbabwe is also a member of similar bodies in these countries after writing a conversion paper. Zimbabwe_sentence_518

In addition, Zimbabwean-trained doctors only require one year of residence to be fully licensed doctors in the United States. Zimbabwe_sentence_519

The Zimbabwe Institution of Engineers (ZIE) is the highest professional board for engineers. Zimbabwe_sentence_520

Education in Zimbabwe became under threat since the economic changes in 2000 with teachers going on strike because of low pay, students unable to concentrate because of hunger and the price of uniforms soaring making this standard a luxury. Zimbabwe_sentence_521

Teachers were also one of the main targets of Mugabe's attacks because he thought they were not strong supporters. Zimbabwe_sentence_522

Gender equality Zimbabwe_section_32

Further information: Child marriage in Zimbabwe, Polygamy in Zimbabwe, Human trafficking in Zimbabwe, and Abortion in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe_sentence_523

Women in Zimbabwe are disadvantaged in many facets including economic, political, and social spheres, and experience Sex and Gender Based Violence. Zimbabwe_sentence_524

A 2014 UN report found that deep rooted cultural issues, patriarchal attitudes, and religious practices negatively impacted women's rights and freedoms in the country. Zimbabwe_sentence_525

These negative views toward women as well as societal norms impact the incentive for women to participate in the economy and hinder their economic production. Zimbabwe_sentence_526

Zimbabwe's constitution passed in 2013 has provisions in it that provide incentive to achieve greater gender equality but the data shows that enforcement has been lax and adoption slow. Zimbabwe_sentence_527

In December 2016 the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies conducted a case study to determine how to best implement effective policy to address issues such as gender violence and implementation of equality laws. Zimbabwe_sentence_528

It was found that Sex and Gender Based Violence against women and girls was increasing in areas that had experienced disasters (floods, drought, disease) but could not quantify the extent of the increase. Zimbabwe_sentence_529

Some of the obstacles in combating these issues are that there are economic barriers to declaring SGBV to be unacceptable as well as social barriers. Zimbabwe_sentence_530

Additionally, governmental services which were installed to help educate the populace about these issues as well as provide services to victims are underfunded and unable to carry out their duties. Zimbabwe_sentence_531

The UN also provided economic incentive to adopt policies which would discourage these practices which negatively impacted women in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe_sentence_532

Discrimination in the work force Zimbabwe_section_33

Zimbabwean women face cultural and social adversity in their professional lives which impacts their educational attainment, professional development, and advancement. Zimbabwe_sentence_533

In 2009 the South African Journal of Education found that although the majority of primary school teachers in their random sample size were qualified for advancement to administrative positions, none of them had applied for administrative openings. Zimbabwe_sentence_534

The women did not see themselves as equals with their male counterparts and believed their role as a wife and mother superseded all other parts of their lives. Zimbabwe_sentence_535

The women surveyed in this trial were also found to have low self-esteem, a possible correlation to their societal roles and gender stereotypes. Zimbabwe_sentence_536

In 2016 the FAO found that only 60% of women participated in the economy in some form compared to 74.3% for their male counterparts. Zimbabwe_sentence_537

Women also made up the majority of low education jobs, such as 70% of the agriculture work force, yet only made up 16.7% and 21% of local authority and managers in the private sector respectively. Zimbabwe_sentence_538

In the public sector, women comprised 14% of the Zimbabwean House of Assembly and 33% of the Senate, despite the population ratio being 0.95 males per 1 female. Zimbabwe_sentence_539

To address gender inequality in the economy, the UN supports policies which help increase the number of women in leadership roles, such as heads of schools, with increased funding in line with #3 of the outlined Millennium Development Goals. Zimbabwe_sentence_540

Through these policies Zimbabwe has made gains in closing the gender gap in school enrolment: 50.5% of males are enrolled in secondary schools compared to 49.5% in females. Zimbabwe_sentence_541

Domestic violence Zimbabwe_section_34

Zimbabwe experiences high rates of domestic and sexual violence; the Zimbabwe National Statistics Office shows that rates are increasing. Zimbabwe_sentence_542

