Alberto Moravia

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Alberto Moravia_table_infobox_0

Alberto MoraviaAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_0_0
BornAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_1_0 Alberto Pincherle

(1907-11-28)November 28, 1907 Rome, ItalyAlberto Moravia_cell_0_1_1

DiedAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_2_0 September 26, 1990(1990-09-26) (aged 82)

Rome, ItalyAlberto Moravia_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_3_0 Campo Verano, RomeAlberto Moravia_cell_0_3_1
Pen nameAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_4_0 Alberto MoraviaAlberto Moravia_cell_0_4_1
OccupationAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_5_0 Novelist, journalist, playwright, essayist, film criticAlberto Moravia_cell_0_5_1
NationalityAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_6_0 ItalianAlberto Moravia_cell_0_6_1
Notable worksAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_7_0 Gli indifferenti (Time of Indifference, 1929)

Il conformista (The Conformist, 1947) Racconti romani (Roman Tales, 1954) La ciociara (Two Women, 1957)Alberto Moravia_cell_0_7_1

Notable awardsAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_8_0 Strega Prize (1952)

Premio Marzotto (1957) Viareggio Prize (1961) Premio Mondello (1982)Alberto Moravia_cell_0_8_1

SpouseAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_9_0 Elsa Morante ​(m. 1941⁠–⁠1961)​

Carmen Llera ​(m. 1984)​Alberto Moravia_cell_0_9_1

PartnerAlberto Moravia_header_cell_0_10_0 Dacia Maraini (1962–1978)Alberto Moravia_cell_0_10_1

Alberto Moravia (US: /moʊˈrɑːviə, -ˈreɪv-/ moh-RAH-vee-ə, -⁠RAY-, Italian: [alˈbɛrto moˈraːvja; born Alberto Pincherle [ˈpiŋkerle; November 28, 1907 – September 26, 1990) was an Italian novelist and journalist. Alberto Moravia_sentence_0

His novels explored matters of modern sexuality, social alienation and existentialism. Alberto Moravia_sentence_1

Moravia is best known for his debut novel Gli indifferenti (1929) and for the anti-fascist novel Il Conformista (The Conformist), the basis for the film The Conformist (1970) directed by Bernardo Bertolucci. Alberto Moravia_sentence_2

Other novels of his adapted for the cinema are Agostino, filmed with the same title by Mauro Bolognini in 1962; Il disprezzo (A Ghost at Noon or Contempt), filmed by Jean-Luc Godard as Le Mépris (Contempt 1963); La Noia (Boredom), filmed with that title by Damiano Damiani in 1963 and released in the US as The Empty Canvas in 1964 and La ciociara, filmed by Vittorio De Sica as Two Women (1960). Alberto Moravia_sentence_3

Cédric Kahn's L'Ennui (1998) is another version of La Noia. Alberto Moravia_sentence_4

Moravia once remarked that the most important facts of his life had been his illness, a tubercular infection of the bones that confined him to a bed for five years and Fascism, because they both caused him to suffer and do things he otherwise would not have done. Alberto Moravia_sentence_5

"It is what we are forced to do that forms our character, not what we do of our own free will." Alberto Moravia_sentence_6

Moravia was an atheist. Alberto Moravia_sentence_7

His writing was marked by its factual, cold, precise style, often depicting the malaise of the bourgeoisie. Alberto Moravia_sentence_8

It was rooted in the tradition of nineteenth-century narrative, underpinned by high social and cultural awareness. Alberto Moravia_sentence_9

Moravia believed that writers must, if they were to represent reality, "assume a moral position, a clearly conceived political, social, and philosophical attitude" but also that, ultimately, "A writer survives in spite of his beliefs". Alberto Moravia_sentence_10

Between 1959 and 1962 Moravia was president of PEN International, the worldwide association of writers. Alberto Moravia_sentence_11

Biography Alberto Moravia_section_0

Early years Alberto Moravia_section_1

Alberto Pincherle (the pen-name "Moravia" was a surname linked to the family) was born in Via Sgambati in Rome, Italy, to a wealthy middle-class family. Alberto Moravia_sentence_12

His Jewish Venetian father, Carlo, was an architect and a painter. Alberto Moravia_sentence_13

His Catholic Anconitan mother, Teresa Iginia de Marsanich, was of Dalmatian origin. Alberto Moravia_sentence_14

His family had interesting twists and developed a complex cultural and political character. Alberto Moravia_sentence_15

The brothers Carlo and Nello Rosselli, founders of the anti-fascist resistance movement Giustizia e Libertà, murdered in France by Benito Mussolini's order in 1937, were paternal cousins and his maternal uncle, Augusto De Marsanich, was an undersecretary in the National Fascist Party cabinet. Alberto Moravia_sentence_16

Moravia did not finish conventional schooling because, at the age of nine, he contracted tuberculosis of the bone, which confined him to bed for five years. Alberto Moravia_sentence_17

He spent three years at home and two in a sanatorium near Cortina d'Ampezzo, in north-eastern Italy. Alberto Moravia_sentence_18

Moravia was an intelligent boy and devoted himself to reading books and some of his favourite authors were Giosuè Carducci, Giovanni Boccaccio, Fyodor Dostoevsky, James Joyce, Ludovico Ariosto, Carlo Goldoni, William Shakespeare, Molière, Nikolai Gogol and Stéphane Mallarmé. Alberto Moravia_sentence_19

He learned French and German and wrote poems in French and Italian. Alberto Moravia_sentence_20

In 1925 at the age of 18, he left the sanatorium and moved to Bressanone. Alberto Moravia_sentence_21

During the next three years, partly in Bressanone and partly in Rome, he began to write his first novel, Gli indifferenti (Time of Indifference), published in 1929. Alberto Moravia_sentence_22

The novel is a realistic analysis of the moral decadence of a middle-class mother and two of her children. Alberto Moravia_sentence_23

In 1927, Moravia met Corrado Alvaro and Massimo Bontempelli and started his career as a journalist with the magazine 900. Alberto Moravia_sentence_24

The journal published his first short stories, including Cortigiana stanca (The Tired Courtesan in French as Lassitude de courtisane, 1927), Delitto al circolo del tennis (Crime at the Tennis Club, 1928), Il ladro curioso (The Curious Thief) and Apparizione (Apparition, both 1929). Alberto Moravia_sentence_25

Gli indifferenti and Fascist ostracism Alberto Moravia_section_2

Gli indifferenti was published at his own expense, costing 5,000 Italian lira. Alberto Moravia_sentence_26

Literary critics described the novel as a noteworthy example of contemporary Italian narrative fiction. Alberto Moravia_sentence_27

The next year, Moravia started collaborating with the newspaper La Stampa, then edited by author Curzio Malaparte. Alberto Moravia_sentence_28

In 1933, together with Mario Pannunzio, he founded the literary review magazines Caratteri (Characters) and Oggi (Today) and started writing for the newspaper Gazzetta del Popolo. Alberto Moravia_sentence_29

The years leading to World War II were difficult for Moravia as an author; the Fascist regime prohibited reviews of Le ambizioni sbagliate (1935), seized his novel La mascherata (Masquerade, 1941) and banned Agostino (Two Adolescents, 1941). Alberto Moravia_sentence_30

In 1935 he traveled to the United States to give a lecture series on Italian literature. Alberto Moravia_sentence_31

L'imbroglio (The Cheat) was published by Bompiani in 1937. Alberto Moravia_sentence_32

To avoid Fascist censorship, Moravia wrote mainly in the surrealist and allegoric styles; among the works is Il sogno del pigro (The Dream of the Lazy). Alberto Moravia_sentence_33

The Fascist seizure of the second edition of La mascherata in 1941, forced him to write under a pseudonym. Alberto Moravia_sentence_34

That same year, he married the novelist Elsa Morante, whom he had met in 1936. Alberto Moravia_sentence_35

They lived in Capri, where he wrote Agostino. Alberto Moravia_sentence_36

After the Armistice of September 8, 1943, Moravia and Morante took refuge in Fondi, on the border of Ciociaria; the experience inspired La ciociara (The Woman of Ciociara, 1957). Alberto Moravia_sentence_37

Return to Rome and national popularity Alberto Moravia_section_3

In May 1944, after the liberation of Rome, Alberto Moravia returned. Alberto Moravia_sentence_38

He began collaborating with Corrado Alvaro, writing for important newspapers such as Il Mondo and Il Corriere della Sera, the latter publishing his writing until his death. Alberto Moravia_sentence_39

After the war, his popularity steadily increased, with works such as La Romana (The Woman of Rome, 1947), La Disubbidienza (Disobedience, 1948), L'Amore Coniugale e altri racconti (Conjugal Love and other stories, 1949) and Il Conformista (The Conformist, 1951). Alberto Moravia_sentence_40

In 1952 he won the Premio Strega for I Racconti and his novels began to be translated abroad and La Provinciale was adapted to film by Mario Soldati; in 1954 Luigi Zampa directed La Romana and in 1955 Gianni Franciolini directed I Racconti Romani (The Roman Stories, 1954) a short collection that won the Marzotto Award. Alberto Moravia_sentence_41

In 1953, Moravia founded the literary magazine Nuovi Argomenti (New Arguments), which featured Pier Paolo Pasolini among its editors. Alberto Moravia_sentence_42

In the 1950s, he wrote prefaces to works such as Belli's 100 Sonnets, Brancati's Paolo il Caldo and Stendhal's Roman Walks. Alberto Moravia_sentence_43

From 1957, he also reviewed and criticised cinema for the weekly magazines L'Europeo and L'Espresso. Alberto Moravia_sentence_44

His criticism is collected in the volume Al Cinema (At the Cinema, 1975). Alberto Moravia_sentence_45

La noia and later life Alberto Moravia_section_4

In 1960, Moravia published La Noia (Boredom or The Empty Canvas), the story of the troubled sexual relationship between a young, rich painter striving to find sense in his life and an easygoing girl in Rome. Alberto Moravia_sentence_46

Becoming known as one of his most famous novels, it won the Viareggio Prize. Alberto Moravia_sentence_47

An adaptation was filmed by Damiano Damiani in 1962. Alberto Moravia_sentence_48

Another adaptation of the book is the basis of Cédric Kahn's film L'ennui (The Ennui, 1998). Alberto Moravia_sentence_49

Several films were based on his other novels: in 1960, Vittorio De Sica adapted La Ciociara, starring Sophia Loren; in 1963 Jean-Luc Godard filmed Il Disprezzo (Contempt) and in 1964, Francesco Maselli filmed Gli Indifferenti (1964). Alberto Moravia_sentence_50

In 1962, Moravia and Elsa Morante parted; he went to live with the young writer Dacia Maraini and concentrated on theatre. Alberto Moravia_sentence_51

In 1966, he, Maraini and Enzo Siciliano founded Il Porcospino, which staged works by Moravia, Maraini, Carlo Emilio Gadda and others. Alberto Moravia_sentence_52

In 1967 Moravia visited China, Japan and Korea. Alberto Moravia_sentence_53

In 1971 he published the novel Io e lui (I and He or The Two of Us) about a screenwriter, his independent penis and the situations to which he thrusts them and the essay Poesia e romanzo (Poetry and Novel). Alberto Moravia_sentence_54

In 1972 he went to Africa, which inspired his work A quale tribù appartieni? Alberto Moravia_sentence_55

(Which Tribe Do You Belong To? Alberto Moravia_sentence_56

), published in the same year. Alberto Moravia_sentence_57

His 1982 trip to Japan, including a visit to Hiroshima, inspired a series of articles for L'Espresso magazine about the atomic bomb. Alberto Moravia_sentence_58

The same theme is in the novel L'Uomo che Guarda (The Man Who Looks, 1985) and the essay L'Inverno Nucleare (The Nuclear Winter), including interviews with some contemporary principal scientists and politicians. Alberto Moravia_sentence_59

The short story collection, La Cosa e altri racconti (The Thing and Other Stories), was dedicated to Carmen Llera, his new companion (forty-five years his junior), whom he married in 1986. Alberto Moravia_sentence_60

In 1984, Moravia was elected to the European Parliament as member from the Italian Communist Party. Alberto Moravia_sentence_61

His experiences at Strasbourg, which ended in 1988, are recounted in Il Diario Europeo (The European Diary). Alberto Moravia_sentence_62

In 1985 he won the title of European Personality. Alberto Moravia_sentence_63

Moravia was a perennial contender to the Nobel Prize in Literature, having been nominated 13 times between 1949 and 1965. Alberto Moravia_sentence_64

In September 1990, Alberto Moravia was found dead in the bathroom of his Lungotevere apartment, in Rome. Alberto Moravia_sentence_65

In that year, Bompiani published his autobiography, Vita di Moravia (Life of Moravia). Alberto Moravia_sentence_66

Themes and literary style Alberto Moravia_section_5

Moral aridity, the hypocrisy of contemporary life and the inability of people to find happiness in traditional ways such as love and marriage are the regnant themes in the works of Alberto Moravia. Alberto Moravia_sentence_67

Usually, these conditions are pathologically typical of middle-class life; marriage is the target of works such as Disobedience and L'amore coniugale (Conjugal Love, 1949). Alberto Moravia_sentence_68

Alienation is the theme in works such as Il disprezzo (Contempt or A Ghost at Noon. Alberto Moravia_sentence_69

1954) and La noia (The Empty Canvas) from the 1950s, despite observation from a rational-realistic perspective. Alberto Moravia_sentence_70

Political themes are often present: an example is La Romana (The Woman of Rome, 1947), the story of a prostitute entangled with the Fascist regime and with a network of conspirators. Alberto Moravia_sentence_71

The extreme sexual realism in La noia (The Empty Canvas, 1960) introduced the psychologically experimental works of the 1970s. Alberto Moravia_sentence_72

Moravia's writing style was highly regarded for being extremely stark and unadorned, characterised by elementary, common words in an elaborate syntax. Alberto Moravia_sentence_73

A complex mood is established by mixing a proposition constituting the description of a single psychological observation mixed with another such proposition. Alberto Moravia_sentence_74

In the later novels, the inner monologue is prominent. Alberto Moravia_sentence_75

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Moravia.