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Taqlid (Arabic تَقْليد taqlīd) is an Islamic terminology denoting the conformity of one person to the teaching of another. Taqlid_sentence_0

The person who performs taqlid is termed muqallid. Taqlid_sentence_1

The definite meaning of the term varies depending on context and age. Taqlid_sentence_2

Classical usage of the term differs between Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. Taqlid_sentence_3

Sunni Islamic usage designates the unjustified conformity of one person to the teaching of another, apart from justified conformity of layperson to the teaching of mujtahid (a person who is qualified for independent reasoning). Taqlid_sentence_4

Shia Islamic usage designates the general conformity of non-mujtahid to the teaching of mujtahid, and there is no negative connotation. Taqlid_sentence_5

In contemporary usage, especially in the context of Islamic reformism, it is often shed in a negative light, and translated as "blind imitation". Taqlid_sentence_6

This refers to the perceived stagnation of independent intellectual effort (ijtihad) and uncritical imitation of traditional religious interpretation by the religious establishment in general. Taqlid_sentence_7

Overview Taqlid_section_0

The Arabic word taqlīd is derived from the three-letter Arabic verbal root of ق-ل-د Q-L-D (qallada), which means to imitate. Taqlid_sentence_8

The term is believed to have originated from the idea of allowing oneself to be led "by the collar". Taqlid_sentence_9

One who performs taqlid is called a muqallid, whereas one who rejects taqlid is called a ghair-muqallid. Taqlid_sentence_10

Sheikh Shaamee Hanafi said it is "to take the statement of someone without knowing the evidence." Taqlid_sentence_11

There are several verses (ayat) in the Quran that condemn "those who follow others blindly in matters of belief" (taqlid in matters of belief), namely 5:104-105, 17:36, 21:52-54 43:22-24. Taqlid_sentence_12

This is interpreted as referring only to fundamentals (usul ad-din) and not to subsidiary elements (furu `ad-din) such as details of law and ritual practices that can only be learned through extensive study. Taqlid_sentence_13

Sunni Islam Taqlid_section_1

Traditionally, taqlid is lawful and obligatory when one is not qualified as a mujtahid. Taqlid_sentence_14

According to Rudolph Peters, this is by consensus and known in the religion by necessity (ma'lum min al din daruratan) in the eyes of traditional Muslim scholars. Taqlid_sentence_15

Traditional Sunni scholars rely on two verses of the Qur'an, which order one to ask the people of knowledge or remembrance if they do not know and to obey Allah, the Messenger and those in authority among them. Taqlid_sentence_16

They also rely on several hadiths including one where the Prophet Muhammad tells his companions "If one does not know what to do, the only remedy is to inquire." Taqlid_sentence_17

Prophet Muhammad did this after a companion who had fractured his skull asked other companions with him whether he could perform dry purification. Taqlid_sentence_18

They said no. Taqlid_sentence_19

So this injured companion washed his head with water and died. Taqlid_sentence_20

The Prophet admonished his companions by saying, "They killed him. Taqlid_sentence_21

May Allah kill them. Taqlid_sentence_22

If one does not know what to do, the only remedy is to inquire." Taqlid_sentence_23

Shia Islam Taqlid_section_2

In Shia Islam, taqlid "denotes the following of the dictates of a mujtahid". Taqlid_sentence_24

Following the Greater Occultation (al-ghaybatu 'l-kubra) in 941 CE (329 AH), the Twelver Shia are obliged to observe taqlid in their religious affairs by following the teachings of a thinker (mujtahid) or jurist (faqih). Taqlid_sentence_25

As of the 19th century the Shia ulama taught believers to turn to "a source of taqlid" (marja' at-taqlid) "for advice and guidance and as a model to be imitated." Taqlid_sentence_26

Thus Shia who are not experts in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) are "legally required to follow the instructions of the expert, i.e., the mujtahid" in matters of sharia, but are forbidden to do so in "matters of belief" (usulu 'd-din). Taqlid_sentence_27

See also Taqlid_section_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taqlid.