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For people with the surname, see Zine (surname). Zine_sentence_0

See also: ezine Zine_sentence_1

A zine (/ziːn/ ZEEN; short for magazine or fanzine) is a small-circulation self-published work of original or appropriated texts and images, usually reproduced via a copy machine. Zine_sentence_2

Zines are the product of either a single person or of a very small group, and are popularly photocopied into physical prints for circulation. Zine_sentence_3

A fanzine (blend of fan and magazine) is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by enthusiasts of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest. Zine_sentence_4

The term was coined in an October 1940 science fiction fanzine by Russ Chauvenet and popularized within science fiction fandom, entering the Oxford English Dictionary in 1949. Zine_sentence_5

Popularly defined within a circulation of 1,000 or fewer copies, in practice many zines are produced in editions of fewer than 100. Zine_sentence_6

Among the various intentions for creation and publication are developing one's identity, sharing a niche skill or art, or developing a story, as opposed to seeking profit. Zine_sentence_7

Zines have served as a significant medium of communication in various subcultures, and frequently draw inspiration from a "do-it-yourself" philosophy that disregards the traditional conventions of professional design and publishing houses, proposing an alternative, confident and self-aware contribution. Zine_sentence_8

Handwritten zines, or carbon zines, are individually made, emphasizing a personal connection between creator and reader, turning imagined communities into embodied ones. Zine_sentence_9

Zines have cultural and academic value as tangible evidence of marginal communities, many of which are otherwise little-documented. Zine_sentence_10

This has been reflected in the creation of zine archives and related programming in such mainstream institutions as the Tate museum and the British Library. Zine_sentence_11

Written in a variety of formats from desktop-published text to comics, collages and stories, zines cover broad topics including fanfiction, politics, poetry, art & design, ephemera, personal journals, social theory, intersectional feminism, single-topic obsession, or sexual content far outside the mainstream enough to be prohibitive of inclusion in more traditional media. Zine_sentence_12

(An example of the latter is Boyd McDonald's Straight to Hell, which reached a circulation of 20,000.) Zine_sentence_13

Although there are a few eras associated with zine-making, this "wave" narrative proposes a limited view of the vast range of topics, styles and environments zines occupied. Zine_sentence_14

History Zine_section_0

Overview and origins Zine_section_1

Dissidents and members of socially marginalized groups have published their own opinions in leaflet and pamphlet form for as long as such technology has been available. Zine_sentence_15

The concept of zines had an ancestor in the amateur press movement of the late 19th and early 20th century, which would in its turn cross-pollinate with the subculture of science fiction fandom in the 1930s. Zine_sentence_16

The popular graphic-style associated with zines is influenced artistically and politically by the subcultures of Dada, Fluxus, Surrealism and Situationism. Zine_sentence_17

Many trace zines' lineage from as far back as Thomas Paine's exceptionally popular 1775 pamphlet Common Sense, Benjamin Franklin's literary magazine for psychiatric patients at a Pennsylvania hospital and The Dial (1840–44) by Margaret Fuller and Ralph Waldo Emerson. Zine_sentence_18

1930s–1960s and science fiction Zine_section_2

During and after the Great Depression, editors of "pulp" science fiction magazines became increasingly frustrated with letters detailing the impossibilities of their science fiction stories. Zine_sentence_19

Over time they began to publish these overly-scrutinizing letters, complete with their return addresses. Zine_sentence_20

Hugo Gernsback published the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories in 1926, and allowed for a large letter column which printed reader's addresses. Zine_sentence_21

By 1927 readers, often young adults, would write to each other, bypassing the magazine. Zine_sentence_22

This allowed these fans to begin writing to each other, now complete with a mailing list for their own science fiction fanzines that allowed them to write not only about science fiction but about fandom itself and, in self-proclaimed perzines, about themselves. Zine_sentence_23

Science fiction fanzines vary in content, from short stories to convention reports to fanfiction were one of the earliest incarnations of the zine and influenced subsequent publications. Zine_sentence_24

"Zinesters" like Lisa Ben and Jim Kepner honed their talents in the science fiction fandom before tackling gay rights, creating zines such as "Vice Versa" and "ONE" that drew networking and distribution ideas from their SF roots. Zine_sentence_25

A number of leading science fiction and fantasy authors rose through the ranks of fandom, creating "pro-zines" such as Frederik Pohl and Isaac Asimov. Zine_sentence_26