21 rapes are reported per day in Zimbabwe - a rate of 0.12 rapes a day per 100,000 people. Zimbabwe_sentence_543

As not all rapes are reported, the actual number is likely higher. Zimbabwe_sentence_544

Reported rape increased 42% between 2010 and 2016. Zimbabwe_sentence_545

Of all the violence against girls and women reported in Zimbabwe, 78% was inflicted by their spouse, father, or domestic partner. Zimbabwe_sentence_546

UNICEF reports show that one in three girls that grow up in Zimbabwe experience sexual assault before turning 18, this is further exacerbated by cultural norms such as child marriage. Zimbabwe_sentence_547

Young girls often run away with older men when their educational opportunities are limited or to escape a violent household. Zimbabwe_sentence_548

These incidents of domestic violence or young girls running away with older men are usually not investigated by police as men are viewed as superior to women in Zimbabwean culture and their role as the dominant person in the relationship is to discipline their spouse, often violently. Zimbabwe_sentence_549

There is an ingrained cultural norm that violence can be a show of power and love which makes ending domestic abuse in Zimbabwe difficult. Zimbabwe_sentence_550

The Zimbabwe Women's Lawyers Association is an organisation that is assisting the implementation of the legal framework, as defined in the 2013 constitution, to help women. Zimbabwe_sentence_551

The association provides programmes which help educate women on their rights and provides them with opportunities as a way of combating domestic and sexual violence. Zimbabwe_sentence_552

Political representation Zimbabwe_section_35

Women in Zimbabwe do not have proportional representation in the Zimbabwean lower and upper houses of Parliament holding 14% and 33% of seats respectively, despite being a slight majority of the population. Zimbabwe_sentence_553

There are cultural and violence barriers women have to overcome to run for public office; they are seen as "loose and immoral", called prostitutes, claimed to want to be men, and their private lives are heavily scrutinised. Zimbabwe_sentence_554

Women seeking to participate in the political landscape as candidates or voters cite violence as one of the main reasons they are dissuaded from participating. Zimbabwe_sentence_555

Lack of financial resources and confidence in their abilities stops many young women from attempting to run as well as preconceived notions about women in politics creates an environment that limits their involvement and desire to be involved in politics. Zimbabwe_sentence_556

Women also make up a disproportionate amount of the rural poor in Zimbabwe and make up 70% of the agricultural work force. Zimbabwe_sentence_557

The rural poor find it difficult to access information and materials in relation to politics as well as travel to polling stations and become registered to vote. Zimbabwe_sentence_558

Collectively, women control 35% of parliamentary seats as a result of a provision of the 2013 constitution that mandated at least 30% of seats be occupied by women. Zimbabwe_sentence_559

A 10-year extension is being considered to this mandate as it is only law until 2022 and equal representation according to population distribution has not yet been achieved. Zimbabwe_sentence_560

A study by the Research and Advocacy Unit found that political parties in the country appoint women to "window dress" and not for their political advancement. Zimbabwe_sentence_561

Society and culture Zimbabwe_section_36

Women in Zimbabwean society and culture are often seen as inferior, treated as objects, and viewed in subordinate roles in history and philosophy. Zimbabwe_sentence_562

Ubuntu, an African philosophy's spiritual aspect instills the belief that boys should be more valued than girls as boys pass on lineage and the belief system places high value in respecting ones ancestors. Zimbabwe_sentence_563

A common expression used in court, "vakadzi ngavanyarare", translates to "women should keep quiet" and as a result women are not consulted in decision-making; they must implement the men's wishes. Zimbabwe_sentence_564

The subordination of women in Zimbabwe and the cultural forces which dictate what they must be, have led to deaths and the sacrifice of professional advancement in order for them to fulfill their roles as wives, mothers, and subordinates. Zimbabwe_sentence_565

Women are taught that they must never refuse their husbands sexual advances, even if they know they are infected with HIV from being unfaithful. Zimbabwe_sentence_566

As a result of this practice, Zimbabwean women aged 15–49 have an HIV prevalence rate of 16.1% and make up 62% of the total population infected with HIV in that age group. Zimbabwe_sentence_567

See also Zimbabwe_section_37

Zimbabwe_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbabwe.