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For other uses, see Zoology (disambiguation). Zoology_sentence_0

"Animal biology" redirects here. Zoology_sentence_1

For the academic journal, see Animal Biology (journal). Zoology_sentence_2

"Zoologist" redirects here. Zoology_sentence_3

For the academic journal, see The Zoologist. Zoology_sentence_4

Zoology (/zoʊˈɒlədʒi/) is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems. Zoology_sentence_5

The term is derived from Ancient Greek ζῷον, zōion, i.e. "animal" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "knowledge, study". Zoology_sentence_6

History Zoology_section_0

Ancient history to Darwin Zoology_section_1

Main article: History of zoology (through 1859) Zoology_sentence_7

The history of zoology traces the study of the animal kingdom from ancient to modern times. Zoology_sentence_8

Although the concept of zoology as a single coherent field arose much later, the zoological sciences emerged from natural history reaching back to the biological works of Aristotle and Galen in the ancient Greco-Roman world. Zoology_sentence_9

This ancient work was further developed in the Middle Ages by Muslim physicians and scholars such as Albertus Magnus. Zoology_sentence_10

During the Renaissance and early modern period, zoological thought was revolutionized in Europe by a renewed interest in empiricism and the discovery of many novel organisms. Zoology_sentence_11

Prominent in this movement were Vesalius and William Harvey, who used experimentation and careful observation in physiology, and naturalists such as Carl Linnaeus, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, and Buffon who began to classify the diversity of life and the fossil record, as well as the development and behavior of organisms. Zoology_sentence_12

Microscopy revealed the previously unknown world of microorganisms, laying the groundwork for cell theory. Zoology_sentence_13

The growing importance of natural theology, partly a response to the rise of mechanical philosophy, encouraged the growth of natural history (although it entrenched the argument from design). Zoology_sentence_14

Over the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, zoology became an increasingly professional scientific discipline. Zoology_sentence_15

Explorer-naturalists such as Alexander von Humboldt investigated the interaction between organisms and their environment, and the ways this relationship depends on geography, laying the foundations for biogeography, ecology and ethology. Zoology_sentence_16

Naturalists began to reject essentialism and consider the importance of extinction and the mutability of species. Zoology_sentence_17

Cell theory provided a new perspective on the fundamental basis of life. Zoology_sentence_18

Post-Darwin Zoology_section_2

Main article: History of zoology (since 1859) Zoology_sentence_19

These developments, as well as the results from embryology and paleontology, were synthesized in Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. Zoology_sentence_20

In 1859, Darwin placed the theory of organic evolution on a new footing, by his discovery of a process by which organic evolution can occur, and provided observational evidence that it had done so. Zoology_sentence_21

Darwin gave a new direction to morphology and physiology, by uniting them in a common biological theory: the theory of organic evolution. Zoology_sentence_22

The result was a reconstruction of the classification of animals upon a genealogical basis, fresh investigation of the development of animals, and early attempts to determine their genetic relationships. Zoology_sentence_23

The end of the 19th century saw the fall of spontaneous generation and the rise of the germ theory of disease, though the mechanism of inheritance remained a mystery. Zoology_sentence_24

In the early 20th century, the rediscovery of Mendel's work led to the rapid development of genetics, and by the 1930s the combination of population genetics and natural selection in the modern synthesis created evolutionary biology. Zoology_sentence_25

Research Zoology_section_3

Structural Zoology_section_4

Cell biology studies the structural and physiological properties of cells, including their behavior, interactions, and environment. Zoology_sentence_26

This is done on both the microscopic and molecular levels, for single-celled organisms such as bacteria as well as the specialized cells in multicellular organisms such as humans. Zoology_sentence_27

Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences. Zoology_sentence_28

The similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology. Zoology_sentence_29

Anatomy considers the forms of macroscopic structures such as organs and organ systems. Zoology_sentence_30

It focuses on how organs and organ systems work together in the bodies of humans and animals, in addition to how they work independently. Zoology_sentence_31

Anatomy and cell biology are two studies that are closely related, and can be categorized under "structural" studies. Zoology_sentence_32

Physiological Zoology_section_5

Physiology studies the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes of living organisms by attempting to understand how all of the structures function as a whole. Zoology_sentence_33

The theme of "structure to function" is central to biology. Zoology_sentence_34

Physiological studies have traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology, but some principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. Zoology_sentence_35

For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells can also apply to human cells. Zoology_sentence_36

The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human species. Zoology_sentence_37

Physiology studies how for example nervous, immune, endocrine, respiratory, and circulatory systems, function and interact. Zoology_sentence_38

Evolutionary Zoology_section_6

Evolutionary research is concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, and includes scientists from many taxonomically oriented disciplines. Zoology_sentence_39