The first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago and edited by Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis. Zine_sentence_27

The first version of Superman (a bald-headed villain) appeared in the third issue of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's 1933 fanzine Science Fiction. Zine_sentence_28

Star Trek Zine_section_3

The first media fanzine was a Star Trek fan publication called Spockanalia, published in September 1967 by members of the Lunarians. Zine_sentence_29

Some of the earliest examples of academic fandom were written on Star Trek zines, specifically K/S (Kirk/Spock) slash zines, which displayed a gay relationship between the two. Zine_sentence_30

Author Joanna Russ wrote in her 1985 analysis of K/S zines that slash fandom at the time consisted of around 500 core fans and was 100% female. Zine_sentence_31

Russ observed that while SF fans looked down on Star Trek fans, Star Trek fans looked down on K/S writers. Zine_sentence_32

Kirk/Spock zines contained fanfiction, artwork, and poetry created by fans. Zine_sentence_33

Zines were then sent to fans on a mailing list or sold at conventions. Zine_sentence_34

Many had high production values and some were sold at convention auctions for hundreds of dollars. Zine_sentence_35

Janus and Aurora Zine_section_4

Janus, later called Aurora, was a science fiction feminist zine created by Janice Bogstad and Jeanne Gomoll in 1975. Zine_sentence_36

It contained short stories, essays, and film reviews. Zine_sentence_37

Among its contributors were authors such as Octavia Butler, Joanna Russ, Samuel R. Delany, and Suzette Hayden Elgin. Zine_sentence_38

Janus/Aurora was nominated for the Hugo Award for "Best Fanzine" in 1978, 1979, and 1980. Zine_sentence_39

Janus/Aurora was the most prominent science fiction feminist zine during its run, as well as one of the only zines that dealt with such content. Zine_sentence_40

Comics Zine_section_5

Comics were mentioned and discussed as early as the late 1930s in the fanzines of science fiction fandom. Zine_sentence_41

They often included fan artwork based on existing characters as well as discussion of the history of comics. Zine_sentence_42

Through the 1960s, and 1970s, comic fanzines followed some general formats, such as the industry news and information magazine (The Comic Reader was one example), interview, history and review-based fanzines, and the fanzines which basically represented independent comic book-format exercises. Zine_sentence_43

In 1936, David Kyle published The Fantasy World , possibly the first comics fanzine. Zine_sentence_44

Malcolm Willits and Jim Bradley started The Comic Collector's News in October 1947. Zine_sentence_45

In 1953, Bhob Stewart published The EC Fan Bulletin, which launched EC fandom of imitative EC fanzines. Zine_sentence_46

Among the wave of EC fanzines that followed, the best-known was Ron Parker's Hoo-Hah! Zine_sentence_47

In 1960, Richard and Pat Lupoff launched their science fiction and comics fanzine Xero and in 1961, Jerry Bails' Alter Ego, devoted to costumed heroes, became a focal point for superhero comics fandom. Zine_sentence_48

Horror Zine_section_6

Calvin T. Beck's Journal of Frankenstein (later Castle of Frankenstein) and Gary Svehla's Gore Creatures were the first horror fanzines created as more serious alternatives to the popular Forrest J Ackerman 1958 magazine Famous Monsters of Filmland. Zine_sentence_49

Garden Ghouls Gazette – a 1960s horror title under the editorship of Dave Keil, then Gary Collins—was later headed by Frederick S. Clarke and in 1967 became the respected journal Cinefantastique. Zine_sentence_50

It later became a prozine under journalist-screenwriter Mark A. Altman and has continued as a webzine. Zine_sentence_51

Richard Klemensen's Little Shoppe of Horrors, having a particular focus on "Hammer Horrors," began in 1972 and is still publishing as of 2017. Zine_sentence_52

The Baltimore-based Black Oracle (1969–1978) from writer-turned-John Waters repertory member George Stover was a diminutive zine that evolved into the larger-format Cinemacabre. Zine_sentence_53

Stover's Black Oracle partner Bill George published his own short-lived zine The Late Show (1974–1976; with co-editor Martin Falck), and later became editor of the Cinefantastique prozine spinoff Femme Fatales. Zine_sentence_54

In the mid-1970s, North Carolina teenager Sam Irvin published the horror/science-fiction fanzine Bizarre which included his original interviews with UK actors and filmmakers; Irvin would later become a producer-director in his own right. Zine_sentence_55

Japanese Fantasy Film Journal (JFFJ) (1968–1983) from Greg Shoemaker covered Toho's Godzilla and his Asian brethren when no other publications much cared. Zine_sentence_56

In 1993, G-FAN picked up where JFFJ left off, and reached its 100th regularly published issue in Fall 2012. Zine_sentence_57

FXRH (Special effects by Ray Harryhausen) (1971–1976) was a specialized zine co-created by future Hollywood FX artist Ernest D. Farino. Zine_sentence_58

Rock and roll Zine_section_7

Several fans active in science fiction and comics fandom recognized a shared interest in rock music, and the rock fanzine was born. Zine_sentence_59

Paul Williams and Greg Shaw were two such SF-fans turned rock zine editors. Zine_sentence_60

Williams' Crawdaddy! Zine_sentence_61

(1966) and Shaw's two California-based zines, Mojo Navigator Rock and Roll News (1966) and Who Put the Bomp (1970), are among the most popular early rock fanzines. Zine_sentence_62

Crawdaddy! Zine_sentence_63

(1966) quickly moved from its fanzine roots to become one of the first rock music "prozines" with paid advertisers and newsstand distribution. Zine_sentence_64

Bomp remained a fanzine, featuring many writers who would later become prominent music journalists, including Lester Bangs, Greil Marcus, Ken Barnes, Ed Ward, Dave Marsh, Mike Saunders and R. Zine_sentence_65 Meltzer as well as cover art by Jay Kinney and Bill Rotsler (both veterans of SF and Comics fandom). Zine_sentence_66

Other rock fanzines of this period include denim delinquent (1971) edited by Jymn Parrett, Flash (1972) edited by Mark Shipper, Eurock Magazine (1973–1993) edited by Archie Patterson and Bam Balam written and published by Brian Hogg in East Lothian, Scotland, (1974). Zine_sentence_67

In the 1980s, with the rise of stadium superstars, many home-grown rock fanzines emerged. Zine_sentence_68

At the peak of Bruce Springsteen's megastardom following the Born in the U.S.A. album and Born in the U.S.A. Tour in the mid-1980s, there were no less than five Springsteen fanzines circulating at the same time in the UK alone, and many others elsewhere. Zine_sentence_69

Gary Desmond's Candy's Room, coming from Liverpool, was the first in 1980, quickly followed by Dan French's Point Blank, Dave Percival's The Fever, Jeff Matthews' Rendezvous, and Paul Limbrick's Jackson Cage. Zine_sentence_70

In the US, Backstreets Magazine started in Seattle in 1980 and still continues today as a glossy publication, now in communication with Springsteen's management and official website. Zine_sentence_71

Crème Brûlée documented post-rock genre and experimental music (1990s). Zine_sentence_72

1970s and punk Zine_section_8

Punk zines emerged as part of the punk subculture in the late 1970s, along with the increasing accessibility to copy machines, publishing software, and home printing technologies. Zine_sentence_73

Punk became a genre for the working class because of the economic necessity to use creative DIY methods, echoed in both zine and Punk music creation. Zine_sentence_74

Zines became vital to the popularization and spread of punk spreading to countries outside the UK and America, such as Ireland, Indonesia, and more by 1977. Zine_sentence_75

Amateur, fan-created zines played an important role in spreading information about different scenes (city or regional-based subcultures) and bands (e.g. British fanzines like Mark Perry's Sniffin Glue and Shane MacGowan's Bondage) in the pre-Internet era. Zine_sentence_76

They typically included reviews of shows and records, interviews with bands, letters, and ads for records and labels. Zine_sentence_77

The punk subculture in the United Kingdom spearheaded a surge of interest in fanzines as a countercultural alternative to established print media. Zine_sentence_78

The first and still best known UK 'punk zine' was Sniffin' Glue, produced by Deptford punk fan Mark Perry which ran for 12 photocopied issues; the first issue produced by Perry immediately following (and in response to) the London debut of The Ramones on 4 July 1976. Zine_sentence_79

Other UK fanzines included Blam! Zine_sentence_80 , Bombsite, Burnt Offering, Chainsaw, New Crimes, Vague, Jamming, Artcore Fanzine, Love and Molotov Cocktails, To Hell With Poverty, New Youth, Peroxide, ENZK, Juniper beri-beri, No Cure,Communication Blur, Rox, Grim Humour, Spuno, Cool Notes and Fumes. Zine_sentence_81

By 1990, Maximum Rocknroll "had become the de facto bible of the scene, presenting a "passionate yet dogmatic view" of what hardcore was supposed to be." Zine_sentence_82

HeartattaCk and Profane Existence took the DIY lifestyle to a religious level for emo and post-hardcore and crust punk culture. Zine_sentence_83

Slug and Lettuce started at the state college of PA and became an international 10,000 copy production – all for free. Zine_sentence_84

In Canada, the zine Standard Issue chronicles the Ottawa hardcore scene. Zine_sentence_85

The Bay Area zine Cometbus was first created at Berkeley by the zinester and musician Aaron Cometbus. Zine_sentence_86

Gearhead Nation was a monthly punk freesheet that lasted from the early 1990s to 1997 in Dublin, Ireland. Zine_sentence_87

Some hardcore punk zines became available online such as the e-zine chronicling the Australian hardcore scene, RestAssured. Zine_sentence_88

In Italy, Mazquerade ran from 1979 to 1981 and Raw Art Fanzine ran from 1995 to 2000. Zine_sentence_89

In the US, Flipside (created by Al Kowalewski) and Slash (created by Steve Samioff and Claude Bessy) were important punk zines for the Los Angeles scene, both debuting in 1977. Zine_sentence_90

In 1977 in Australia, Bruce Milne and Clinton Walker fused their respective punk zines Plastered Press and Suicide Alley to launch Pulp; Milne later went on to invent the cassette zine with Fast Forward, in 1980. Zine_sentence_91

In the American Midwest, a zine called Touch and Go described the area's hardcore scene from 1979 to 1983. Zine_sentence_92

We Got Power described the LA scene from 1981 to 1984, and included show reviews and band interviews with groups including DOA, the Misfits, Black Flag, Suicidal Tendencies and the Circle Jerks. Zine_sentence_93

My Rules was a photo zine that included photos of hardcore shows from across the US an in Effect, launched in 1988 described the New York City punk scene. Zine_sentence_94

Among later titles, Maximum RocknRoll is a major punk zine, with over 300 issues published. Zine_sentence_95

As a result, in part, of the popular and commercial resurgence of punk in the late 1980s, and after, with the growing popularity of such bands as Sonic Youth, Nirvana, Fugazi, Bikini Kill, Green Day and The Offspring, a number of other punk zines have appeared, such as Dagger, Profane Existence, Punk Planet, Razorcake, Slug and Lettuce, Sobriquet and Tail Spins. Zine_sentence_96

The early American punk zine Search and Destroy eventually became the influential fringe-cultural magazine Re/Search. Zine_sentence_97

"In the post-punk era several well-written fanzines emerged that cast an almost academic look at earlier, neglected musical forms, including Mike Stax' Ugly Things, Billy Miller and Miriam Linna's Kicks, Jake Austen's Roctober, Kim Cooper's Scram, P. Edwin Letcher's Garage & Beat, and the UK's Shindig! Zine_sentence_98

and Italy's Misty Lane." Zine_sentence_99

Mark Wilkins, the promotion director for 1982 onwards US punk/thrash label Mystic Records, had over 450 US fanzines and 150 foreign fanzines he promoted to regularly. Zine_sentence_100

He and Mystic Records owner Doug Moody edited The Mystic News Newsletter which was published quarterly and went into every promo package to fanzines. Zine_sentence_101

Wilkins also published the highly successful Los Angeles punk humor zine Wild Times and when he ran out of funding for the zine syndicated some of the humorous material to over 100 US fanzines under the name of Mystic Mark. Zine_sentence_102

Factsheet Five Zine_section_9

During the 1980s and onwards, Factsheet Five (the name came from a short story by John Brunner), originally published by Mike Gunderloy and now defunct, catalogued and reviewed any zine or small press creation sent to it, along with their mailing addresses. Zine_sentence_103

In doing so, it formed a networking point for zine creators and readers (usually the same people). Zine_sentence_104

The concept of zine as an art form distinct from fanzine, and of the "zinesters" as member of their own subculture, had emerged. Zine_sentence_105

Zines of this era ranged from perzines of all varieties to those that covered an assortment of different and obscure topics. Zine_sentence_106

Genres reviewed by Factsheet Five included quirky, medley, fringe, music, punk, grrrlz, personal, science fiction, food, humour, spirituality, politics, queer, arts & letters, comix. Zine_sentence_107

1990s and riot grrrl Zine_section_10

The riot grrrl movement emerged from the DIY Punk subculture in tandem with the American era of third-wave feminism, and used the consciousness-raising method of organizing and communication. Zine_sentence_108

As feminist documents, they follow a longer legacy of feminist and women's self-publication that includes scrapbooking, periodicals and health publications, allowing women to circulate ideas that would not otherwise be published. Zine_sentence_109

The American publication Bikini Kill (1990) introduced the Riot Grrrl Manifesto in their second issue as a way of establishing space. Zine_sentence_110

Zinesters Erika Reinstein and May Summer founded the Riot Grrrl Press to serve as a zine distribution network that would allow riot grrrls to "express themselves and reach large audiences without having to rely on the mainstream press". Zine_sentence_111

Girls use this grassroots medium to discuss their personal lived experiences, and themes including body image, sexuality, gender norms, and violence to express anger, and reclaim/refigure femininity. Zine_sentence_112

Scholar and zinester Mimi Thi Nguyen notes that these norms unequally burdened riot grrrls of color with allowing white riot grrrls access to their personal experiences, an act which in itself was supposed to address systemic racism. Zine_sentence_113

BUST - "The voice of the new world order" was created by Debbie Stoller, Laurie Hanzel and Marcelle Karp in 1993 to propose an alternate to the popular mainstream magazines Cosmopolitan and Glamour. Zine_sentence_114

Additional zines following this path are Shocking Pink (1981–82, 1987–92), Jigsaw (1988– ), Bikini Kill (1990), Girl Germs (1990), Bamboo Girl (1995– ), BITCH Magazine (1996– ), Hip Mama (1997– ), Kitten Scratches (1999) and ROCKRGRL (1995–2005). Zine_sentence_115

Commercialization Zine_section_11

Starting in this decade, multinational companies started appropriating and commodifying zines and DIY culture. Zine_sentence_116

Their faux zines created a commercialized hipster lifestyle. Zine_sentence_117

By late in the decade, independent zinesters were accused of "selling out" to make a profit. Zine_sentence_118

Distribution and circulation Zine_section_12

Before the invention of the printing press (1440), the Mesopotamians, Chinese and Egyptians used stamps and presses to emboss images into clay and print on cloth (BC). Zine_sentence_119

With the invention of paper in the second century AD, reproduction of literature became more efficient. Zine_sentence_120

The thirteenth century brought letterpress and relief printing to the scene, a method used to produce religious scripts. Zine_sentence_121

Since then, offset printing (1875), the mimeograph (1886), the duplicator/"ditto machine" (1920s), Xerography (1938), inkjet printing (1951), laser printing (1965), and digital printing (1991) have made the process increasingly more accessible to the general public. Zine_sentence_122

Comparatively, digital printing produces 2,400 times more sheets per hour than the original printing press. Zine_sentence_123

Zines are sold, traded or given as gifts at symposiums, publishing fairs, record and book stores and concerts, via independent media outlets, zine 'distros', mail order or through direct correspondence with the author. Zine_sentence_124

They are also sold online on distro websites, Etsy shops, blogs, or social networking profiles and are available for download. Zine_sentence_125

While zines are generally self-published, there are a few independent publishers who specialize in art zines such as Nieves Books in Zurich, founded by Benjamin Sommerhalder, and Café Royal Books founded by Craig Atkinson in 2005. Zine_sentence_126

In recent years a number of photocopied zines have risen to prominence or professional status and have found wide bookstore and online distribution. Zine_sentence_127

Notable among these are Giant Robot, Dazed & Confused, Bust, Bitch, Cometbus, Doris, Brainscan, The Miscreant, and Maximum RocknRoll. Zine_sentence_128

There are many catalogued and online based mail-order distros for zines. Zine_sentence_129

The longest running distribution operation is Microcosm Publishing in Portland, Oregon. Zine_sentence_130

Some other longstanding operations include Great Worm Express Distribution in Toronto, CornDog Publishing in Ipswich in the UK, Café Royal Books in Southport in the UK, Fistful of Books in Scotland, AK Press in Oakland, California,, Missing Link Records in Melbourne. Zine_sentence_131

and Zine_sentence_132

Libraries and Archives Zine_section_13

A number of major public and academic libraries and museums carry zines and other small press publications, often with a specific focus (e.g. women's studies) or those that are relevant to a local region. Zine_sentence_133

Libraries and institutions with notable zine collections include: Zine_sentence_134


The Indie Photobook Library, an independent archive in the Washington, DC area, is a large collection of photobooks and photo zines dating from 2008 to 2016 which the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University acquired in 2016. Zine_sentence_135

In California, the Long Beach Public Library began to be the first public library in the state to start circulating zines for three weeks at a time in 2015. Zine_sentence_136

In 2017 the Los Angeles Public Library started to circulate zines publicly to its patrons as well. Zine_sentence_137

Both projects have been credited to librarian Ziba Zehdar who has been an advocate in promoting circulating zines publicly at libraries in California. Zine_sentence_138

It has been suggested that the adoption of zine culture by powerful and prestigious institutions contradicts their function as declarations of agency by marginalized groups. Zine_sentence_139

Zine fests, workshops, and clubs Zine_section_14

There has been a resurgence in the alternative publication culture beginning in the 2010s, in tandem with the influx of zine libraries and as a result of the digital age, which has sparked zine festivals across the globe. Zine_sentence_140

The Los Angeles Zine Fest, which is considered to be one of the biggest in the United States, started in 2012 with only a handful of exhibitors, now hosting over 200 exhibitors. Zine_sentence_141

Other big zine fests across the globe include, San Francisco Zine Fest, Brooklyn Zine Fest, Chicago Zine Fest, Feminist Zine Fest, Amsterdam Zine Jam, and Sticky Zine Fair. Zine_sentence_142

At each zine fest, the zinester can be their own independent distributor and publisher simply by standing behind a table to sell or barter their work. Zine_sentence_143

Over time, zinesters have added posters, stickers, buttons and patches to these events. Zine_sentence_144

In many libraries, schools and community centers around the world, zinesters hold meetings to create, share, and pass down the art of making zines. Zine_sentence_145

2000s and the effect of the Internet Zine_section_15

With the rise of the Internet in the mid-1990s, zines initially faded from public awareness possibly due to the ability of private web-pages to fulfill much the same role of personal expression. Zine_sentence_146

Indeed, many zines were transformed into Webzines, such as Boing Boing or monochrom. Zine_sentence_147

The metadata standard for cataloging zines is xZineCorex, which maps to Dublin Core. Zine_sentence_148

E-zine creators were originally referred to as "adopters" because of their use of pre-made type and layouts, making the process less ambiguous. Zine_sentence_149

Since, social media, blogging and vlogging have adopted a similar do-it-yourself publication model, with the most efficient form of communication yet. Zine_sentence_150

In the UK Fracture and Reason To Believe were significant fanzines in the early 2000s, both ending in late 2003. Zine_sentence_151

Rancid News filled the gap left by these two zines for a short while. Zine_sentence_152

On its tenth issue Rancid News changed its name to Last Hours with 7 issues published under this title before going on hiatus. Zine_sentence_153

Last Hours still operates as a webzine though with more focus on the anti-authoritarian movement than its original title. Zine_sentence_154

Artcore Fanzine (established in 1986) continues to this day, recently publishing a number of 30-year anniversary issues. Zine_sentence_155

alt.zines Zine_section_16

The Usenet newsgroup alt.zines was created in 1992 by Jerod Pore and Edward Vielmetti for the discussion of zines and zine-related topics. Zine_sentence_156

Since that time, alt.zines has seen more than 26,000 postings. Zine_sentence_157

Throughout the 1990s alt.zines was zinesters. Zine_sentence_158

ZineWiki Zine_section_17

An open-source wiki site solely for zines, small press publications and independent media as well as their history. Zine_sentence_159

The online encyclopedia for zines was launched in 2006 by Alan Lastufka and Kate Sandler. Zine_sentence_160

Television shows Zine_section_18

Two popular kids shows in the late 1990s and early 2000s featured zine-making: Our Hero (2000–02) and Rocket Power (1999–2004). Zine_sentence_161

The main character in Our Hero, Kale Stiglic, writes about her life in the Toronto suburbs. Zine_sentence_162

The episodes are narrated and presented in the form of zine issues that she creates, inheriting her father's storytelling passion. Zine_sentence_163

The show won titles from the Canadian Comedy Awards and Gemini Awards during its development. Zine_sentence_164

See also Zine_section_19

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zine.