For example, it generally involves scientists who have special training in particular organisms such as mammalogy, ornithology, herpetology, or entomology, but use those organisms as systems to answer general questions about evolution. Zoology_sentence_40

Evolutionary biology is partly based on paleontology, which uses the fossil record to answer questions about the mode and tempo of evolution, and partly on the developments in areas such as population genetics and evolutionary theory. Zoology_sentence_41

Following the development of DNA fingerprinting techniques in the late 20th century, the application of these techniques in zoology has increased the understanding of animal populations. Zoology_sentence_42

In the 1980s, developmental biology re-entered evolutionary biology from its initial exclusion from the modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental biology. Zoology_sentence_43

Related fields often considered part of evolutionary biology are phylogenetics, systematics, and taxonomy. Zoology_sentence_44

Classification Zoology_section_7

Scientific classification in zoology, is a method by which zoologists group and categorize organisms by biological type, such as genus or species. Zoology_sentence_45

Biological classification is a form of scientific taxonomy. Zoology_sentence_46

Modern biological classification has its root in the work of Carl Linnaeus, who grouped species according to shared physical characteristics. Zoology_sentence_47

These groupings have since been revised to improve consistency with the Darwinian principle of common descent. Zoology_sentence_48

Molecular phylogenetics, which uses DNA sequences as data, has driven many recent revisions and is likely to continue to do so. Zoology_sentence_49

Biological classification belongs to the science of zoological systematics. Zoology_sentence_50

Many scientists now consider the five-kingdom system outdated. Zoology_sentence_51

Modern alternative classification systems generally start with the three-domain system: Archaea (originally Archaebacteria); Bacteria (originally Eubacteria); Eukaryota (including protists, fungi, plants, and animals) These domains reflect whether the cells have nuclei or not, as well as differences in the chemical composition of the cell exteriors. Zoology_sentence_52

Further, each kingdom is broken down recursively until each species is separately classified. Zoology_sentence_53

The order is: Domain; kingdom; phylum; class; order; family; genus; species. Zoology_sentence_54

The scientific name of an organism is generated from its genus and species. Zoology_sentence_55

For example, humans are listed as Homo sapiens. Zoology_sentence_56

Homo is the genus, and sapiens the specific epithet, both of them combined make up the species name. Zoology_sentence_57

When writing the scientific name of an organism, it is proper to capitalize the first letter in the genus and put all of the specific epithet in lowercase. Zoology_sentence_58

Additionally, the entire term may be italicized or underlined. Zoology_sentence_59

The dominant classification system is called the Linnaean taxonomy. Zoology_sentence_60

It includes ranks and binomial nomenclature. Zoology_sentence_61

The classification, taxonomy, and nomenclature of zoological organisms is administered by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Zoology_sentence_62

A merging draft, BioCode, was published in 1997 in an attempt to standardize nomenclature, but has yet to be formally adopted. Zoology_sentence_63

Ethology Zoology_section_8

Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behavior under natural conditions, as opposed to behaviourism, which focuses on behavioral response studies in a laboratory setting. Zoology_sentence_64

Ethologists have been particularly concerned with the evolution of behavior and the understanding of behavior in terms of the theory of natural selection. Zoology_sentence_65

In one sense, the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin, whose book, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, influenced many future ethologists. Zoology_sentence_66

Biogeography Zoology_section_9

Biogeography studies the spatial distribution of organisms on the Earth, focusing on topics like plate tectonics, climate change, dispersal and migration, and cladistics. Zoology_sentence_67

The creation of this study is widely accredited to Alfred Russel Wallace, a British biologist who had some of his work jointly published with Charles Darwin. Zoology_sentence_68

Branches of zoology Zoology_section_10

Although the study of animal life is ancient, its scientific incarnation is relatively modern. Zoology_sentence_69

This mirrors the transition from natural history to biology at the start of the 19th century. Zoology_sentence_70

Since Hunter and Cuvier, comparative anatomical study has been associated with morphography, shaping the modern areas of zoological investigation: anatomy, physiology, histology, embryology, teratology and ethology. Zoology_sentence_71

Modern zoology first arose in German and British universities. Zoology_sentence_72

In Britain, Thomas Henry Huxley was a prominent figure. Zoology_sentence_73

His ideas were centered on the morphology of animals. Zoology_sentence_74

Many consider him the greatest comparative anatomist of the latter half of the 19th century. Zoology_sentence_75

Similar to Hunter, his courses were composed of lectures and laboratory practical classes in contrast to the previous format of lectures only. Zoology_sentence_76

Gradually zoology expanded beyond Huxley's comparative anatomy to include the following sub-disciplines: Zoology_sentence_77


Related fields: Zoology_sentence_78


See also Zoology_section_11


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoology.